* Editor in Chief, Boston College Third World Law Journal (2000–2001). I thank Sundyna Jean Beaven for showing me that loving is courageous and worth the risk.
1 Ani DiFranco, Adam and Eve, on Dilate (Righteous Babe Records 1996).
2 See People v. Schmitz, 586 N.W.2d 766, 768 (Mich. Ct. App. 1998).
3 Id.
4 See id.
5 See id. I use this cliché to demonstrate that the value that American society assigns to sexual aggression pervades all aspects of our culture, including our most common linguistic expressions. See Susan Estrich, Rape, 95 Yale L.J. 1087, 1091 (1986) (discussing the effects of male and female sex roles, aggressive and passive, respectively, on rape law); see also discussion infra Part I.A (outlining the relationship between cultural sex roles and prejudice against gays). This cliché also reflects how our culture devalues sexual passivity, such as that attributed to women and gay men, while privileging aggression, perhaps even to the degree of justifying violence. See Estrich, supra, at 1091; see also discussion infra Part I.A.
6 Schmitz, 586 N.W.2d at 768.
7 Id.
8 See id.
9 Id.
10 See generally Robert G. Bagnall et al., Comment, Burdens on Gay Litigants and Bias in the Court System: Homosexual Panic, Child Custody, and Anonymous Parties, 19 Harv. C.R.-C.L. L. Rev. 497, 497–515 (1984) (detailing case law involving the HPD).
11 See Schmitz, 586 N.W.2d at 768; Good Morning America: Defense Attorneys’ Use of “Gay Panic” Defense in Matthew Shepard Murder Trial (ABC television broadcast, Oct. 29, 1999) [hereinafter Good Morning America].
12 See Schmitz, 586 N.W.2d at 768; Good Morning America, supra note 11.
13 See Schmitz, 586 N.W.2d at 768; Robert B. Mison, Comment, Homophobia in Manslaughter: The Homosexual Advance Defense as Insufficient Provocation, 80 Cal. L. Rev. 133, 136, 167 (1992) (arguing that the HPD attempts to garner jury sympathy by reinforcing anti-gay prejudices).
14 See Schmitz, 586 N.W.2d at 768.
15 See id.; see also Risky “Gay Panic” Defense Emerges at Murder Trial, Chi. Trib., Oct. 27, 1999, at 10 (stating that Jonathan Schmitz’s case was a perfect example of using the HPD to mitigate a murder conviction).
16 See generally Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 497–515 (tracing the use of the HPD to mitigate murder).
17 See Mison, supra note 13, at 133, 135–36, 162–63, 171; see also discussion infra Part IV.
18 Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Epistemology of the Closet 18 (1990); see Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 498.
19 See Gary David Comstock, Dismantling the Homosexual Panic Defense, 2 Tul. J.L. & Sexuality 81, 81 (1992).
20 Riki Anne Wilchins, Why We’re Here, Statement of Purpose at the Brandon Teena Vigil in Falls City, Nebraska on May 15, 1995, http://www.ftm-intl.org/Hist/Bran/ stmnt.riki.html (last modified Aug. 5, 2000) (on file with author).
21 Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19.
22 See id. (stating that “race panic” and “gender panic” are not accepted as defenses to violence against people of color and women, respectively).
23 See id. (arguing that the widespread acceptance of the HPD shows that hatred of gays is harder to find leverage against than hatred of any other group).
24 See Mison, supra note 13, at 155.
25 See Francisco Valdes, Unpacking Hetero-Patriarchy: Tracing the Conflation of Sex, Gender & Sexual Orientation to Its Origins, 8 Yale J.L. & Human. 161, 169–70, 179 (1996).
26 See Julia A. Greenberg, Defining Male and Female: Intersexuality and the Collision Between Law and Biology, 41 Ariz. L. Rev. 265, 270 (1999); Valdes, supra note 25, at 169–70, 179. A discussion about the failure of these binary categories to reflect reality is beyond the scope of this Note. See Greenberg, supra, at 275. However, for an excellent deconstruction of sex and gender, see generally id.
