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Boisi Center for Religion and American Public Life

Backs Against the Wall: The Howard Thurman Story

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Thurman, Howard. Jesus and the Disinherited. Richmond, Ind.: Friends United Press, 1981.

Thurman, Howard. A Strange Freedom: The Best of Howard Thurman on Religious Experience and Public Life. Edited by Walter E. Fluker and Catherine Tumber. Boston: Beacon Press, 1998. 

Smith, Luther E. Howard Thurman: The Mystic as Prophet. Washington D.C.: University Press of America, 1981. 


Dorrien, Gary. "True Religion, Mystical Unity, and the Disinherited: Howard Thurman and the Black Social Gospel." American Journal of Theology & Philosophy 39, no. 1 (January 2018): 74-99. DOI: 10.5406/amerjtheophil.39.1.0074

Fluker, Walter E. "Howard Thurman: Intercultural and Interreligious Leader" in Religious Leadership: A Reference Handbook. Edited by Sharon Henderson Callahan. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc, 571-78. DOI:

Giles, Mark S. "Howard Thurman, Black Spirituality, and Critical Race Theory in Higher Education." Journal of Negro Education 79, no. 3 (2010): 354-365. 

Walker, Corey D. B. "Love, blackness, imagination: Howard Thurman's vision of communitas." The South Atlantic Quarterly, 112, no. 4 (Fall 2013): 641-655. DOI:

Other Resources

The Howard Thurman Papers Project at Boston University: