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Federal Laws and Guidelines That Shape
the Employment Recruitment Process

Legislation Guidelines Administrative Agency Scope
Civil Rights
Act of 1866
Prohibits discrimination based on race when making and enforcing contracts, including employment contracts. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) All employers in public or private sectors
Equal Pay
Act of 1963
Bars discrimination based on sex, mandating equal pay for equal work. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) All employers with >20 employees in public or private sectors
Civil Rights
Act of 1964 (Title VII)
Forbids employment discrimination based on race, color, national origin, sex, or religion. It is unlawful to discriminate against any employee or applicant employees in public or private sectors for employment because of his/her protected class status in regard to hiring, termination, promotion, compensation, job training, or any other term, condition, or privilege of employment. Title VII also prohibits employment decisions based on stereotypes and assumptions about abilities, traits, or the performance of individuals of certain protected groups.
 
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) All employers with >15 employees in public or private sectors
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) Bars age-based employment practices that discriminate against people 40 years old or older. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) All employers that affect interstate commerce and have >20 employees
Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Acts of 1972 & 1974 Requires affirmative action in employment practices involving Vietnam-era veterans. U.S. Dept. of Labor (DOL) Employers with federal contracts of ≥$10,000
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Bars discrimination against persons who are physically or mentally disabled and requires affirmative action in employment practices. U.S. Dept. of Labor (DOL) Employers with federal contracts receiving federal financial assistance
Veterans Re-Employment Act of 1974 Requires reinstatement in employment without loss of benefits for employees who serve in the military and the right not to be discharged without cause for 1 year following such reinstatement. U.S. Dept. of Labor (DOL) Employers with federal contracts receiving federal financial assistance
Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 Bars discrimination against applicants and employees who are pregnant. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) All employers with >15 employees in public or private sectors
Immigration Reform & Control Act of 1986 Makes it unlawful for employer to knowingly hire illegal aliens and mandates detailed record-keeping procedures for any employee hired. U.S. Dept. of Labor (DOL) All employers in public or private sectors
Americans with Disabilities
Act of 1990 (ADA)
Prohibits discrimination in employment practices based on a person's disability and requires all businesses provide reasonable accommodation to applicants and employees with disabilities unless the accommodations result in undue hardship on business operations.
 
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) All employers with >15 employees in public or private sectors
Civil Rights
Act of 1991 (CRA)
Provides additional remedies and protections, in additional to those available under Title VII, to applicants, employees, and former employees who contend they are victims of employment discrimination. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) All employers with >15 employees in public or private sectors