* Staff Writer, Boston College Third World Law Journal (2000–2001). I extend a warm thanks to Jennifer Levi of Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders for help in getting information about the Doe case, to Shannon Minter of the National Center for Lesbian Rights for help in getting information about the Montgomery case, and to Matt, Kelly and Grace Crozier for their limitless support.
1 Christina Hoff Sommers, The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is Harming Our Young Men 213 (2000).
2 See id. at 13, 172, 211.
3 See id. at 15, 44, 99.
4 Id. at 13.
5 See Quang H. Dang, San Francisco Human Rights Commission, Investigation into the Needs of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and Questioning Youth 4–5 (1997) (discussing the experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning youth (LGBTQQ)).
6 See Sommers, supra note 1, at 87. Nowhere in the book does Sommers note anything about LGBTQQ youth. See generally id.
7 See id. at 98–99.
8 See Dang, supra note 5, at 4–5; Elvia R. Arriola, The Penalties for Puppy Love: Institutionalized Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Youth, 1 J. Gender Race & Just. 429, 430–31, 448 (1998).
9 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 448–49; Julie A. Greenberg, Defining Male and Female: Intersexuality and the Collision Between Law and Biology, 41 Ariz. L. Rev. 265, 275 (1999).
10 Paisely Currah & Shannon Minter, Transgender Equality: A Handbook for Activists and Policymakers 30–31 (2000); see Laurie Schaffner, Note, Violence and Female Delinquency: Gender Transgressions and Gender Invisibility, 14 Berkeley Women’s L.J. 40, 51–52 (1999). See generally Sommers, supra note 1. For example, FM Chester recounts how in her high school, boys sat on one side of the room, and girls sat on the other; there was no place for her as a masculine girl. Chester also recounts that her graduate nursing program threatened to deny her progress and graduation if she did not present herself as recognizably female. Currah & Minter, supra, at 30–31.
11 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 442–43, 462; Warren J. Blumenfeld & Laurie Lindop, Youth Suicide 7, at http://www.glsen.org.html (last visited Sept. 27, 2000) (finding young men with more feminine gender-role characteristics face the highest risk of self-destructive behavior). Studies need to be done on the impact of gender role stereotyping on girls.
12 See John Cloud, His Name is Aurora, Time, Sept. 25, 2000, at 90–91; Sacha Pfeiffer & Mac Daniel, Court Rules Brockton Boy Can Dress as Girl at School, Boston Globe, Oct. 13, 2000, at 1.
13 See Greenberg, supra note 9, at 275, 325–27. See generally Sommers, supra note 1.
14 Arriola, supra note 8, at 448–49; Kelli Kristine Armstrong, Note, The Silent Minority Within a Minority: Focusing on the Needs of Gay Youth in Our Public Schools, 24 Golden Gate U. L. Rev. 67, 75 (1994) (citing a study of the American Pediatric Association which found that one out of three gay male teens has attempted suicide).
15 See Miye A. Goishi, Note, Unlocking the Closet Door: Protecting Children from Involuntary Civil Commitment Because of Their Sexual Orientation, 48 Hastings L.J. 1141, 1153, 1163 (1997); Schaffner, supra note 10, at 51–52.
16 See generally Doe v. Yunits, No. 00–1060–A (Mass. Super. Ct. Oct. 11, 2000); Sommers, supra note 1.
17 See Patricia A. Cain, Stories from the Gender Garden: Transsexuals and Anti-Discrimination Law, 75 Denv. U. L. Rev. 1321, 1332–33 (1998); Mary Coombs, Sexual Dis-Orientation: Transgendered People and Same-Sex Marriage, 8 UCLA Women’s L.J. 219, 265 (1999); Hasan Shafiqullah, Note, Shape-Shifters, Masqueraders, & Subversives: An Argument for the Liberation of Transgendered Individuals, 8 Hastings Women’s L.J. 195, 209–13 (1997).
18 See Cain, supra note 17, at 1332; Greenberg, supra note 9, at 271–74.
19 See Greenberg, supra note 9, at 274.
20 See id.
21 See id. at 274; Shafiqullah, supra note 17, at 225.
22 See Vanessa H. Eisemann, Protecting the Kids in the Hall: Using Title IX to Stop Student-on-Student Anti-Gay Harassment, 15 Berkeley Women’s L.J. 125, 151–54 (2000).
