Teachers working

Cultivating Bilingual Learners' Language Arts Knowledge: A Framework for Successful Teaching. Almaguer, I., & Esquierdo, J. J. (2013).

Summary of Key Findings

  • This article introduces a framework for accomplishing both linguistic and content literacy simultaneously.
  • The framework illustrates both the theory and practical applications that are needed for bilingual learners to achieve linguistic and cognitive success by attaining the language arts content literacy needed to succeed both in and out of the classroom.


Student and teacher oral language use in a two-way Spanish/English immersion school. Ballinger, S., & Lyster, R. (2011).

Summary of Key Findings

  • This study examines the Spanish use of students and teachers at a US two-way immersion school.
  • Findings indicate that students’ language background, culturally relevant teaching activities, teacher language use, and students’ sensitivity to others’ need for language accommodation influenced their use of Spanish with peers.

Why Did I Ask That Question? Bilingual/ESL Pre-Service Teachers' Insights. Diaz, Z., Whitacre, M., Esquierdo, J. J., & Ruiz-Escalante, J. A. (2013).

Summary of Key Findings

  • This study presents findings from a qualitative study that explored what types of questions pre-service teachers use and their reflections on the use of such strategies.
  • The findings revealed the type of questions used by the participants, how they made sense of their teaching, and how accountability measures influenced their teaching.
  • This research recommends education programs to prepare future teachers to comply with what is required by the current reform without compromising their students' learning and thinking skills.


Teaching Young Dual Language Learners to Be Writers: Rethinking Writing Instruction Through the Lens of Identity. Wagner, C. J. (2016).

Summary of Key Findings

  • This article reports relevant theory and research on the writing identities of young DLLs to explicate a framework of writing instruction.
  • This framework is intended to provide a model for elementary- grade instruction that supports the language acquisition and writing development of DLLs, including positive self-identification with writing.

Lu, C., & Koda, K. (2011). Impact of Home Language and Literacy Support on English-Chinese Biliteracy Acquisition among Chinese Heritage Language Learners. Heritage Language Journal, 8(2), 44-80

Summary of Key Findings

  • Using Chinese at home is beneficial for children’s language and literacy skills in Chinese, especially oral vocabulary skills.
  • Using Chinese at home will not hinder children’s English acquisition.