Books, Reports and Articles - 1995
center on wealth and philanthropy
"Care and Community in Modern Society: Passing on the Service of Care to the Next Generation".
Edited by Paul G. Schervish, Virginia A. Hodgkinson, and Margaret Gates. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995.
Twenty-two original essays by scholars and practitioners examining the intergenerational transmission of care and philanthropic orientations. Contributors across disciplines explore how individuals become involved in caring for others and the role such care plays in providing a foundation for civic, ethical, and spiritual traditions. They offer theories and models of a caring community and reveal how care is delivered by families, schools, communities, and society, examining factors such as pubic policies that promote service and the motivations of philanthropists and community volunteers.
"Christmas and the Elementary Forms of the Spiritual Life."
Paul G. Schervish. In CCICA Annual 1995: The Church and Popular Culture. Catholic Commission on Intellectual and Cultural Affairs: Philadelphia, 1995. 62-79. This paper offers a novel theoretical and methodological framework for examining the most deeply seated features of cultural and emotional life, what in more common parlance is called spirituality. My purpose is to explore Christmas, while at the same time developing a mode of sociological analysis that takes people's spiritual experiences as seriously as the personal and social effects produced by those experiences.
"Do the Poor Pay More?: Is the U-shaped Curve Correct?"
Paul G. Schervish and John J. Havens. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 24, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 79-90. This paper reports selected findings from a larger research project involving the quantitative investigation of societal, familial, and individual characteristics that induce philanthropic behavior. The findings focus on the fundamental question: "Do the poor (represented by lower income households) pay more than the wealthy (represented by higher income households)?"
"The Dynamics of Wealth Transfer: Behavioral Implications of Tax Policy for the $10 Trillion Transfer."
Thomas B. Murphy and Paul G. Schervish. Presented at the Independent Sector 1995 Spring Research Forum, "Nonprofit Organizations as Public Actors: Rising to New Public Policy Challenges," Alexandria, VA, Mar. 23-24, 1995.
Throughout the paper, we emphasize how specific elements of the tax code affect the strategic choices the wealthy make about the alternative uses for their money. As such, we look more at the social-psychological processes by which tax laws produce their effects (especially in regard to philanthropy among the wealthy) than at purely technical aspects of the legal environment.
"Explaining the U in the U-Shaped Curve."
Paul G. Schervish and John J. Havens. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 6, no. 2 (Aug. 1995): 202-225.
In this paper we inquire about the relative generosity of that sub-population of households that donate to charitable causes. We base our analysis on data collected in the 1990 "National Survey of Giving and Volunteering in the United States" conducted by the Gallup Organization for the Independent Sector.
"Gentle as Doves and Wise as Serpents: The Philosophy of Care and the Sociology of Transmission."
Paul G. Schervish. Introduction to Care and Community in Modern Society: Passing on the Tradition of Service to Future Generations, edited by Paul G. Schervish, Virginia A. Hodgkinson, and Margaret Gates. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995. 1-16.
This book explores several related topics such as how individuals become dedicated to care; the importance of civic, ethical, and spiritual traditions; the involvement of children and youth as providers of care; the institutions, here and abroad, that infuse care into daily life; and the productive role of self-interest, properly understood, in mobilizing care and service to the community.
"In Verdant Pastures: The Centrality of Voluntary Association for the Prominence of Philanthropy."
Paul G. Schervish. In Papers in Honor of Brian O'Connell, edited by Elizabeth Boris. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
In my commentary on this paper, I will attempt to do three things based on the analysis John Havens and I are conducting of the same biennial IS/Gallup Survey examined by Hodgkinson, Carson, and Knauft. I begin by highlighting the relational meaning of voluntary association. While a voluntary association is an organizational entity, voluntary association is an act of dedicated engagement. In the second section, I elaborate a five-variable theoretical model of the factors that induce such philanthropic commitment. In the third section, I present some preliminary findings from our efforts at Boston College’s Social Welfare Research Institute to operationalize the theoretical model and to measure the relative strength of each of the five variables. While our conceptual focus is on the factors leading to both giving and volunteering, our empirical analysis focuses exclusively on the factors that lead to giving.
"Passing It On: The Generational Transmission of Wealth and Financial Care."
Paul G. Schervish. In Care and Community in Modern Society: Passing on the Tradition of Service to Future Generations, edited by Paul G. Schervish, Virginia A. Hodgkinson, and Margaret Gates. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995. 109-133.
During the course of our interviews with 130 millionaires, respondents frequently addressed their intention to pass on to their children a sense of financial care along with a financial inheritance. This essay describes four aspects of the generational transmittal of financial care that parents cited in the course of their interviews. By way of conclusion, I summarize the factors that appear to influence the transfer of financial morality by wealthy parents and indicate general implications for the generational transmittal of care.
"Wherewithal and Beneficence: Charitable Giving by Income and Wealth."
Paul G. Schervish and John J. Havens. In Cultures of Giving II: How Heritage, Gender, Wealth, and Values Influence Philanthropy. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, edited by Charles Hamilton and Warren F. Ilchman. 8 (Summer 1995): 81-109.
Previous research that addressed the giving patterns of rich and poor has been based on data about income rather than net worth. The "Consumer Finances Survey" enabled us not only to extend the income analysis to the highest brackets but also to provide, to our knowledge, the first systematic findings on wealth and philanthropy.