23 See Coombs, supra note 17, at 235–36.
24 See Eisemann, supra note 22, at 153.
25 See Cain, supra note 17, at 1324; Shafiqullah, supra note 17, at 220–22.
26 Cain, supra note 17, at 1332–33; Greenberg, supra note 9, at 275, 325–27; Shafiqullah, supra note 17, at 195–96.
27 See Greenberg, supra note 9, at 278, 325–27.
28 See id.
29 Jamison Green, Introduction to Currah & Minter, supra note 10, at 4; see Shafiqullah, supra note 17, at 196.
30 See Coombs, supra note 17, at 237–44.
31 See id. at 265–66.
32 See Greenberg, supra note 9, at 325–27.
33 See id. at 267–68.
34 See id. at 275, 325–27.
35 See, e.g., Coombs, supra note 17, at 265–66; Greenberg, supra note 9, at 275, 326–27; Jennifer Nye, The Gender Box, 13 Berkeley Women’s L.J. 226, 229 (1998).
36 Nye, supra note 35, at 229.
37 See generally Sommers, supra note 1; Nye, supra note 35.
38 See Sean Cahill, Preface to Currah & Minter, supra note 10, at iii; Eisemann, supra note 22, at 153–55; Shafiqullah, supra note 17, at 226–27.
39 See Eisemann, supra note 22, at 153–54.
40 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 468–70.
41 See Eisemann, supra note 22, at 153, 157–58; Greenberg, supra note 9, at 275.
42 See generally Montgomery v. Indep. Sch. Dist. No.709, 109 F. Supp. 2d 1081 (D. Minn. 2000); Doe v. Yunits, No. 00–1060–A (Mass. Super. Ct. Oct. 11, 2000); Jon W. Davidson, Trans-forming Gender Equality (2000) (on file with author).
43 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 448. See generally Eisemann, supra note 22; Teemu Ruskola, Minor Disregard: The Legal Construction of the Fantasy That Gay and Lesbian Youth Do Not Exist, 8 Yale J.L. & Feminism 269 (1996).
44 See generally Sommers, supra note 1; Mary Anne C. Case, Disaggregating Gender from Sex and Sexual Orientation: The Effeminate Man in the Law and Feminist Jurisprudence, 105 Yale L.J. 1 (1995); Greenberg, supra note 9.
45 See generally Sommers, supra note 1.
46 Id. at 173.
47 Id. at 87–88.
48 Nye, supra note 35, at 228. See generally Sommers, supra note 1.
49 See generally Sommers, supra note 1.
50 See generally id. For example, Sommers makes two oblique references to boys being freer to speak and reflect in all-male settings because their masculinity is not at risk and they will not have to fear looking like “sissies.” See id. at 162, 174. Beyond these two mentions, Sommers does not address homosexuality or gender identity anywhere in her book. See generally id. Homosexuality, sexual orientation or gender identity do not even appear as topics in the index. See id. at 239–51. These omissions seem shocking in a book devoted to how schools deal with gender and gender equality. See Dang, supra note 5, at 4–5. See generally Sommers, supra note 1. This Book Review focuses on boys in particular who, because they are gay, are perceived to be gay, are transgendered or just do not fit into a stereotypical male role, are seen as gender non-conforming.
51 See generally Sommers, supra note 1.
52 See Nye, supra note 35, at 255. See generally Sommers, supra note 1.
53 See Sommers, supra note 1, at 98–99.
54 See id. at 44.
55 Id. at 84.
56 See id. at 98, 133.
57 Id. at 209.
58 See Sommers, supra note 1, at 98, 211–12.
59 See id. at 75, 98, 134.
60 Id. at 84, 98.
61 Id. at 212–13.
62 See generally id. Throughout the book, she claims to be the only person who is fighting for boys rather than seeing boys negatively and working towards changing them. See generally id.
63 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 448; Greenberg, supra note 9, at 267, 270.
