For this reason a preliminary sketch is made of the future thing

out of wax or of clay or of wood,

in order that what will soon arise

taller in height, 230

and stronger in power,

and beautiful in form,

and rich in its construction,

may be seen through a small and perishable sketch.


37 But when that of which it is the model arises, 235

that which once bore the image of the future thing

is itself destroyed as growing useless

having yielded to what is truly real the image of it;

and what once was precious becomes worthless

when what is truly precious has been revealed. 240


38 For to each belongs a proper season:

a proper time for the model,

a proper time for the material,

a proper time for the reality.

You make the model; 245

you want that

because you see in it the image of the future thing.

You produce the material before the model;

you want that

because of what is going to arise in it. 250

You complete the work;

you want that alone,

you love that alone,

because in it alone you see the pattern and the material and the reality 255

40 The people then was a model by way of preliminary sketch,
    and the law was the writing of a parable;
    the gospel is the recounting and fulfilment of the law,
    and the church is the repository of the reality. 265

41 The model then was precious before the reality,
    and the parable was marvellous before the interpretation;
    that is, the people was precious before the church arose,
    and the law was marvellous before the gospel was elucidated.

42 But when the church arose 270

and the gospel took precedence,
the model was made void, conceding its power to the reality,
and the law was fulfilled, conceding its power to the gospel.

43 In the same way as the model is made void, conceding the image
    to the truly real,
    and the parable is fulfilled, being elucidated by the interpretation,

just so also the law was fulfilled when the gospel was elucidated, 275

and the people was made void when the church arose;

and the model was abolished when the Lord was revealed,
and today, things once precious have become worthless,
since the really precious things have been revealed.

44 Once, the slaying of the sheep was precious, 280
    but it is worthless now became of the life of the Lord;
    the death of the sheep was precious,
    but it is worthless now because of the salvation of the Lord;
    the blood of the sheep was precious,
    but it is worthless now because of the Spirit of the Lord; 285
    a speechless lamb was precious,
    but it is worthless now became of the spotless Son;
    the temple below was precious,
    but it is worthless now because of the Christ above.

45 The Jerusalem below was precious, 290
    but it is worthless now became of the Jerusalem above;
the narrow inheritance was precious,
    but it is worthless now became of the widespread bounty.
    For it is not in one place nor in a little plot
    that the glory of God is established, 295
    but on all the ends of the inhabited earth
    his bounty overflows,
    and there the almighty God has made his dwelling
    through Christ
   to whom be glory for ever. Amen. 300

46 You have now heard the account of the model and what corresponds to it;

        listen also to the constitution of the mystery.
        What is the Pascha?
        It gets its name from its characteristic:
        from suffer (pathein) comes suffering (paschein). 305
        Learn therefore who is the suffering one,
        and who shares the suffering of the suffering one,

47 and why the Lord is present on the earth
        to clothe himself with the suffering one
        and carry him off to the heights of heaven. 310

It is he that delivered us from slavery to liberty,

from darkness to light,

from death to life, 475

from tyranny to eternal royalty,

and made us a new priesthood

and an eternal people personal to him.

69 He is the Pascha of our salvation.

It is he who in many endured many things: 480

It is he that was in Abel murdered,

as and in Isaac bound,

and in Jacob exiled?

and in Joseph sold,

and in Moses exposed, 485

and in the lamb slain, and in David persecuted,

and in the prophets dishonoured.

70 It is he that was enfleshed in a virgin,

    that was hanged on a tree, 490

72 It is he that has been murdered. 505
    And where has he been murdered? In the middle of Jerusalem.
    By whom? By Israel?
    Why? Because he healed their lame
    and cleansed their lepers
    and brought light to their blind 510
    and raised their dead,
    that is why he died.
    Where is it written in law and prophets,
   ' They repaid me bad things for good
    and childlessness for my soul,
   when they devised evil things against me and said,
"Let us bind the just one,
    because he is a nuisance to us’"?