27 See Patricia A. Cain, Stories from the Gender Garden: Transsexuals and Anti-Discrimination Law, 75 Denv. U. L. Rev. 1321, 1332–33 (1998); Greenberg, supra note 26, at 271, 274; Hasan Shafiqullah, Shape-Shifters, Masqueraders & Subversives: An Argument for the Liberation of Transgendered Individuals, 8 Hastings Women’s L.J. 195, 196 (1997); Valdes, supra note 25, at 164–66, 169.
28 See Cain, supra note 27, at 1332–33; Greenberg, supra note 26, at 271, 274; Valdes, supra note 25, at 164–66; Shafiqullah, supra note 27, at 196.
29 See Cain, supra note 27, at 1332–33; Greenberg, supra note 26, at 275, 278; Valdes, supra note 25, at 164–66; Shafiqullah, supra note 27, at 196.
30 See Valdes, supra note 25, at 166.
31 See Shafiqullah, supra note 27, at 217–19.
32 See Valdes, supra note 25, at 164, 168.
33 See id. at 168.
34 See id. at 168–70.
35 See id. at 169–70.
36 See id. at 166, 169–70.
37 See Valdes, supra note 25, at 168–69.
38 This Note focuses on the social and legal experiences of gay men because a perusal of the case law involving the HPD suggests that it is not asserted to defend women who react violently to lesbian solicitations. See Comstock, supra note 19, at 89–90. For a discussion of the HPD’s gender exclusive assertion, see infra Part III.B.6.
39 See Valdes, supra note 25, at 170, 179; James D. Wilets, Conceptualizing Private Violence Against Sexual Minorities as Gendered Violence: An International and Comparative Law Perspective, 60 Alb. L. Rev. 989, 1006 (1997) (conceptualizing sexual minorities as “gender outlaws” because they violate socially prescribed gender roles).
40 Gregory M. Herek & Kevin T. Berrill, Implications for Policy, in Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men 95 (Gregory M. Herek & Kevin T. Berrill eds., 1992); see Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19; Valdes, supra note 25, at 170, 179.
41 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19–20.
42 See Estrich, supra note 5, at 1091; Valdes, supra note 25, at 169–70, 179.
43 This is another cliché that demonstrates the premium that American culture places on power, control, aggression and perhaps, violence in sexual encounters. Valdes, supra note 25, at 170, 179.
44 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 99 (implying that heterosexual solicitation is so common as to be invulnerable to legal attack).
45 See id. (noting the sharp contrast between the court’s approval of violence against gays in response to homosexual solicitations and the freedom with which heterosexual men can solicit women).
46 See Herek & Berrill, supra note 40, at 295; Valdes, supra note 25, at 169–70; Mison, supra note 13, at 158.
47 See Valdes, supra note 25, at 179 (noting that the universe of appropriate social interactions conceives of “active” males).
48 See id. at 169–70, 179 (stating that the man’s role is to actively manage and protect subordinates for the benefit of all).
49 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19.
50 See Mison, supra note 13, at 150.
51 See id.
52 Nat’l Gay and Lesbian Task Force, Specific Anti-Same-Sex Marriage Laws in the U.S., http://www.ngltf.org/downloads/marriagemap0201.pdf (last modified Jan. 2001); see, e.g., Moore v. City of East Cleveland, 431 U.S. 494, 495–97, 499–500 (1977) (finding unconstitutional an East Cleveland housing ordinance that limited occupancy to members of a single family in such a way as to disqualify appellant, who resided with her son and two grandsons who were first cousins); Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 485 (1965) (finding a Connecticut law prohibiting the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy that falls within the penumbra of the specific guarantees of the Bill of Rights).
53 See Baker v. State, 744 A.2d 864, 867 (Vt. 1999) (leaving it to the Vermont legislature to decide whether to grant gays “marriage,” or an institution by another name with equivalent benefits and obligations).
54 See Pub. L. No. 104–199, 110 Stat. 2419 (1996) (codified at 1 U.S.C. § 7 (Supp. 1999) and 28 U.S.C. § 1738C (Supp. 1998)).
