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Celebrating 50 Years of the RAM & 25 Years of the RAA

The Adaptive Modes

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o  Individual Application: Physiologic

  • Five basic needs: oxygenation; nutrition; elimination; activity and rest;  and protection
  • Four complex processes: senses; fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance; neurologic function; and endocrine function

o  Group Application: Physical

  • Resource adequacy, are the needs of the group being met
  • Example: if a community continues to permit pollution of its rivers from industries in the environment, the physical health of community members will be affected.


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o   Individual Application: Self-Concept

  • An individual’s physic and spiritual integrity; the need to know who one is so that one can be or exist with a sense of unity
  • Example: A nurse can have a self-concept seeing himself/herself as physically capable of the work involved.

o   Group Application: Group Identity

  • Identity integrity; interpersonal relationships, group self-image, social milieu, culture and shared responsibility of the group
  • Example: There is a social environment experienced by the nurses, administrators, and other staff that is reflected by those who are part of the nursing care group. The group feels shared values and counts on one another. 


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o   Individual Application

  • The need to know who one is in relation to others so that one can act

o   Group Application

  • Roles within a group are the vehicle through which the goals of the social system are accomplished
  • Includes the functions of administrators and staff, the management of information, and systems for decision making and maintaining order
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o   Individual Application

  • Relational integrity, the feeling of security in nurturing relations
  • Includes interactions of giving and receiving love, respect, and value

o   Group Application

  • The social context in which a group operates, relational, developmental, and resource adequacy
  • Includes context, infrastructure, and member capability