My project examines the history of protest movement against American military justice in postwar Japan, specifically focusing on the controversial, sometimes confidential, agreements on criminal jurisdiction over cases involving U.S. military personnel stationed in mainland Japan and Okinawa. Seeking to historicize the rise of popular public opinions and movement calling for revisions to the postwar Japan-U.S. Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) in contemporary Japan, as seen especially since Okinawans’ 1995 unprecedented, massive rally against the rape of a 12-year-old Okinawan girl by three GIs, my research sheds light on the early formation and impact of these policies crafted by American and Japanese state officials in the aftermath of the American occupation of Japan (1945-1952). Opening the dissertation with the diplomatic history of the early 1950s, with a focus on a 1953 Japan-U.S. confidential agreement which has ever since compelled Japanese authorities to waiver criminal jurisdiction over most off-duty U.S. military criminal cases, I trace the ways specific procedures and outcomes of individual legal cases manifested in mainland Japan and Okinawa, state elites’ discussions on the postwar Japanese prison/court systems, global implications of the Japan-U.S. 1953 Confidential Agreement, and the dynamic civil society response in the postwar period (1952-Present). Drawing on declassified American and Japanese state papers, parliamentary and congressional debate transcripts, legal journals, court documents, protest statements and poetry, activist newsletters, newspaper reportage and magazine articles, as well as interviews with diverse historical actors, I interrogate the material consequences of the American foreign criminal jurisdiction policy and contested discourses on legal (in)justice, sovereignty, and human rights. Going beyond the borders of Japan, my dissertation situates this history within a global context, suggesting both common and distinct features of the postwar American foreign criminal jurisdiction policy toward mainland Japan/Okinawa and highlighting the protest movement’s interactions with various related national and transnational social movements, for instance, the 1960 protest against the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty (the Anpo), anti-Vietnam War activism, African-American GI anti-racism solidarity, and anti-military sexual violence movement.