Inverted Image: Antisemitism and Anti-Catholicism on the Internet
Simon Wiesenthal Center
In a comment published at the end of a 1971 address by the late Rev. John Oesterreicher, one of the pioneers of the Jewish-Catholic dialogue, Rabbi Irving Greenberg, another early pioneer, declared that Nostra Aetate, specifically the Declaration on the Jews, is a new direction, and not a final statement. The more than a quarter of a century that has elapsed since that optimistic comment have seen tremendous growth in the relationship between Jews and Catholics. Although this growth has not come without difficult moments, the momentum has continued to push the relationship forward. A major part of this new growth has involved the sweeping away of old stereotypes that distort the reality of both Jew and Catholic. As the historian David Flusser wrote: Sound scholarship removes obstacles and paves the way for truth and mutual understanding. But at the same time as we try to sweep away those harmful stereotypes from the narratives and discourse of normative religious and social life, we must also accept that the perpetuation of those stereotypes continues not just on the fringes, but penetrates even into the center of our society.
The eminent historian of antisemitism, Gavin Longmuir, has described the continuation of these prejudices clearly: maintenance of prejudicial stereotypes is less a function of the sociological and psychological conditions and stresses of a society than it is a function of the societys memory. However such beliefs may have been engendered initially, they have become an accepted part of a societys traditions, and they will tend to endure so long as those responsible for preserving and communicating the societys official conception of the past refuse to confuse or reformulate them. In our society, that is the function of historians and the relevant authorities of the historical religions." It is the theme of this paper to expose the continued existence of these old stereotypes that demonize both Catholic and Jew, and to illustrate how, using the new technology of cyberspace, extremists have been provided with a new marketing tool that puts these stereotypes and prejudices in front of an potential audience of almost one billion people.
The power of the Internet to reach people is staggering. According to some observers, it currently attracts an estimated thirty to fifty million observers with predictions of 100 million by the end of this year, and close to one billion people accessing the diverse capabilities of cyberspace by early next century. Ultimately this means that, as Internet expert and free speech advocate Mike Godwin writes: It has now become possible for an individual to reach an audience of any size. While some of its proponents see only the good that exists online the reality is quite different. Extremists (along with criminals and pornographers) have quickly realized the benefits of this new medium. As I have described elsewhere: The combination of inexpensive, instantaneous worldwide communication that is essentially unblockable and allows for communication without physical exposure has been an empowering experience for many in the extremist community. (Able to enter your home) without leaving (the shelter) of their homes, these individuals have found themselves electronically linked across the globe, thus creating the illusion of an international movement. This has led to sustained growth in their numbers.
When five years ago, the
those who follow the extremist world, the religion known as Christian
Identity has become more and more visible as a motivating force in the fringes
of society. Perhaps the clearest
example of this was the standoff in the spring of 1996 in
On the Net, Identity appears in various guises.
(It is interesting to note that Michael Barkuns important study, Religion
and the Racist Right, published in 1994, makes absolutely no reference to
the Internet - an omission which today would seriously weaken any study of
A FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions and Answers) on Israel-Identity that
was composed by Identity Minister Rick Savage appeared on some of the different
Identity sites. Savages key
points (out of the 6 that he describes as core points) are that The
Jews of Judaism today admit in their own literature (referenced later in
this document) that they are NOT (his emphasis) Israelites, but are impostor and
are indeed Christs and Christian Israels principal enemies . . . The truth
concerning the identity of modern day Israel is vital information for the
body of Christ, i.e. for true Israel, and even for the rest of the world . . .
Germanic kindred (white) people are the true descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob/Israel (The full text of the 13 questions and answers, plus the
conclusion, when downloaded, total 62 pages).
While there are many variants of Identity, its central premise is
biblically rooted. Identity minister
Ronald Schoedel (who is now offline) put it this way in a 1995 homepage entitled
Christian Identity Online: The questions that Identity addresses include:
Who is Israel? (Schoedels emphasis) What is
The answers to these questions are spelled out on, amongst others, the
Aryan Nations homepage. There we
find Adam described as the father of the white race only (Adam in the
original Hebrew is translated: to show blood in the face; turn rosy. - [a
trait which would exclude any people of color - M. W.]).
Thus We believe that the true literal children of the Bible are the
twelve tribes of Israel, now scattered throughout the world and now known as the
Anglo-Saxon, Germanic, Teutonic, Scandinavian, Celtic peoples of the earth
(This belief is due to tracing the lineage of Abraham back to Adam).