64 See Dang, supra note 5, at 52–55; Sommers, supra note 1, at 44.
65 Sommers, supra note 1, at 44.
66 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 448; Eisemann, supra note 22, at 149–58.
67 Arriola, supra note 8, at 448, 449, 462.
68 See id. at 447–49, 462; Gina De Vries, Growing Up in Modern Society: Testimonies from Children, 36 Fam. & Conciliation Cts Rev. 417, 418–19 (1998). Heterosexism is the presumption that heterosexuality is superior and preferable to homosexuality. Robert B. Mison, Homophobia in Manslaughter: The Homosexual Advance as Insufficient Provocation, 80 Cal. L. Rev. 133, 147–48 (1992). Homophobia refers to hatred of lesbians and gay men. Id. Similar to homophobia, transphobia refers to hatred of transgender people.
69 Arriola, supra note 8, at 461–62.
70 See id.; Good Morning America: Interview with Dr. Laura Berman (ABC television broadcast, Sept. 18, 2000) [hereinafter Berman Interview].
71 See Berman Interview, supra note 70.
72 Sonia Renee Martin, Note, A Child’s Right to Be Gay: Addressing the Emotional Maltreatment of Queer Youth, 48 Hastings L.J. 167, 167–68 (1996); see Arriola, supra note 8, at 452.
73 See Dang, supra note 5, at 4; Goishi, supra note 15, at 1149.
74 Dang, supra note 5, at 52; Goishi, supra note 15, at 1149.
75 Dang, supra note 5, at 52.
76 See id. at 54.
77 Arriola, supra note 8, at 452.
78 See Dang, supra note 5, at 54; Armstrong, supra note 14, at 85–87, 89–91.
79 Dang, supra note 5, at 53.
80 Id.; Sommers, supra note 1, at 139; Arriola, supra note 8, at 451.
81 See Dang, supra note 5, at 53; Arriola, supra note 8, at 451.
82 Goishi, supra note 15, at 1149.
83 Dang, supra note 5, at 52, 53; Armstrong, supra note 14, at 85–87, 89–91, 93–94.
84 See Gay, Lesbian & Straight Educ. Network, National School Climate Survey: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students and Their Experiences in School, at http://www.glsen.org (Sept. 27, 2000).
85 Id.
86 Id.
87 Id.
88 Id.
89 Colleen A. Sullivan, Note, Kids, Courts and Queers: Lesbian and Gay Youth in the Juvenile Justice and Foster Care Systems, 6 Tul. J.L. & Sexuality 31, 48 (1996).
90 Nabozny v. Podlesny, 92 F.3d 446, 449 (7th Cir. 1996).
91 Id. at 451.
92 See id. at 451–52.
93 See id.
94 See id.; Susan Broberg, Note, Gay/Straight Alliances and Other Controversial Student Groups: A New Test for the Equal Access Act, BYU Educ. & L.J. 87, 87 (Spring 1999).
95 See Broberg, supra note 94, at 87. The school district chose to litigate rather than allow a GSA to form at the school. See generally East High Gay/Straight Alliance v. Board of Education of Salt Lake City School District, 81 F.Supp.2d 1166 (D. Utah 1999).
96 Press Release, Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund, Students and Salt Lake City School Board End Feud over Gay-Supportive Clubs (Oct. 6, 2000), available at http://www.lambdalegal.org. Lambda reported that “[t]he Salt Lake City School Board has decided to change its policy and allow the [gay] clubs to meet at schools in the Salt Lake City School District.” See id. This decision brought to a close two lawsuits challenging the School District’s discriminatory policy. There were forty-six non-curricular groups banned in an effort to stop the GSA from meeting. See id.
97 See Dang, supra note 5, at 4. See generally Sommers, supra note 1.
98 Sommers, supra note 1, at 84, 133.
99 Id. at 133.
100 Id. at 95.
101 See Nabozny v. Podlesny, 92 F.3d 446, 451–52 (7th Cir. 1996).
102 See id. See generally Sommers, supra note 1.
103 See Nabozny, 92 F.3d at 451–52; Arriola, supra note 8, at 449.
104 See Schaffner, supra note 10, at 51–52, 61–62; infra discussion Part IV.A–B.
105 Greenberg, supra note 9, at 270–71, 325–37.
106 Currah & Minter, supra note 10, at 15–17. As of February 2000, twenty-six municipalities included protections for transgender people in their civil rights statutes. Id.
