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Boisi Center for Religion and American Public Life

Invisibility Syndrome of African Americans in Educational Institutions

boisi center for religion and american public life

Further Reading:


"Invisibility Syndrome: A Clinical Model of the Effects of Racism on African-American Males"
Anderson J. Franklin and Nancy Boyd-Franklin

"Thin Ice: Stereotype Threat and Black College Students"
Claude M. Steele

Book Chapter

"Epilogue." Beverly Daniel Tatum. "Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?" And Other Conversations about Race. (Basic Books: 2003).

Boyd-Franklin, N. (2003). Black families in therapy: Understanding the African American experience (2nd ed.). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

Boyd-Franklin, N., Franklin, A. J., & Toussaint, P. (2000). Boys into men: Raising our African American teenage sons. New York, NY, US: Dutton/Penguin Books.

Chavous T, Rivas D, Green L, & Helaire L. (2008). Role of student background, perceptions of ethnic fit, and racial identification in the academic adjustment of African American students at a predominantly white university. Journal of Black Psychology, 28, 234.

Connor, M. E., & White, J. L. (Eds.). (2006). Black fathers: An invisible presence in America. Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Cross, W. E., Jr. (1991). Shades of black: Diversity in African-American identity. Philadelphia, PA, US: Temple University Press.

Ellison, R. (1952). Invisible man. New York: Random House.

Franklin, A. J. (1999). Invisibility syndrome and racial identity development in psychotherapy and counseling African American men. Counseling Psychologist, 27(6), 761-793.

Franklin, A. J. (2004). From brotherhood to manhood: How black men rescue their relationships and dreams from the invisibility syndrome NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52(6), 613-629.

Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797-811.

Tatum, B. D. (1997). "Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?" and other conversations about the development of racial identity. New York: Basic Books.

White, J. L., & Cones, J. H. (1999). Black man emerging: Facing the past and seizing a future in America. New York, London: Routledge.
Wright, R. (1940). Native son. New York: Harper.