Further, We believe that there are literal children of Satan in the
world today. These children are the
descendants of Cain, who was a result of Eves original sin, her physical
seduction by Satan. Thus,
according to this account, the serpent of Genesis was not a reptile, but
an independent human appearing agent of evil in revolt against God.
This picture of the Devil as an apostate does have resonance in the words
of the Church Fathers (i.e. Satan the Devil).
The Aryan Nation creed continues: We
know that because of this sin there is a battle and a natural enmity between the
children of Satan and the children of the most High God (Yahweh), so once
Schoedels first question of who is Israel has been answered, the next
response deals with Israels responsibility today.
The conclusion to be drawn from this Biblical exegesis of racism is a
justification of racial holy war (RAHOWA, an acronym that appears frequently in
various extremist writings). We
believe that the Cananite Jew is the natural enemy of our Aryan (white) Race.
This is attested by scripture and all secular history.
The Jew is like a destroying virus that attacks our racial body to
destroy our Aryan culture and the purity of our race (these terms are
strikingly similar to Adolf Hitlers terminology.
See, for example his Mein Kampf, where Jews are described as
parasites and a noxious bacillus which keeps spreading).
So there is a battle being fought this day between the Children of
Darkness (today known as Jews) and the children of light (Yahweh, the Everliving
God), the Aryan Race, the true
For the Identity adherent, this struggle has already begun.
The Aryan Nations homepage quoted above also has documents that
include a Declaration of Independence dated March 12, 1996, that states that
the Aryan people in American are, and of rights ought to be, a free and
independent nation, (and) that they are absolved from all allegiance to the
United States of America. The
cause of this action is the history of the present Zionist Occupied
Government (ZOG) of the United States of America, which has, as its direct
object - the establishment of an absolute tyranny . . .(and) as one of its
foremost purposes, the eradication of the White race and its culture
(Declaration of Independence, Aryan Nations homepage).
Accompanying this document is a detailed platform for the
Mark Thomas, a former Aryan Nations representative in
Another site that exists as an antisemitic religion is Matt Hales
While the sites above are examples of religious antisemitism, some patriot sites also embrace antisemitism. For example, two of the most notorious and virulent antisemitic books in history, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and The Turner Diaries, can be found at the site of the Minnesota Militia.
Another site, Be Wise as Serpents, exists to expose a composite
serpent which has devised sinister plans concerning EVERYONE.
We will expose something they call The New World Order.
This site has sections dealing with the themes of Common Law, Apostasy,
Revisionism (Holocaust Denial), Protocols (The Protocols of the Elders of Zion),
and Conspiracy. The Common Law and
Conspiracy sections are full of links to sites that deal with those typical
The very first icon on this page is a link to Carl Klangs homepage,
Its the news behind the news and the methods you can use
Its the blueprint and the plan you can rely on
And its written in the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion.
Resistance Records is an example of a site that sells what can best be described as skinhead music. Bands with names like RAHOWA, Final Solution and Extreme Hatred all are advertised on this site, and samples of their music are available. Albums with names like Nordic Thunders Born to Hate contain songs with titles like RAHOWAs Third Reich and Triumph of the Will (named after Leni Riefenstahts notorious Nazi propaganda film). The lyrics of RAHOWAs Third Reich (sung to the tune of Jerry Lee Lewis classic rock song Great Balls of Fire) give a clear idea of the themes that are dealt with:
We kill all the niggers and you gas all the Jews
Kill all the gypsies and the commie too
You just killed a kike, dont it feel right
Goodness gracious Third Reich.
The albums can be purchased with standard credit cards (Visa, MasterCard). Two years ago 50,000 such albums were sold over the Internet. Music has thus become a propaganda tool for extremists.
Antisemitism also appears in the guise of scholarship on the Internet.
Holocaust Denial sites, also known as revisionist sites can easily be
The Institute for Historical review, the world center of Holocaust
denial, has an elaborate site that includes online entries from the print
Journal of Historical Review (the Institutes pseudo-scholarly journal).
Despite oft-repeated denials of antisemitic motives,
these entries do illuminate the thinking of these self-styled scholars.
One entry, reprinted from the Journal, entitled
Our country is today involved in the greatest foreign
crisis since the Second World War.
It faces a powerful enemy
who, paradoxically, hardly anyone dares to name
the western world he enjoys a kind of state
protection, and because
he portrays itself in the image of the eternally
persecuted. In this
situation, the blackmailer has been able to appear as
persecuted victim, and to take advantage of most
nature and sense of fair play.
