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[Pages 243-278]
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Peter A. Lyle*
I.  Racial Profiling in America: Searches, Seizures, and Driving While Black
    A.  Rights Against Unreasonable Searches and Seizures
    B.  Problems that the Terry Decision Created for Victims Trying to Prove Violations under the Fourth Amendment
    C.  The Law Today: Whren v. United States
    D.  Race-Ignorant Assumptions Inherent in Whren
II.  Fourth Amendment and Equal Protection Analysis in the Modern Courtroom: Linking Terry, Whren and Brown
III.  Fourth Amendment and Equal Protection Claims: Constitutional Construction, Race-Ignorant Standards, and Racial Attitudes Among Minorities and Police
    A.  Constitutional Tensions and Sociological Influences in Brown
    B.  Race-Ignorance and Racial Bias by Courts
    C.  The Victim’s Perspective: Minority Perceptions of Law Enforcement Officials
    D.  Protecting Police Discretion: The Importance of Law Enforcement
IV.  Recalibrating the Reasonableness Standard of the Courts
Conclusion