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Okello Carter 

Mentor: Arissa Oh, Professor in History

Title: “A People Without A Country”: Filipino Nationals and Filipino Repatriation Act


In 1935 the Filipino Repatriation Act (FRA) was passed in order to encourage the repatriation of Filipinos residing in the United States back to the Philippines. Although the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) estimated that the program would successfully repatriate ten to fifteen thousand Filipino nationals back to the Philippines, by 1940 only 2,064 took advantage of the program which had been extended three times. The primary objective of this paper will be to investigate the government’s failed attempt to repatriate Filipino nationals; arguing that the repatriation effort resembled disguised deportation more than voluntary repatriation and as a result the act failed because most of the Filipino population refused to be permanently removed from the US.