Although the author, Bernhard Schaub,
does not spell out who this enemy is, it is not too difficult to realize he is
referring to Jews. Later he adds
that the world will come under control of the New World Order, and this order
will not be directly democratic, nor will it respect developed cultures
(but) this truly New World order will be: one world, with one government,
one (mixed) race, ruled by one chosen people, one god (Yahweh), and one
cult the Holocaust.
Another entry, a review of an
Iconoclastic Polish Journal (stanczyk) discusses the denial articles
printed in the Polish journal and then adds, To the extent that Christian,
and especially Roman Catholic leaders, embrace this Holocaust religion, they
accept a Judaization of Christianity, and betray their own religious
principles and heritage.
Another respectable site,
It thus has become apparent that in any search for extremism on the
Internet, the usual subjects are found as targets.
The subjects are the familiar targets of American extremism, people
who could not be assimilated in the national community because of their religion
or ethnicity, as David Bennett describes in his history of the American Far
We have seen how, for example, antisemitism is a preeminent theme for
extremists on the Web. Other targets
include blacks, gays, liberals, foreigners, women, pro-choice advocates and
other similar groups. However, one
group that was conspicuously present in the list of traditional American targets
is conspicuously absent when we think of targets.
I am referring, of course, to Catholics, particularly Catholics in the
The history of anti-Catholicism in the
My own research demonstrates quite a different story.
Along with the other forms of extremism described earlier, one can find
anti-Catholicism to be visible as well. While
the numbers are certainly nowhere near as large as the antisemitic or racist
sites, they are nonetheless present.
we begin to look at these sites, we can quickly see that they basically
represent traditional themes, with only the medium being the difference.
These themes are certainly not novel.
As David Brion Davis has written: There was a cultural continuity
between such movements (of counter-subversion) and the traditional European
response to radical religious sects and secular brotherhoods; anti-Catholicism,
of course, was as old as the Reformation, and its principal arguments and
accusations changed very little over the centuries
images of the subversive
group, while often borrowed from the ruling classes of Europe, were adapted to
fit the fears and half-conscious yearnings of the American people.
For example, one theme that reappears is the graphic description of the
supposed sexual activities of priests and nuns that can be best described, in
theme, with its European roots
peaked in the
Today we can find all of these purported details updated and are dredged
One Web site has a section on personal testimonies that includes one
called A Nuns Testimony. This
anonymous document, when downloaded, comes out to 67 pages of what can only be
described as an updated version of Awful Disclosures.
Replete with sex and sadism, it purports to tell the story of a Catholic
woman, born in 1897 who from the age of 13, when she entered a convent boarding
school, until she was saved in 1946, underwent incredible torture and
torment at the hands of priests and nuns. All
the themes of the Awful Disclosures are there including the
subterranean tunnels, infanticide, rape, mutilation and torture.
Incredibly, the anonymous heroine survives all of her tribulations, and
ultimately is born again, finding salvation in an unnamed version of Protestant
The sensitive subject of pedophilia has also been sensationalized by the
Anti-Catholic extremists. The same
site as above has a section called Catholic Priesthood: Repository of Perverts,
subtitled notorious for child molestation-why?, that lists 25 postings of
various articles accusing Catholic clergy of sexual misconduct.
One posting is a link to an article that concludes by alleging that
there are at least 1,000,000 direct victims of (Catholic) clergy sexual abuse
and between 4-6 million indirect victims in the U.S.
In a search run on ten major search engines under the deliberately provocative
heading Catholic sexual abuse, one search engine (AltaVista) turned up the
virulently anti-Catholic entry Catholic Priesthood: Repository of Perverts
that I cited earlier, as the first choice of information on this topic.
It is important to note that search engines do not list their entries
according to quality, accuracy or any other form of selective preference; rather
they rely on various differing algorithmic methods to make their lists.
The reliance on testimony by ex-Catholics is a big part of on-line
anti-Catholicism. In this, as in so
many other ways, the antisemitic and anti-Catholic sites have many parallels.
The variety of ex-Catholic testimony on the Web ranges from the
pornographic testimonies cited above to the Testimony of a Former Irish
Priest, by Richard Peter Bennett. Bennetts
sober spiritual autobiography describes his career in the Church, including his
ordination at age 25 (in 1963), his studies (
The papacy is a common target of many of these sites.
The Pope, according to one purposely misinterprets scriptures,
according to another he is a hypocrite, who parades around the world as a
champion of freedom and truth for everyone, that is everyone except those in his
own Romish system.