55 See Mison, supra note 13, at 151.
56 See Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186, 194 (1986).
57 See Powell v. State, 510 S.E.2d 18, 26 (Ga. 1998).
58 Nat’l Gay and Lesbian Task Force, The Right to Privacy in the U.S., http://www.ngltf.org/downloads/sodomymap0101.pdf (last modified Jan. 2001).
59 Id.
60 See generally Hate Crimes Statistics Act, 28 U.S.C. § 534 (Supp. 1998); S. 622, 106th Cong. (1999); H.R. 1082, 106th Cong. (1999).
61 See Andrew M. Gilbert & Eric D. Marchand, Note, Splitting the Atom or Splitting Hairs-The Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 1999, 30 St. Mary’s L.J. 931, 951 (1999).
62 See Urvashi Vaid, Virtual Equality 11 (1995).
63 See Gilbert & Marchand, supra note 61, at 951.
64 See 28 U.S.C. § 994 (Supp. 1998); Gilbert & Marchand, supra note 61, at 958.
65 See S. 622; H.R. 1082; S. 1529, 105th Cong. (1997); H.R. 3081, 105th Cong. (1997).
66 See Gilbert & Marchand, supra note 61, at 972; Alan Fram, Lawmakers Drop Hate-Crimes Bill, Associated Press, Oct. 8, 1999 (discussing the death of the HCPA of 1999 in the House-Senate Conference Committee).
67 See 28 U.S.C. § 534 (Supp. 1998).
68 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 20; Mison, supra note 13, at 150.
69 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 82.
70 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 498.
71 See id.
72 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 82.
73 See id.
74 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 499.
75 Id.
76 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19; Comstock, supra note 19, at 82.
77 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 499.
78 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 82–84.
79 Edward J. Kempf, Psychopathology 477 (1920); Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 499.
80 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 499.
81 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 511.
82 See id. at 479–80.
83 See id. at 479–80, 507.
84 See Robert J. Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary 328 (6th ed. 1989).
85 Id.
86 Comstock, supra note 19, at 84.
87 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 491; Henry Harper Hart, Fear of Homosexuality in College Students, in Psychosocial Problems of College Men 200, 205 (Bryant M. Wedge ed., 1958).
88 Comstock, supra note 19, at 87–88.
89 Burton S. Glick, Homosexual Panic: Clinical and Theoretical Considerations, 129 J. Nervous & Mental Disease 20, 21 (1959).
90 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 87, 93.
91 See id. at 84.
92 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 491.
93 See Hart, supra note 87, at 203–07.
94 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 87, 93.
95 See Hart, supra note 87, at 203–07, 212.
96 See Glick, supra note 89, at 26.
97 See id.
98 See id.
99 See id. (citing Kempf, supra note 79).
100 See id.
101 See Glick, supra note 89, at 26.
102 See id.
103 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 88.
104 Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 500.
105 See id.
106 See id.
107 See id.
108 See Glick, supra note 89, at 26 (citing Kempf, supra note 79).
109 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 87, 93; Glick, supra note 89, at 26.
110 See Campbell, supra note 84, at 328.
111 See id.
112 Id.
113 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 89.
114 See id.
115 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 477; Comstock, supra note 19, at 87, 93.
116 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 477; Comstock, supra note 19, at 87, 93.
117 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 86–96.
118 See id.
119 See id. at 86, 89.
120 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19; Comstock, supra note 19, at 86–96; Herek & Berrill, supra note 40, at 295; Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 502.
121 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, 502–12.
122 See id.
123 See id.
124 See id.
125 See id. at 502.
126 See 64 Cal. Rptr. 253, 255 (1967).
127 Id. at 255.
128 Id.
129 See id. at 254, 255.
130 See id. at 255.
131 See Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. at 254.
132 See 532 S.W.2d 37, 40–41 (Mo. Ct. App. 1975); see also Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. at 255.
133 Thornton, 532 S.W.2d at 40.
134 See id.
135 Id. at 40–41.
136 See id.; see also Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. at 255.
137 See Thornton, 532 S.W.2d at 41.
138 See 373 N.E.2d 951, 953 (Mass. 1978); see also Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. at 255; Thornton, 532 S.W.2d at 40–41.