73 What strange crime, Israel, have you committed?
    You dishonoured him that honoured you; 520
    you disgraced him that glorified you;
    you denied him that acknowledged you;
    you disclaimed him that proclaimed you;
    you killed him that made you live.

74 What have you done, Israel? Or is it not written for you, 525
   'You shall not shed innocent blood,'
so that you may not die an evil death ?
    'I did', says Israel, 'kill the Lord.

    Why? Because he had to die.'
    You are mistaken, Israel, to use such subtle evasions 530
    about the slaying of the Lord.
    He had to suffer, but not by you;
    he had to be dishonoured, but not by you;
    he had to be judged, but not by you;
    he had to be hung up, but not by you 535
    and your right hand.

77 But you, Israel, did not make this cry to God, 545
    nor have you cleared yourself before the Sovereign,
    nor did you respect his deeds.

78 A withered hand restored to the body did not win your respect,
    nor eyes of disabled ones opened by a hand,
    nor impotent bodies made sound by a word; 550
    nor did the most unprecedented sign win your respect,
    a corpse roused from a tomb already four days old.

79 So then, you set these things aside,
    and rushed to the slaying of the Lord.
    You prepared for him sharp nails and false witnesses 555

    and ropes and scourges

    and vinegar and gal1
    and sword and forceful restraint as against a murderous robber.
    For you brought both scourges for his body
    and thorn for his head; 560
    and you bound his good hands,
    which formed you from earth;
    and that good mouth of his which fed you with life
    you fed with gall.
    And you killed your Lord at the great feast. 565

80 And you were making merry,
    while he was starving;
    you had wine to drink and bread to eat,
    he had vinegar and gall;

87 Ungrateful Israel, come and take issue with me

about your ingratitude. 635

How much did you value being formed by him?

How much did you value the seeking out of your fathers?

How much did you value the descent into Egypt

and your sustenance there through handsome Joseph?


88 How much did you value the ten plagues ? 640

How much did you value the nightly pillar

and the daily cloud and the crossing of the Red Sea?

How much did you value the giving of manna from heaven

and the supply of water from a rock 645

and the law-giving at Horeb

and the inheritance of the land

and the benefits there?

89 How much did you value the suffering ones

whom by his own presence he healed? 650

Value for me the withered hand

which he restored to the body;

90 value for me those blind from birth

to whom he brought light with a word;

value for me those who lay dead 655

whom he raised from the dead already four days old.



93 Bitter therefore for you is the feast of unleavened bread, as it is

written for you:

You shall eat unleavened bread with bitter flavours.

Bitter for you are the nails you sharpened, 680

bitter for you the tongue you incited,

bitter for you the false witnesses you instructed,

bitter for you the ropes you got ready,


97 O unprecedented murder! Unprecedented crime!
        The Sovereign has been made unrecognizable by his naked body,
        and is not even allowed a garment to keep him from view.
        That is why the luminaries turned away, 720
        and the day was darkened,
        so that he might hide the one stripped bare upon the tree,
        darkening not the body of the Lord
        but the eyes of men.

98 For when the people did not tremble, the earth quaked; 725
    when the people were not terrified, the heavens were terrified;
    when the people did not tear their clothes, the angel tore his?
    when the people did not lament, the Lord thundered out of heaven
    and the Highest gave voice.


99 Therefore, O Israel, 730
    you did not quake in the presence of the Lord,
    so you quaked at the assault of foes;

    you were not terrified in the presence of the Lord,

< ....... >

you did not lament over the Lord, 735
so you lamented over your firstborn;
you did not tear your clothes when the Lord was hung,
so you tore them over those who were slain;
you forsook the Lord,
you were not found by him; 740
you did not accept the Lord,
you were not pitied by him;
you dashed down the Lord,
you were dashed to the ground.

(I00) And you lie dead, 745
    but he has risen from the dead
    and gone up to the heights of heaven.