Another asks the question, has the Pope apologized for
Persecutions? and answers Dont be deceived by the clever manipulations
of false teachers. The Pope has not
repented, and the Roman Catholic Church has not substantially changed for if
he had, a repentant Pope would cast aside his blasphemous title, and
would acknowledge that the papacy, through its blasphemous claims and
sacramental gospel, has led multitudes to eternal hell.
(This is attributed to David Cloud, Fundamental Baptist News Service, in
Although Bernard McGinn concluded his major study of the Antichrist by
writing that It may no longer be possible for most of us to believe in the
legendary figure of a coming individual who will sum up all human evil at the
end of time,
McGinn had earlier noted the belief in a literal antichrist held by millions
of Fundamentalist Christians.
Yet, while noting this belief, McGinn wrote that even the Evangelical
Fundamentalists, for whom Antichrist is certainly alive and well, have been
uncomfortable with a papal Antichrist.
This certainly is a change from 19th century extremism that
often linked the papacy to the Antichrist to serve as a spur to action.
However, on the Web, we see this identification of the Pope as the
Antichrist still exists.
One Web site has a heading that claim Conclusive Proof from the Bible
that the Pope is the Antichrist, as an advertising hook for a book entitled
Earths Final Hours, that is available through the Web site.
This book shows conclusively that the Pope is the antichrist.
After reading this book you will have no doubt about what the papacy
really is or what it intends to do to the world in the near future.
Another site entitled Vicar of Christ or Antichrist, goes into
greater detail by laying out twelve Biblical proofs that contrasted with twelve
Catholic Church teachings, leads to a moment of decision that is framed in the
starkest of terms: Will you serve
the King, Jesus Christ, or will you serve the Antichrist, the Pope?
A similar method is also followed by the site titled Roman Catholicism
Exposed! The King James Bible vs. The Roman Catholic Church, validated by the
proof text And they worshipped the dragon (the Antichrist)
13:4, KJV, King James Bible.
If the pope can be the Antichrist, it should come as no surprise that we
can find sites that link Catholicism with Satanism.
One Ed Tarkowski uses his site to lay out a 6000 Year Overview:
Satans Effort to Hinder Gods Plan.
In this plan the Devil made the early church the point of
reference, (instead of God, the thrust is now on man losing dominion)
and thus gave humanity a false starting point.
Satans mystery religions, their initiations and their rites,
disguised and modernized, have now penetrated many aspects of Christianity.
Tarkowskis definition of the generic term Christianity is made clearer
shortly after, when he writes that Satan has saturated the Church with the
Sometimes the attempt to defame another belief can be less than impressive.
An example of that is found in a personal testimony entitled, Raised
Catholic with a Penchant for the Satanic.
Here the Satanism of the Church is made explicit.
It consisted of requiring the author to take a psychological
compatibility quiz in order to marry his Catholic wife.
In his own words he felt so depraved submitting to this Satanism, but
at the time it was worth it to marry my wife.
Ultimately, the marriage broke up and his wife entered a shelter for
"illegal Mexican immigrants and abused women and our witness went to
his priest for help. Again, in his
own words, well I told the priest and he acted surprised and that he didnt
know (yeah right). I basically was
fed-up at the Satanism of Catholicism at this time, but went back to the
pretending to try and get them to reconcile us.
Later in his text our witness acknowledges that he has been accused of
wife beating and raping and has a court imposed restraining order against him.
Nonetheless, the Web site still sees fit to post this sorry story under
the heading Satanic Catholic.
Not all the charges of Satanism came from the gutter.
Another site breaks the sensational story, The Devil, You Say?
Archbishop, Former Jesuit Claim Satanists Skulk in the
An example of how the Internet has empowered extremists can be seen from
the career of Jack Chick. A
Californian, he achieved a modest degree of notoriety in the early-mid 1980s,
by producing a series of comic (and regular) books that, in the words of once
scholar illustrate the lingering force of this (anti-Catholic) hostility.
The theme of the books was, in the words of another expert, Maria Monk
returned in 1984.
Although the books sold fairly well, times had indeed changed and, as
Mark Noll is quick to point out: Protestants from very many backgrounds
joined Catholic spokesmen in denouncing the books; the Christian Booksellers
Association, which represented largely a conservative Protestant constituency,
expressed its regret over the publications; and evangelical journalists
contributed much of the hard information that exposed the comic books as
Today however, Jack Chick maintains a Web site where the interested
reader can read (or download) a complete copy of Chicks 500 page book, Smokescreens,
along with 35 other tracts. The list
of products for purchase includes the tracts, available in English and in 60
books, T-shirts, comic, posters, and videos.