139 Shelley, 373 N.E.2d at 953.
140 Id.
141 Id.
142 Id.
143 See id.
144 373 N.E.2d at 952–53; see also State v. Thornton, 532 S.W.2d 37, 41 (Mo. Ct. App. 1975); People v. Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. 253, 254 (1967).
145 See 287 N.E.2d 310, 314 (Ill. App. Ct. 1972); see also Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. at 255; Shelley, 373 N.E.2d at 953; Thornton, 532 S.W.2d at 40–41.
146 Parisie, 287 N.E.2d at 313.
147 Id.
148 Id. at 313–14.
149 See id. at 314.
150 Id. at 315.
151 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 511; Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 502.
152 See People v. Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. 253, 255 (1967); Parisie, 287 N.E.2d at 314; Commonwealth v. Shelley, 373 N.E.2d 951, 953 (Mass. 1978); State v. Thornton, 532 S.W.2d 37, 40–41 (Mo. Ct. App. 1975).
153 See Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. at 254; Parisie, 287 N.E.2d at 314; Thornton, 532 S.W.2d at 41.
154 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 511; Comstock, supra note 19, at 94.
155 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 94.
156 See id.; Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 502–10; see also discussion infra Part III.B.
157 Comstock, supra note 19, at 94.
158 Id.
159 See People v. Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. 253, 255 (1967); People v. Parisie, 287 N.E.2d 310, 313–14 (Ill. Ct. App. 1972); Commonwealth v. Shelley, 373 N.E.2d 951, 953 (Mass. 1978); Comstock, supra note 19, at 94.
160 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 94.
161 Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 502.
162 Id.
163 See id.; see also infra notes 164–169 and accompanying text.
164 See 287 N.E.2d at 314, 325.
165 See id. at 315.
166 See People v. Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. 253, 255 (1967).
167 See id. at 254; see also Parisie, 287 N.E.2d at 315.
168 See Commonwealth v. Shelley, 373 N.E.2d 951, 952–53 (Mass. 1978).
169 See State v. Thornton, 532 S.W.2d 37, 40–41, 44 (Mo. Ct. App. 1975); see also Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. at 255; Parisie, 287 N.E.2d at 314; Shelley, 373 N.E.2d at 951, 952–53.
170 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 502.
171 See id. at 501–12.
172 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 86–96; Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 501–12.
173 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 86–96.
174 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 511; Comstock, supra note 19, at 91.
175 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 90–91.
176 See People v. Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. 253, 255 (1967).
177 See State v. Thornton, 532 S.W.2d 37, 41 (Mo. Ct. App. 1975).
178 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 511; Comstock, supra note 19, at 90.
179 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 511; Comstock, supra note 19, at 91.
180 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 91.
181 See Thornton, 532 S.W.2d at 40; Comstock, supra note 19, at 91.
182 See 532 S.W.2d 37 at 40 (emphasis added).
183 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 511; Comstock, supra note 19, at 93.
184 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 93.
185 See People v. Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. 235, 254–55 (1967).
186 See People v. Parisie, 287 N.E.2d 310, 313–14 (Ill. App. Ct. 1972).
187 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 93.
188 See 580 A.2d 1362, 1363–64 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1990).
189 See id.; Comstock, supra note 19, at 93.
190 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 92–93.
191 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 477, 491, 498; Glick, supra note 89, at 27; Hart, supra note 87, at 203–07, 212.
192 See Commonwealth v. Shelley, 373 N.E.2d 951, 953 (Mass. 1978).
193 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 92, 94–95.
194 See id. at 94–95; Glick, supra note 89, at 21 (stating that patients are unable to function at all).
195 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 491; Comstock, supra note 19, at 95.
196 See People v. Rodriguez, 64 Cal. Rptr. 253, 255 (1967).
197 See State v. Thornton, 532 S.W.2d 37, 41 (Mo. Ct. App. 1975).
198 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 88–89.
199 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 477; Comstock, supra note 19, at 88; Glick, supra note 89, at 26.
200 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 89.
