A goal of City Connects is to broaden options available for supporting students. While Special Education services are clearly the right option for some, we recognize that it should not be the only option for all students. Academic and social development requires a range of prevention, early intervention, and intensive supports, of which Special Education is only one.

To determine whether City Connects has an impact on Special Education referrals, we examined the accuracy of referrals, where an “accurate” referral is one that is not deemed “ineligible” and that results in Special Education placements aligned with student learning needs. 

For grades K-5, our analysis shows that City Connects schools are more accurate at referring students who display evidence of mild special needs. Comparison school students who are referred for mild special needs are 22% more likely to be deemed ineligible than similar students in City Connects schools. In addition, our schools are not missing students who should have been referred to Special Education. Among students who were not referred in grades K-5, former City Connects students in grades 6-12 do not have significantly lower or higher probabilities of being placed into Special Education than comparison students.

To read more, please see the City Connects 2008-09 Summary Report


"I think that for years, teachers thought that they had one direction to go in. ‘This child isn’t learning, they have behavioral problems, etc.’ It’s very difficult to look into complex background situations without staffing to help. You really need that third-party person to intervene, ask the hard questions, gather information, and to share that information with the classroom teacher and whoever is appropriate. In the past, all you had was Special Education." - Boston Teacher