* Clinical Professor and Director, Boston College Law School, International Human Rights Program.
1 Chae Chan Ping v. United States, 130 U.S. 581 (1889).
2 Fong Yue Ting v. United States, 149 U.S. 698 (1893).
3 Kennedy v. Mendoza-Martinez, 372 U.S. 144, 159–160 (1963).
4 Cf. Hendricks v. Kansas, 521 U.S. 346 (1997) (upholding Kansas’s Sexually Violent Predator Act, providing for civil commitment of those who, due to a “mental abnormality” or “personality disorder,” are likely to commit sexually predatory acts).
5 Reid v. Covert, 354 U.S. 1, 5-6 (1957) (plurality opinion) (citations omitted).
6 Wong Wing v. United States, 163 U.S. 228 (1896).
7 Chae Chan Ping v. United States, 130 U.S. 581 (1889).
8 See David Cole, Enemy Aliens, 54 Stan. L. Rev. 953 (2002); see also Daniel Kanstroom, From the Reign of Terror to Reining in the Terrorists: Defining the Rights of Noncitizens in the Nation of Immigrants, 9 New Eng. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 47, 47–108 (2003) [hereinafter Kanstroom, Reining in the Terrorists].
9 See e.g., Reid, 354 U.S. at 5 (court-martial jurisdiction may not extend to non-military spouses outside of the continental United States during times of peace); Johnson v. Eisentrager, 339 U.S. 763, 787–88 (1950) (German nationals, confined in the custody of the United States outside of U.S. territory following a conviction by a military commission have no right to a writ of habeas corpus to test the legality of their detention); Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214, 223 (1945); Hirabayashi v. United States, 320 U.S. 81, 92 (1943) (legislative and executive branch have the constitutional authority to impose military laws with criminal sanctions that require both citizens and noncitizens of Japanese ancestry to report to and remain confined in military areas); Ex parte Quirin, 317 U.S. 1, 2 (1942) (per curiam) (U.S. citizenship not an impediment to military trial of alleged Nazi saboteur); Wong Wing, 163 U.S. at 235–37 (holding that noncitizens subjected to criminal process retained the same rights as citizens).
10 See generally Daniel Kanstroom, Criminalizing the Undocumented: Ironic Boundaries of the Post-September 11th “Pale of Law,” 29 N.C. J. Int’l L. & Com. Reg. 639–70 (2004) [hereinafter Kanstroom, Criminalizing the Undocumented]; Daniel Kanstroom, “Unlawful Combatants” in the United States: Drawing the Fine Line Between Law and War, 30 ABA Human Rights Mag. 18, 18-21 (2003) [hereinafter Kanstroom, Unlawful Combatants].
11 See Kanstroom, Reigning in the Terrorists, supra note 8.
12 See Kanstroom, Criminalizing the Undocumented, supra note 10; see also Daniel Kanstroom, Deportation, Social Control, and Punishment: Some Thoughts About Why Hard Laws Make Bad Cases, 113 Harv. L. Rev. 1890, 1890–1935 (2000).
13 Padilla v. Rumsfeld, 352 F.3d 695 (2d Cir. 2003).
14 See Daniel Kanstroom, Brief for Amici Curiae Law Professors, Rumsfeld v. Padilla, 352 F.3d 695 (2d Cir. 2003) (Nos. 03-2235(L), 03-2438(CON.)).
15 Detroit Free Press v. Ashcroft, 303 F.3d 681, 683 (6th Cir. 2002).
16 Mary-Rose Papandrea, Under Attack: The Public’s Right to Know and the War on Terror, 25 B.C. Third World L.J. 35, 36 (2005).
17 Id.
18 Id. at 37.
19 Stephen Legomsky, The Ethnic and Religious Profiling of Noncitizens: National Security and International Human Rights, 25 B.C. Third World L.J. 161, 161 (2005).
20 Id. at 163–77.
21 Id. at 180.
22 Id. at 182.
23 International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, opened for signature Mar. 7, 1966, 660 U.N.T.S. 195 (entered into force Jan. 4, 1969).
24 Legomsky, supra note 19, at 186.
25 Id. at 196.
26 Rumsfeld v. Padilla, 124 S. Ct. 2711 (2004.)
27 Nancy Morawetz, Detention Decisions and Access to Habeas Corpus for Immigrants Facing Deportation, 25 B.C. Third World L.J. 13, 14 (2005).
28 Id. at 5.
29 Id.
30 Id. at 17. This is not to say that this power is not already a serious problem in its own right. Among other problems, Oakdale detainees are subject to deportation prior to the adjudication of their cases. Id. at 30.
31 Id. at 33.
32 Teresa Miller, Blurring the Boundaries Between Immigration and Crime Control After September 11th, 25 B.C. Third World L.J. 81, 83 (2005).
33 Id. at 86.
34 Id. at 123.
35 Morawetz, supra note 27, at 33.
36 124 S. Ct. 2686 (2004).
37 124 S. Ct. 2633 (2004).
38 David A. Martin, Offshore Detainees and the Role of Courts After Rasul v. Bush: The Underappreciated Virtues of Deferential Review, 25 B.C. Third World L.J. 125, 127 (2005).
39 Id.
40 339 U.S. 763 (1950).
41 Rasul, 124 S. Ct. 2686.
42 Hamdi, 124 S. Ct. 2633.
43 Martin, supra note 38, at 136.
44 Id. at 151–52.
45 Id. at 159–60.
46 Sophie Robin-Olivier, Citizens and Noncitizens in Europe: European Union Measures Against Terrorism After September 11, 25 B.C. Third World L.J. 197, 197 (2005).
47 Id. at 199.
48 Id. at 200.
49 Id. at 202.
50 Id. at 204.
51 Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism 269 (1966).