201 See id.
202 See id.
203 See id. at 94–95; Mison, supra note 13, at 169.
204 See 844 F.2d 1023, 1025–26 (3d Cir. 1988).
205 See id.
206 See id.
207 Id.; see also Wills v. State, 636 P.2d 372, 373 (Okla. Crim. App. 1981) (defendant kicked and beat victim to death after victim allegedly made sexual advance to third party).
208 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 479–80, 507, 511.
209 See Mison, supra note 13, at 170.
210 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 97; Mison, supra note 13, at 170.
211 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 89–90; Mison, supra note 13, at 169.
212 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 506–11.
213 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 89.
214 See id. at 89–90.
215 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19–20; Comstock, supra note 19, at 89–90.
216 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19–20; Comstock, supra note 19, at 89; Valdes, supra note 25, at 179; Mison, supra note 13, at 155.
217 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 99.
218 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19–20; Comstock, supra note 19, at 89.
219 Comstock, supra note 19, at 90.
220 See id. at 86.
221 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 86; Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 502.
222 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 84; Hart, supra note 87, at 203–07; Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 502.
223 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 491; Glick, supra note 89, at 21; Hart, supra note 87, at 205.
224 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 491; Comstock, supra note 19, at 86; Hart, supra note 87, at 203–07.
225 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 86–89.
226 See id. at 86–96.
227 See id.
228 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19.
229 See id.; Comstock, supra note 19, at 86–96; Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 502; Mison, supra note 13, at 167.
230 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19, 20.
231 See id. at 20; see also discussion supra Parts I, III.
232 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 81, 86–96; see also discussion infra Part IV.A-C.
233 Comstock, supra note 19, at 81, 86–96.
234 See id.; Mison, supra note 13, at 161–62.
235 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 81, 86–96; Mison, supra note 13, at 161–62.
236 See U.S. Const. amend. VI; Comstock, supra note 19, at 86–96; Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 513–14; Mison, supra note 13, at 167, 172.
237 See Peter Freiberg, Blaming the Victim: New Life for the “Gay Panic” Defense, Advoc. (L.A.), May 24, 1988, at 12.
238 Id.
239 See id.
240 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 514.
241 See id. at 512.
242 See id. (quoting an opinion by the Ohio Attorney General. Op. Att’y Gen. of Ohio No. 82–078 (Sept. 30, 1982)).
243 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 512.
244 See id.; Mison, supra note 13, at 170.
245 See Mison, supra note 13, at 163; see also discussion supra Part IV.A.
246 Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 501; see Comstock, supra note 19, at 86–96.
247 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 515; Mison, supra note 13, at 163.
248 See infra notes 249–255 and accompanying text.
249 See Mison, supra note 13, at 163 (citing Suzanne Bryant, National Lesbian & Gay Law Association, Remarks Before the A.B.A. Judicial Conduct Subcommittee 4 (Sept. 22, 1989)).
250 See Bryant, supra note 249.
251 See Mison, supra note 13, at 163 n.211; Robert Lindsey, After Trial, Homosexuals Say Justice is Not Blind, N.Y. Times, Mar. 21, 1988, at A17.
252 Lindsey, supra note 251, at A17.
253 Id.
254 See Panel to Examine Remarks by Judge on Homosexuals, N.Y. Times, Dec. 21, 1988, at A16.
255 Id.
256 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 100–01.
257 See id. at 101.
258 See id.
259 See Mison, supra note 13, at 158, 163.
260 See id. at 162–63; see also discussion supra Part IV.A-B.
261 See U.S. Const. amend VI; Taylor v. Louisiana, 419 U.S. 522, 527–28 (1975) (holding that the Sixth Amendment requires petit jury be selected from representative cross-section of community); Mison, supra note 13, at 162–63.
262 See Mison, supra note 13, at 162–63.
263 See id. at 162.
264 See id. at 162–63; see also discussion supra Part IV.A-B.
265 See Mison, supra note 13, at 162–63.
266 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19.
267 See Mills v. Shepard, 445 F. Supp. 1231, 1234 (W.D.N.C. 1978); Comstock, supra note 19, at 97; Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 499.