In his introduction to Smokescreens, Chick openly lays out his
agenda: Now we believe at Chick Publications, that the whore of Revelation is
the Roman Catholic Institution
You see, the Jesuits influenced people, and
they started setting up smokescreens (hence, the books title) during our
and when that smokescreen came up we started the whore of Revelation in
a different light
There has been a multi-million dollar campaign made through
the media to convince people that I am a bigoted, anti-Catholic hate literature
The truth is, I love the Catholic people enough to risk my life and
to pull them out of the false religious system theyre now
serving. The books chapter
titles illustrate its obsessions: A
20th Century Inquisition (this refers to the Holocaust, which
according to Chick, resulted because the Jesuits had secretly prepared World
War II, and Hitlers war machine was built and financed by the Vatican to
conquer the world for Roman Catholicism.),
The Whore of Revelation and concluding with Blueprint for Catholic
America, which exposes the Roman Catholic Institutions plans to take
over the United States. Once that
happens when the
Many other categories of anti-Catholic extremism can be found on the
Internet, such as anti-Jesuit
But for reasons of space the last category that I will discuss here can
best be described as the merging of religious and socio-political extremism.
For some people, religious and current events are coming together in an
apocalyptic vein. The
Grigor-Scotts antisemitism and Identity influence is further spelled
out in his on-line article, The Blasphemy of them which say they are Jews,
and are not. There he writes,
The Land of Israel has been settled by apostate Jews, most of whom are NOT
descended from Abraham, Isaac and Jacob
(and) a measure of serpent seed
This amalgamation of antisemitism and anti-Catholicism is not unique.
Another example can be found at the homepage of Michael Hoffmans
Campaign for Radical Truth in History. This
site, which is one of the most virulently antisemitic on the Internet, contains
an article entitled, John Paul II: The Judas Iscariot of our Time
The Pope is accused of preaching a false gospel, of negating and
scared scripture, of fraud, of hurling anthemas at the
pre-eminent Judas Iscariot of the late 20th Century.
Why is the pontiff thus excorciated?
Because he is in obeisance to the Talmudic Pharisees of today
direct spiritual heirs of the assassins of Jesus Christ.
He is completely smitten with
the Jewish world leadership, He
caters to and pimps for them More
specifically, Hoffman is reacting to the
While our survey of religiously motivated antisemitic and Anti-Catholic
sites has been drawn from either fundamentalist Protestant or racist (Identity,
The same tone is evident in the remarks about Jews.
When questioned about an essay that appears on the Nation of Islam
Website that said: Jews control
American society and government, all
presidents since Franklin Roosevelt in 1932 are controlled by Jews, all
Farrakhan would say is that For the small number of Jewish people in the
his important essay, Some Themes of Counter-Subversion: An analysis of
Anti-Masonic, Anti-Catholic, and Anti-Mormon Literature, David Brion Davis
describes the way that these subversive groups were seen as an inverted
image of American society, at least in its nativist idealized form.
The late Jewish theologian Abraham Joshua Heschel in his classic essay
No Religion is an
 John M. Oesterreicher, The Rediscovery of Judaism, N.J., 1971.
David Flusser, in his Introduction to his volume of collected essays,
Judaism and the Origins of Christianity,
Gavin Langmuir, Tradition, History and Prejudice, in Langmuir,
Toward a Definition of Antisemitism,
Abraham Cooper in the Introduction to the New Lexicon of Hate: The
Changing Tactics, Language and Symbols of
See, for example, Brian M. Werst, A Survey of the First Amendment
Indecency Legal Doctrine and Its Inapplicability to Internet
regulation: A Guide or Protecting Children from Internet Indecency after
Mike Godwin, Cyber Rights,
Governments of the industrial world
you claim that there are
problems among us that you need to solve
Many of these problems dont
exist from Electronic Frontier Foundations head, John
Perry Barlows Cyberspace Independence Declaration, quoted
in Credence Fogo-Schensul, More than A River in
 Mark Weitzman, Harnessed to Hate: Theology and Technology as Tools of Extremism, an unpublished paper delivered at the 27th Annual Scholars Conference on the Holocaust and the Churches, March 1998, p.1. Much of the following analysis is taken from that paper.
Freemens Theological Agenda, Washington Post,
Richard V. Pierards article The Contribution of British-Israelism
to Antisemitism Within Conservative Protestantism in the volume Holocaust
and Church Struggle-Studies in the Shoah XVI, (Lanham, 1996)
edited by Hubert, Locke and Marcia Littell, pp. 45-68, while containing an
excellent short summary of Identitys origin and theology, also does not
address how Identitys message is delivered.
