Instructional Technologies



An Overview of the USEiT Study and the Participating Districts
18 pages
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Students' Beliefs, Access, and Use of Computers in School and at Home
61 pages
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Teachers' Beliefs About Access, Use, Support, and Obstacles in Using Instructional Technology
173 pages
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Teachers' Beliefs by Content Area About Access, Use, Support, and Obstacles to Technology Use
150 pages
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Teachers Beliefs About and Use of Technology: Enhancing the Use of Technology for New and Veteran Teachers
21 pages
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Teachers' Beliefs About Technology and Instruction
69 pages
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Teachers' Beliefs About Technology-Related Professional Development
31 pages
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Teachers' Beliefs About Vision and Leadership
48 pages
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Principals' Beliefs About Access, Use, Support, and Obstacles to Technology Use in Schools
91 pages
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Examining the Relationship Between Home and School Computer Use and Students' English/Language Arts Test Scores
34 pages
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Download peer reviewed version of article in JTLA

Technical Report for the USEIT Study
82 pages
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Measuring Teachers' Technology Uses: Why Multiple-Measures Are More Revealing
23 pages
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Elementary Teachers' Use of Technology: Characteristics of Teachers, Schools, and Districts Associated With Technology Use
33 pages
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Examining the Relationship Between Students' Mathematics Test Scores and Computer Use at Home and at School
33 pages
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Elementary Student Survey
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Middle and High School Student Survey
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Teacher Survey
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Principal Survey
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Use, Support, and Effect of Instructional Technology Study

Working with nearly 200 schools in 25 districts located throughout Massachusetts, this study examined the relationships among district and school-level supports for instructional technologies, classroom uses, and impacts on students and learning. This three-year study was supported by a generous grant from the Office of Educational Research and Improvement's Field Initiated Studies Program.


Prior research has focused on the impacts of individual software applications on student learning, the extent to which teachers use technology, and on qualities that influence teacher use of technology. As an example, Larry Cuban reports that despite relatively high access to technology and regular use of technology outside of the classroom, few teachers use technology regularly for instructional purposes. Henry Becker and his colleagues provide evidence that a teacher's instructional philosophy influences the ways in which they use technology for instruction: the more a teacher values constructivism, the more they tend to use technology during instruction. Based on common sense and their own experiences, the Milken Exchange on Educational Technology has identified several essential dimensions believed to influence the extent to which technology is used for instruction. Among others, these dimensions include shared vision, leadership, professional competency, and system capacity. The research conducted as part of this study builds on this prior work by focusing on the relationships among different types of district level supports, classroom practices, and impacts on student outcomes.

Research Questions

This study employed common data collection instruments and procedures across several districts to document the effects different district level technology support structures had on teaching and learning. Among the several questions addressed were: How much influence do district leadership, shared vision, provision of resources, and technical support have on the ways in which and extent to which teachers use technology for instructional purposes? How do different approaches to professional development impact instructional uses of technology? In classrooms in which technology is used regularly for instruction, what impacts does technology have on student learning? How does the provision of additional resources impact teaching and learning? Recognizing that education technologies can both enhance traditional learning and introduce new types of learning, this study employed a broad definition of student outcomes that included performance on standardized tests, school behaviors and acquisition of computer-related skills.

Study Design

USEIT districts
USEIT district mapTwenty-five districts within Massachusetts were selected for this study. Approximately half of the study districts were members of an educational collaborative that worked with the researchers in developing the study. The remaining districts were purposefully selected to increase the diversity of the study districts. The participating districts fell into four broad categories: Small Urban, High SES Suburban, Middle SES Suburban, and Rural. Across these districts approximately 170 schools, 8,500 teachers, and 22,500 students participated. The study included multiple methods of data collection including surveys of district-level leaders, principals, classroom teachers (grades 3–12), and students in grades 5, 8, and 11. In addition, interviews with district and school-level leaders were guided by a semi-structured protocol. Survey data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling techniques as well as other correlational data analysis methods. The initial analyses focused on the impacts district leadership, shared vision, access to resources, school culture, professional development, technical support, instructional philosophy, teacher proficiency, and student home access to technology have on the types of and extent of instructional uses of technology.


A variety of reports are available:

All reports and surveys can be downloaded from the links at right.