It appears, then, that the Eatanswill people, like the people of many other small towns, considered themselves of the utmost and most mighty importance, and that every man in Eatanswill, conscious of the weight that attached to his example, felt himself bound to unite, heart and soul, with one of the two great parties that divided the townthe Blues and the Buffs. Now the Blues lost no opportunity of opposing the Buffs, and the Buffs lost no opportunity of opposing the Blues; and the consequence was, that whenever the Buffs and Blues met together at public meeting, town-hall, fair, or market, disputes and high words arose between them. With these dissensions it is almost superfluous to say that everything in Eatanswill was made a party question. If the Buffs proposed to new skylight the market-place, the Blues got up public meetings, and denounced the proceeding; if the Blues proposed the erection of an additional pump in the High Street, the Buffs rose as one man and stood aghast at the enormity.
Id. at 15758.
Smithwick, sent to prison for the slaying of an Alice radio commentator, wrote former Governor Coke Stevenson that he could give the whole story of Box 13, from which an avalanche of late-counted votes defeated Stevenson in the 1948 Senate race. A few days later he was found strangled to death in his cell at Huntsville.
Id. Smiths death in 1952 had resulted in banner headlines across the state. Caro, supra note 33, at 38586.
First of all, I am not a millionaire. Such assets as I havenamely, Johnson City bank stock at $10,000.00; half interest in approximately 275 acres of land with a house on it; and a few small notes owing me by employees and familyconstitute my total assets.
I make annual payments on my war insurance of $10,000.00 and on another $10,000.00 I started purchasing in the middle 30s. I owe an aunt from whom I acquired the farm approximately $3,000.00 and have no other debts. I have less than $1,000.00 in the bank. I own no stocks or bonds or other investments.
Letter from Lyndon Johnson to Brandon Trussell, June 25, 1954, LBJ Library Special Political Files, 19491961.
(To the tune of Red River Valley)
Last time Lyndon ran for the Senate
He was trailing behind for a while
But the votes of Duvals dear departed
Helped pull him ahead that last mile
Hes the darling of Duval County,
Hes Duvals bright, shining star.
F.D.R. couldnt put Lyndon over
The man who did that was George Parr.
From the Senate they say Lyndons leading
Ole Boss Parr will be shedding many a tear,
Cause they cleaned up the polls in his county,
And he cant help Lyndon this year.
Lyndons still the darling of Duval County,
But this time the voting is strict.
They cant count those votes from the graveyard,
And ole Lyndon is sure to be licked.
[I]t is obvious that the border can never be completely sealed off to any truly significant extent. It is too long; there are too many places to cross; the temptations to cross are too great. As long as there are provinces in Mexico where people are suffering from an intolerable economic situation and as long as there is work to be done in the Valley, there will be border crossing.
Memorandum from George Reedy to Lyndon Johnson, Jan. 13, 1954, LBJ Library Memos, Jan.Nov. 1954 File [2 of 2]. In another memorandum, Reedy criticized proposed legislation that would make it unlawful for anyone to employ an alien knowing or having reasonable grounds to believe that the alien entered the country illegally. Memorandum from George Reedy to Lyndon Johnson, July 14, 1954, LBJ Library Reedy Memoranda 1954 File. Reedy argued that the passage of this law would mean that Americans of Latin descent would almost have to carry citizenship papers or other proof of citizenship with them at all times. If the law is to be enforced, it would require an enormous expansion of police agencies and constant searches and seizures on the part of immigration authorities. Id. Given that border patrol activities have already aroused considerable resentment, bestowing these additional powers on the border patrol would probably mean that they would acquire the same low standing in the community prohibition agents had during the 20s. Id. Summing up these legislative proposals, Reedy found them unworkable because:
The actual facts are that there is wide-spread economic misery and suffering in many provinces of Mexico and the people in those provinces are desperate for work at any wage. The Rio Grande is very easy to cross. On the American side of the Rio Grande are many employers who badly need labor. Most of the employment that is open is seasonal employment in which the employer needs a lot of labor for a short period of the year and cannot afford to go through too much red tape in getting it. Under these circumstances, repressive and punitive legislation will only provoke resentment.
Id. Such prescient advice is as relevant today as it was fifty years ago.