268 See 445 F. Supp. at 1232; Mison, supra note 13, at 168.
269 See Shepard, 445 F. Supp. at 1234.
270 Id.; see Mison, supra note 13, at 168.
271 Shepard, 445 F. Supp. at 1234.
272 See id. at 1232; Mison, supra note 13, at 168.
273 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 97; Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 499.
274 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 99.
275 Id. at 99–100.
276 Id. at 97.
277 See id.
278 See id.
279 See Mison, supra note 13, at 171–72.
280 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 499; Mison, supra note 13, at 171–72.
281 586 N.W.2d 766, 768 (Mich. Ct. App. 1998).
282 See id. at 768–69.
283 See State v. Rivera, 733 P.2d 1090, 1100 (Ariz. 1987); Mison, supra note 13, at 171–72.
284 See Rivera, 733 P.2d at 1100; Mison, supra note 13, at 168.
285 See Rivera, 733 P.2d at 1100; Mison, supra note 13, at 168–69.
286 See Rivera, 733 P.2d at 1100; Comstock, supra note 19, at 90–91, 93; Mison, supra note 13, at 168.
287 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 81; Mison, supra note 13, at 167.
288 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 81; Mison, supra note 13, at 167; see also discussion supra Part III.
289 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 499; see also discussion supra Part I.
290 See Mison, supra note 13, at 167; see also discussion supra Part IV.
291 See discussion supra Part III.
292 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 514–15.
293 Comstock, supra note 19, at 100.
294 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 515.
295 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 89.
296 See discussion supra Part III.B.
297 See discussion supra Part III.
298 See Mison, supra note 13, at 167; see also discussion supra Parts III, IV.
299 Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19.
300 Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 515.
301 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 19.
302 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 513–14.
303 See id. (stating that courts lack the expertise to resolve the disagreements between psychiatric experts in this area).
304 See Kempf, supra note 79, at 511; Comstock, supra note 19, at 84, 86–96; Glick, supra note 89, at 27; Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 514.
305 See discussion supra Parts III.A, IV.
306 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 97–100; Mison, supra note 13, at 170–71; see also supra notes 279–286 and accompanying text.
307 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 86 (deeming use of the HPD in cases of violence against gays “inappropriate”).
308 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 514; see also discussion supra Part IV.B.
309 See Estrich, supra note 5, at 1091; Harriett R. Galvin, Shielding Rape Victims in the State and Federal Courts: A Proposal for the Second Decade, 70 Minn. L. Rev. 763, 791–93; Mison, supra note 13, at 162.
310 Galvin, supra note 309, at 791–92.
311 See id. at 792.
312 See id. at 792–93.
313 See id. at 792–94.
314 Id. at 796.
315 See Galvin, supra note 309, at 798, 808.
316 Id.
317 See Estrich, supra note 5, at 1093 (discussing pros and cons of rape-reform legislation).
318 See Galvin, supra note 309, at 791; Valdes, supra note 25, at 170.
319 See Galvin, supra note 309, at 794–95; Herek & Berrill, supra note 40, at 295.
320 See Galvin, supra note 309, at 794–96; Mison, supra note 13, at 163, 167, 171.
321 See Galvin, supra note 309, at 794–95 (discussing the introduction of contraceptive use in rape trials); Mison, supra note 13, at 169.
322 See Galvin, supra note 309, at 794–96, 800; see also discussion supra Part IV.B.
323 See Galvin, supra note 309, at 808; see also discussion supra Parts I, III.A, IV.B.
324 Mison, supra note 13, at 171–72 & n.279 (citing Joshua Dressler, Rethinking Heat of Passion: A Defense in Search of a Rationale, 73 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 421, 446 (1982)).
325 Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 515.
326 See discussion supra Part I.
327 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 501.
328 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 81 (stating HPD relies almost exclusively on anti-gay bias); see also discussion supra Part III.
329 See Comstock, supra note 19, at 81; see also discussion supra Parts I, III.
330 See Bagnall et al., supra note 10, at 515; see also discussion supra Parts III.A, IV.
331 Mison, supra note 13, at 173.
332 See Baker v. State, 744 A.2d 864, 867 (Vt. 1999); see also supra note 53 and accompanying text.
333 See Sedgwick, supra note 18, at 18.