David H. Bennetts history of right-wing activity in
Jeffrey Burton Russell, in his book Satan in Early Antiquity, (
A. Hitler, Mein Kampf, (
Aryan Nation homepage. The battle between children of Light and
Darkness reflects a common theme in ancient religion, with perhaps the
most famous example being found in the Dead Sea Scrolls, where the War
Rule calls for battle against the Sons of Darkness. David Flusser
in his The Dead Sea and Pre-Pauline Christianity in the volume of his
collected essays, Judaism and the Origins of Christianity [ pp. 23-74
(esp. pp. 25-28), Jerusalem 1988], compares the usage of the terms in the
scrolls with its use in early Christian literature and concludes that the
sect (Qumran) deems itself to be identical with the righteous of humanity
and calls itself the Sons of Light.
The same appellation is also used for Christians by Paul (Eph 5:8, I
Thess. 5.5) and John (12:36) and although the corresponding sectarian
term sons of Darkness for the wicked is not found in the N(ew) T(estament),
the idea which underlies it ... is expressed clearly enough. James C.
Vanderkam also agrees that This language is hardly strange to readers of
the New Testament. Similar
rhetoric appears in the writings of both Paul (2. Cor.
) and John (
). As at
Geza Vermes, The
 See Michael Barkun, Religion and the Radical Right, (Chapel Hill, 1994) esp. p. 191for a more detailed description of current Identity seedline theory, while Richard V. Pierard, The Contribution of British-Israelism to Antisemitism Within Conservative Protestantism, (op. cit.) pp. 60-62 offers a concise version propagated in the 1950s by Bertrand L. Comparet, an early Identity preacher. The seedline theory is not universally accepted by all Identity adherents. For a strongly worded online Identity dissent from the seedline theory, see Eve: Did She or Didnt She? The Seedline Hypothesis under Scrutiny. http://www.missiontoisrael.org/didshe-pt1.html.
 Creativity was originally founded by Ben Klassen, often identified as the inventor of the electric can-opener. Klassen committed suicide in 1993. Bennett, Party of Fear, p. 439 briefly notes some connections between Creativity and Identity.
 True Terrorists, article from The Creativity Newsletter, posted on W.C.O.T.C. site above.
 These are not the only such extremist sites around. I hope to explore this phenomenon shortly.
 W.C.O.T.C. Homepage.
 See Weitzman, Harnessed to Hate.
 For more on this particular subject, see Mark Weitzman, The Devil Can Cite Scripture, pp. 6-14, esp. pp. 12-13. There I identified Be Wise As Serpents only as an Identity site, an identification that was shared by Don Blacks Stormfront (the oldest and largest online White Nationalist Resource Page, http://www.stormfront.org/default.htm) and omitted referring to Be Wise as Serpents political Patriotic affiliation.
 On the prevalence of these themes in the extremist world, see Stern, A Force Upon the Plain, esp. pp. 77, 90-91, 137-154, and the documents in Sargent, Extremism in America, chap. 7 and 9.
 Carl Klang, The News Behind the News, http://www.klang.com/thenews.html.
 Resistance Records
Resistance is not the only online seller of this type of music.
See also the Nordland site at http://www.1488.com/.
The song lyrics are from the collection of the
 On Holocaust Denial in
general, see Deborah Lipstadt, Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth
 E.g. the IHR has steadfastly opposed bigotry of all kinds, A Few Facts About the Institute for Historical Review, http://www.ihr.org/leaflets/afewfacts.html.
 Bernhard Schaub, Switzerland in the Grip if the Traditional Enemy, http://www.ihr.org/jhr/vig/vign4p32_Schaub.html.
 An Iconoclastic Polish Journal, http://www.ihr.org/jhr/vig/vign4p37_Weber.html.
 Again, on the anti-Talmudic theme see Weitzman, The Devil Can Cite Scripture, esp. pp. 6-14.
 David Brockschmidt, An Open Letter to the Leaders of World Jewry, http://www.adam.com.au/fredadin/worldjew.html.
 Zundelsite Z Gram,
 Zundelsite Z Gram,
 Bennett, The Party of Fear, p. 2.
 Bennett, Ibid., p. 17.
 Andrew Greeley, An Ugly Little Secret: Anti-Catholicism in North America, p. 1, cited in Barbara Welter, From Maria Monk to Paul Blanshard: A Century of Protestant Anti-Catholicism, p. 71, p. 58 in Uncivil Religion: Interreligious Hostility in America (New York 1987), ed. Robert Bellah and Frederick Greenspahn.
