Principals and School Leaders

Principal holding microphone

An administrative perspective of a two-way bilingual immersion program. Armendáriz, A. L., & Armendáriz, E. J. (2002).

Summary of Key Findings

  • This article is an interview of a female Hispanic administrator who has successfully lead the implementation of both a 50/50 and a 90/10 two-way bilingual immersion model in a predominantly Hispanic community in an urban setting.
  • The administrator’s leadership style is then analyzed and described utilizing Blackmore’s (1989) leadership model of leadership from a feminist perspective.


Effective instruction for English learners. Calderón, M., Slavin, R., & Sánchez, M. (2011).

Summary of Key Findings

  • The quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners.
  • Comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models are highlighted: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes.
  • Schools must improve the skills of all educators through comprehensive professional development—an ambitious but necessary undertaking that requires appropriate funding.


Looking holistically in a climate of partiality: Identities of students labeled long-term English language learners. Flores, N., Kleyn, T., & Menken, K. (2015).

Summary of Key Findings

  • This study seeks to show how students who fall within the Long-Term English Language Learners (LTELLs) category see themselves through the lens of their lived experiences as (emergent) bilinguals, students, family/community members and transnational individuals. (LTELLs are defined as those who are enrolled in American schools for over six years, yet still do not meet the grade-level English proficiency.)
  • Authors argue that the discourse around the label can be understood as a racial project that serves to perpetuate white supremacy through the marginalization of the language practices of communities of color.