107 Martin, supra note 72, at 179; Schaffner, supra note 10, at 51; Sullivan, supra note 89, at 39.
108 Schaffner, supra note 10, at 51.
109 Id. at 51–52.
110 Martin, supra note 72, at 172, 179.
111 Goishi supra note 15, at 1138 & n.3, 1149; Martin, supra note 72, at 172–74.
112 Martin, supra note 72, at 169, 170, 172.
113 Goishi, supra note 15, at 1160.
114 See id.
115 Dallas Denny, Transgender in the United States: A Brief Discussion, SIECUS Report, Oct.–Nov. 1999, at 9.
116 Shafiqullah, supra note 17, at 199; Denny, supra note 115, at 9. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders, regularly updated, are “the end result of a systematic, comprehensive empirical review of the psychiatric literature and as such contain the most up-to-date information available to assist the clinician in making a differential diagnosis.” Am. Psychiatric Ass’n, DSM-IV Questions and Answers, available at http://www.psych.org (Feb. 24, 2001).
117 Am. Psychiatric Ass’n, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders, Text Revised 581 (4th ed. 2000).
118 Arriola, supra note 8, at 460.
119 Id. at 461.
120 Daniel Goleman, The ‘Wrong’ Sex: A New Definition of Childhood Pain, N.Y. Times, Mar. 22, 1994, at C1.
121 See id.
122 Goishi, supra note 15, at 1160–61, 1163.
123 Id. at 1160; Sullivan, supra note 89, 41–42.
124 See Leroy Aarons, Youths Hospitalized for “Gender Identity” Problems, Tampa Trib., Sept. 25, 1995, at 2.
125 Arriola, supra note 8, at 460; Aarons, supra note 124, at 2.
126 Sullivan, supra note 89, at 41–42.
127 Id. at 41.
128 Id. at 46, 47.
129 Goishi, supra note 15, at 1163.
130 Troxel v. Granville, 120 S.Ct. 2054, 2060 (2000); Parham v. J.R., 442 U.S. 584, 602 (1979).
131 Troxel, 120 S.Ct. at 2060.
132 Goishi, supra note 15, at 1163, 1175–76; see Dang, supra note 5, at 58.
133 See Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
134 See id.
135 Good Morning America: Interview with Sherry Lipscomb (ABC television broadcast, Sept. 19, 2000) [hereinafter Lipscomb Interview]. There are many troubling aspects of this still unresolved case; however, it remains true and salient that the Ohio court handling the case reacted swiftly to remove Aurora from her home situation only when gender transgression came into play. Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
136 See Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
137 Id. Aurora Lipscomb has been diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome (which is related to autism), bi-polar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and gender identity disorder. Id.; Lipscomb Interview, supra note 135.
138 See Cloud, supra note 12, at 90.
139 Id.
140 Id. Thus I will address her as Aurora.
141 Id.; Encarnacion Pyle & Misti Crane, Couple Fights for Son, 6, They Say Is Girl at Heart, Columbus Dispatch, Aug. 26, 2000, at 1G.
142 See Cloud, supra note 12, at 90.
143 Lipscomb Interview, supra note 135.
144 Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
145 See id.
146 See id.
147 Troxel v. Granville, 120 S.Ct. 2084, 2060 (2000); Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
148 See Nye, supra note 35, at 255; Goishi, supra note 15, at 1163.
149 Arriola, supra note 8, at 460; see discussion supra Part III.
150 Goishi, supra note 15, at 1163.
151 See Troxel, 120 S.Ct. at 2060; Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
152 Pyle & Crane, supra note 141, at 1G.
153 Id.
154 See Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
155 See id.
156 See id.
157 See id.; Berman Interview, supra note 70.
158 See Lipscomb Interview, supra note 135.
159 See generally Cloud, supra note 12; Lipscomb Interview, supra note 135.
160 See Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
161 See id.; Berman Interview, supra note 70.
162 See Doe v. Yunits, No. 00–1060–A, slip op. at 2, 14–15 (Mass. Super. Ct. Oct. 11, 2000); Arriola, supra note 8, at 468–70.