 Mark A. Noll, The Eclipse of Old Hostilities between and the
Potential for New Strife among Catholics and Protestants since
 Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights Web Site.
 The Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights, above mentioned as the most aggressive group monitoring Anti-Catholicism, found that out of the 264 incidents reported in 1997, only one was computer related, and that one involved the selling of a cinnamon bun which resembled Mother Theresa, and was called the Nun Bun, over the Internet. 1996 was no different, with only two items of cyber interest listed out of 211 incidents mentioned.
 David Brion Davis, Some
Ideological Functions of Prejudice in
 David Brion Davis, Some Themes of Counter Subversion: An Analysis of
Anti-Masonic, Anti-Catholic and Anti-Mormon Literature, p. 148 in D.B.Davis, From Homicide to Slavery: Studies on American
 Bennett, Party
of Fear, p. 44. The
use of such charges is long and varied.
For example, Mircea
Eliade, Observations on European Witchcraft, in his Occultism,
Witchcraft and Cultural Fashions (Chicago
1976), pp. 87, while discussing the charges of orgiastic practices
made against witches, notes that similar indictments sexual orgies,
incest, cannibalism were made by the pagans against the Christians while
Christian authors hurled similar charges against pagans, heretics and
others. According to David Brion Davis analysis of the writings of the
late 18th century Scottish philosopher, John Robison, the greatest threat
to Christian civilization lay in the degrading and desexing of women, a
tactic common to both the Catholic Church and the atheistic Illuminati.
D.B. Davis, Some Ideological Functions of prejudice in
 See the recent discussion and analysis of this book in Jenny Franchot, Roads to Rome, (Berkeley 1994) especially, pp. 154-161.
 Richard Hofstadter, Free Silver and the Mind of Coin
 Franchot, Roads to
 Bennett, Party of Fear, p. 43.
 Tom Economus, Catholic Pedophile Priests: The Effect on U.S. Society, found on The Survivors of Clergy Abuse Linkups Homepage. The issue of sexual abuse by some members of the Catholic clergy is covered on the Web in many ways, including official releases and statements by the Church and its various arms [cf. The Catholic Church and Sexual Abuse: A Pastoral Response on the Catholic Archdiocese of Melbourne (Australia) homepage, or Catholic Church Releases Statement about Sexual Abuse from the Los Angeles Times/Washington Past News service, posted at http:/www.conline.org/ctarchives/news/951027/nwcatholic.html].
 For a basic description of an algorithm see Godwin, Cyber Rights, p. 316 n. 3.
 For a detailed look at one aspect of that process see M. Weitzman, The Devil Can Cite Scripture.
 Richard Bennett, Testimony of a Former Irish Priest, found on the Berean Beacon Ministry homepage. Berean, derived from Acts 17:10-11, is a favorite term of self-description for many anti-Catholics who embrace the idea of searching the scriptures daily and who endorse the primacy of the Biblical text over the Churchs tradition of interpretation. See, for example, the two articles by Dave Hunt, Being a Berean and More on Being a Berean, found on the Berean Call homepage at http:/www.cet.com/~voice/tbc/jan94tbc.htm.
 Jesus Christ is the Only Way to God, http:/www.jesus-is-lord.com
 Rebecca A. Sexton, Religious Intolerance, http:/www.vabch.com/tigger.cath11.htm.
 Way of life homepage, http:/www.whidbey.net/~dcloud/fbns/fbns121.html.
 Bernard McGinn, Anti-Christ, (San Francisco, 1994) p.
280. The medieval perception of
Antichrist as a Jewish attack on Christianity is explored in Joshua
Devil and the Jews, (New Haven, 1943) p.
32-43. For an example of a medieval Jewish source that did describe the pope
as the Antichrist, see Kenneth Stow, The 1007 Anonymous and Papal Sovereignty (
 Ibid., p. 273.
 Ibid., p. 252.
 See for example, Franchot, Roads to Rome, p. 140,
where she described the mother superior of the sacked Ursuline convent in
 McGinn, in his study above, gives an excellent overview of the idea of the antichrist and its historical development, including its sometime identification with the papacy.
 http:/www.pacinst.com/antchri.htm. This is the homepage of the Pacific Institute.
