Even so, it becomes clear that, short of a revolution, the likelihood that blacks today will obtain direct payment in compensation for their subjugation as slaves before the Emancipation Proclamation, and their exploitation as quasi-citizens since, is no better than it was in 1866, when Thaddeus Stevens recognized that his bright hope of Forty Acres and a Mule for every freedman had vanished . . . .
Derrick Bell, Race, Racism and American Law 46 (2d ed. 1980).
It is hardly to be believed that God, who is a wise Being, should place a soul, especially a good soul, in such a black ugly body . . . . It is impossible for us to suppose these creatures to be men, because, allowing them to be men, a suspicion would follow that we ourselves are not Christians.
1 Baron De Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws 23839 (Thomas Nugent trans., rev. ed. 1899).