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Introduction
I.  The Background: Immigration and National Security
    A.  The Preventive Detention of Noncitizens
        1.  Detention in Connection with Removal Proceedings
        2.  The PENTTBOM Investigation
        3.  The Certification Program
        4.  Detention of “Unlawful Combatants”
    B.  Intelligence-Gathering
        1.  The Automated Entry-Exit System
        2.  NSEERS
        3.  SEVIS and Other Student-Related Programs
        4.  US-VISIT
        5.  Voluntary Interviews of Noncitizens
        6.  “Snitch” Visas and the “Responsible Cooperator” Program
    C.  Expansion of Removal Grounds
    D.  Contracting Procedural Rights
        1.  Arriving Noncitizens
        2.  The Terrorist Removal Court
        3.  Closed Removal Hearings
        4.  Secret Evidence Hearings
    E.  Visas and Other Overseas Policies
        1.  Country-Specific Strategies
        2.  Injecting DHS into the Visa Process
        3.  Heightened Scrutiny and Delay
    F.  Enhanced Border Enforcement
    G.  Summary
II.  The Policy Tradeoffs: Profiling, Rationality, and Balance
    A.  Rationality
    B.  Balancing National Security and Civil Rights
III.  The Race Convention
    A.  “National or Ethnic Origin” Distinctions
    B.  “Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms”
Conclusion