An administrative perspective of a two-way bilingual immersion program. Armendáriz, A. L., & Armendáriz, E. J. (2002).

Summary of Key Findings

  • This article is an interview of a female Hispanic administrator who has successfully lead the implementation of both a 50/50 and a 90/10 two-way bilingual immersion model in a predominantly Hispanic community in an urban setting.
  • The administrator’s leadership style is then analyzed and described utilizing Blackmore’s (1989) leadership model of leadership from a feminist perspective.


Effective instruction for English learners. Calderón, M., Slavin, R., & Sánchez, M. (2011).

Summary of Key Findings

  • Authors claim that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners.
  • They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes.
  • Schools must improve the skills of all educators through comprehensive professional development—an ambitious but necessary undertaking that requires appropriate funding.


¡Si se puede! Academic excellence and bilingual competency in a K-8 two-way dual immersion program. Quintanar-Sarellana, R. (2004).

Summary of Key Findings

  • The purpose of this article is to describe a school that has successfully prepared its students for a multilingual society using a 2-way bilingual immersion program.
  • Students' high SAT scores, as well as their participation at school and in the community, provide evidence that acquiring 2 languages does not sacrifice academic achievement.