This site claims to take Catholic teachings from the book, The
Questions and Answers Catholic Catechism, by Father
John A. Hardon, and to contrast those with Biblical texts, to reach the
conclusion that Every single one of these heresies of the Roman Catholic
Church is a diversion from the truth (John 14:6) and will consequence in
hell if believed and trusted in. According
to the site, they had over 3,800 visitors (hits) between
 On the history of Satan
see the four volumes of Jeffrey Burton Russell (The Devil, Satan, Lucifer and Mephistopheles, Ithaca 1977). Russell
presents his work as a history of the personification of evil, which for
the sake of clarity I have called the Devil.
Devil, p. 12. A
Jungian view of Satan can be found in Rivkah Shärf Kluger, Satan
in the Old Testament (
 All quotations from Ed Tarkowski, War of the ages: 600 Year Overview: Satans Plan to Hinder Gods Plan, http:www.ncinter.net/~ejt/ages4.htm. Tarkowski sees other elements, of current religious thought, such as the New Age and Promise Keepers movements, also as elements of Satans plan.
 . I have kept the language in all the citations as they are found in the original.
 I.e. Il Tempo
 Malachi Martin, The Keys of the Blood, p. 632, as cited in the text.
 All citations are from
Jay Nelson, The
Devil, You Say? Archbishop,
Former Jesuit Claim Satanists Skulk in
 Noll, The
Eclipse of Old Hostilities between and the Potential for new Strife among
Catholics and Protestants since
 Bennett, Party of Fear, p. 346.
 Noll, The Eclipse of Old Hostilities, p. 94
 See appendix for a complete list of these languages
 Chick also raises the
issue of Catholic complicity and participation in the Ustashe terror in
 All citations above are
from Jack Chick, Smokescreens, .
Chick claims that he received the warning about these planned murders "recently but acknowledges that they originally date to 1949
[when] an ex-Jesuit priest told a Rev. Eubanks in
 Chick is not alone in his use of comic book form for extremist propaganda. See, for example, the series White Willie, put out by the National Alliance.
 All citations from Chicks Web site.
 For an earlier analysis of this alarming trend see my paper, Harnessed to Hate.
 Elaine Pagels, The Origin of Satan, p. 182.
 On the
portrayal of the
 The New World Order can be defined, as in the words of one militia member, as the plan to bring people under slavery under United Nations control [thus the] New World Order, Stern, A Force Upon the Plain, p.87
 Pacific Institute, http://www.pacinst.com/america.htm
 Tricia Trillin, New World Order News, http://www.mcinter.net/~ejt/chip2.htm
 Grigor-Scott, Conspiracy, http://www.biblebelievers.org.av/n1016.htm
 Grigor-Scott, The Gospel of the Kingdom, or God Incarnate/Satan Incarnate, http://www.biblebelievers.org.av/bb880418.htm
 Grigor-Scott, Conspiracy. Robert Wistrich, Antisemitism (New York, 1991), p. 51, succinctly describes the obsession (that) anti-Semites of the Right and Left (had) for generations with the Rothschilds.
 Grigor-Scott, Blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, http://www.biblebelievers.org.av/bb940822.htm.
 Michael Hoffman, John Paul II, The Judas Iscariot of Our Time. Hoffmans site also contains Holocaust Denial material. For a more detailed examination of Hoffmans antisemitism on-line, see Weitzman, The Devil Can Cite Scripture.
remarks were contained in his notorious 1994 speech at
 All quotations are from Minister Farrakhan on Meet the Press, . For pioneering analysis of the antisemitic methodology of the Nation of Islam see Harold Brackman, Farrakhans Reign of Historical Error: The Truth Behind the Secret Relationship of Blacks and Jews (A Simon Wiesenthal Center Report) (LA 1992); my article, The Blinded Muse: Ethics, Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History (in J.G. Haber, Ethics for Today and Tomorrow (Sudbury, Mass., 1997) pp. 402-410, compares the historiography of the Nation of Islam and Holocaust Denial. The op-ed piece by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., in the New York Times (July 20, 1992) was an important public exposure and condemnation of the Nation of Islams antisemitism from an African-American perspective.
 Godwin, p. 293.
 Ibid., p. 72.
 Ibid., p. 298.
 Ibid., p. 195.
 Godwins book is the latest and most comprehensive plea for free speech on the Internet. However, while he does discuss the issue of cyberporn and copyright infringement online, he never notes the existence of extremist hate sites.
 Heschel, No Religion is an Island, reprinted in Fritz Rothschild, ed., Jewish Perspectives on Christianity, (NY 1990), p. 322.
 Ibid., p. 323.
I would like to thank Dr. Eugene Fisher, of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops, for his encouragement and advice; and Maria Gaynor, Denise Schulman and Abbee Corb for all their assistance.