Mr. H.L. Hunt became interested in Hayden during the past presidential campaign, during which time Hayden was passing out buttons and propaganda for McArthur. Since that time Hayden has been in the employ of Hunt and Facts Forum, whose offices are on 7th floor of Mercantile Securities Building, after school. He worked in the research department, checking on the lives, current activities and previous records of people in public life. He was paid 75¢ per hour. He went to Houston in Hunts airplane for Senator McCarthys talk last week and organized a teenage group to carry posters and banners through the crowd. It is understood that he was dismissed from the employ of Facts Forum on April 30 because he was unpopular with the girls and women who worked there. It seems he is another Orson Wells [sic]a child prodigyfar advanced mentally for his age, but juvenile in his actions. He is a heavy reader and a deep thinkerhe wants to make a career of politics. He assumes the attitude that he must clean up politics, etc., obviously because of Hunts direction. It seems that he was unpopular with the other employees at Facts Forum because he likes to show off his knowledge on all subjects and was Hunts pet and also because of his childish actions.
Id. Other dossiers in a similar vein were prepared on a variety of different organizations and individuals. See, e.g., id. (report on Jimmie Corder, a young boy about 13 or 14 years old who was the Secretary of Texas Youth for America and involved in Facts Forum; the report describes, among other things, his fathers credit record including [l]ocal bank reports low 4 figure checking account, [l]ocal lumber company reports account since 453, high $2,135.03, paid satisfactory, and [l]ocal paint company reports account for over 1 year, high $148.31, pays 30 days prompt); id. (report on D. Mapp who wrote an unfavorable letter to the editor concerning Johnson accusing him of stealing the 1948 election from Coke Stevenson); id. (report on Ray Carpenter, an associate of H.L. Hunt and B. Hayden Freeman, who worked for Dougherty on his talkathons in an attempt to generate publicity and is described as nervous and neurotic); id. (report on United Chemical Company which is linked to Carpenter and whose secretary appears mysterious about the whole business and evidently has been well coached on what to say to inquirers); Letter from Robert Clark to J.J. Pickle, May 28, 1954, LBJ Library Special Political File (report of Dr. Robert Franklin, a cousin of Doughertys and a young doctor who circulated a letter among physicians favorable to Dougherty and who is a very active member of a young doctor group among the members of Facts Forum. He is well known at the headquarters of Facts Forum, and full information on him is in their active membership file. Clark jokes that the situation, as Corrigan puts it, is being cured.).
[h]ere are reports on investigation of the Mapp, Muldoon and Texas Youth for America letters. Not too much was uncovered but enough to definitely show that Hunt is the main spring of all of it. Contacts have clammed up, so Im temporarily discontinuing active investigative work. After you have studied the reports let me have any ideas that occur to you. . . I also believe that Mapp got the material for his letter from Hunt thru Hayden.
Id. In addition, John Connally, a Johnson staffer and future Governor of Texas, spoke to Bob Windfohr, about the kid newspaper put out at Dallas. He has checked into it with one of Hunts men and if Hunt has anything to do with it, his staff does not know it. Memorandum from Walter Jenkins to Lyndon Johnson, Apr. 30, 1954, LBJ Library Memoranda 1954 File.
If any officer, agent, or employee of any bona fide association, incorporated, or unincorporated, organized for or actively engaged for one (1) year prior to such contribution in purely religious, charitable or eleemosynary activities, or local, district, or state-wide commercial or industrial clubs, or associations, or other civic enterprises or organizations not in any manner, nor to any extent, directly or indirectly, engaged in furthering the cause of any political party or aiding in the election or defeat of any candidate for office, or defraying or aiding in defraying the expenses of any political campaign, or political headquarters, or aiding or assisting the success or defeat of any question to be voted upon by the qualified voters of this State or any subdivision thereof, shall use or permit the use of any stock, money, assets, or other property contributed to such organizations by any corporations, to further the cause of any political party, or to aid in the election or defeat of any candidate for office . . . such officer, agent, or employee, shall be fined not less than One Hundred Dollars ($100) nor more than Five Thousand Dollars ($5000) or, be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than (1) nor more than (5) years, or be both so fined and imprisoned.
Id. (quoting V.A.T.S. Election Code, art. 14.07(e)).
I dont want to know about it; I dont choose to discuss it; I dont admit it! Mr. Podsnap had even acquired a peculiar flourish of his right arm in often clearing the world of its most difficult problems, by sweeping them behind him (and consequently sheer away) with those words and a flushed face. For they affronted him.
Charles Dickens, Our Mutual Friend 128 (The New Oxford Illustrated ed. 1959) (1865).