163 Yunits, No. 00–1060–A, slip op. at 1. Thus I will address Pat Doe using female pronouns.
164 Id. at 2, 7.
165 Id. at 2, 3.
166 Pfeiffer & Daniel, supra note 12, at 1.
167 Id.
168 Yunits, No. 00–1060–A, slip op. at 7, 10–11.
169 Id. at 8.
170 Id. at 6, 9.
171 See id. at 15.
172 See id.
173 See Yunits, No. 00–1060–A, slip op. at 15; Pfeiffer & Daniel, supra note 12, at 1. On November 30, 2000, the Massachusetts Appeals Court upheld the Superior Court’s order allowing Pat Doe to return to school wearing girls’ clothing. Press Release, Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders, Appeals Court Agrees: Transgender Student May Remain in School, available at http://www.glad.org (Dec. 1, 2000).
174 Pfeiffer & Daniel, supra note 12, at 1.
175 See id.
176 See id. See generally Sommers, supra note 1.
177 See Montgomery v. Indep. Sch. Dist. No.709, 109 F. Supp. 2d 1081, 1089–93 (D. Minn. 2000).
178 See id. at 1083.
179 Id. at 1084.
180 Id.
181 Id.
182 Montgomery, 109 F. Supp. 2d at 1084.
183 Id.
184 Id.
185 Id.
186 Id. at 1084–85.
187 Montgomery, 109 F. Supp. 2d at 1084 n.3.
188 Id. at 1085.
189 Id. at 1085–86.
190 Id. at 1102.
191 Id. at 1089–1093, 1098–1100.
192 Montgomery, 109 F. Supp. 2d at 1089–90.
193 Id. at 1090–93.
194 Id. at 1090.
195 Id. at 1090–92.
196 See id. at 1089–93, 1098–1100.
197 See Montgomery, 109 F. Supp. 2d. at 1089–93, 1093–96, 1098–1100. See generally Sommers, supra note 1.
198 See generally Sommers, supra note 1; Arriola, supra note 8.
199 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 448.
200 Id. at 448, 459.
201 See Doe v. Yunits, No. 00–1060–A, slip op. at 15 (Mass. Super. Ct. Oct. 11, 2000).
202 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 469–70; Greenberg, supra note 9, at 325–27; Nye, supra note 35, at 256.
203 See Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91. See generally Nabozny v. Podlesny, 92 F.3d 446 (7th Cir. 1996); Montgomery v. Indep. Sch. Dist. No.709, 109 F. Supp. 2d 1081 (D. Minn. 2000); Yunits, No. 00–1060–A.
204 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 447–48, 468–70; Ruskola, supra note 43, at 271.
205 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 447–48.
206 See id. at 468–70.
207 See id.
208 See Martin, supra note 72, at 168–69, 174.
209 See id.
210 See generally Doe v. Yunits, No. 00–1060–A (Mass. Super. Ct. Oct. 11, 2000); Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
211 See Montgomery v. Indep. Sch. Dist. No.709, 109 F. Supp. 2d 1081, 1086 (D. Minn. 2000); Pfeiffer & Daniel, supra note 12, at 1. See generally Yunits, No. 00–1060–A.
212 See generally Montgomery, 109 F. Supp. 2d at 1081; Yunits, No. 00–1060–A.
213 See Montgomery, 109 F. Supp. 2d at 1089–93; Yunits, No. 00–1060–A, slip op. at 5–9.
214 Arriola, supra note 8, at 465; Denny, supra note 115, at 9.
215 See Yunits, No. 00–1060–A, slip op. at 2, 6; Arriola, supra note 8, at 468–70; Goishi, supra note 15, at 1158–59; Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
216 See Yunits, No. 00–1060–A, slip op. at 2, 6; Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
217 See Yunits, No. 00–1060–A, slip op. at 2, 6; Cloud, supra note 12, at 90–91.
218 See Montgomery, 109 F. Supp. 2d at 1087, 1089–93.
219 See id. at 1090; Yunits, No. 00–1060–A, slip op. at 10–12.
220 See Montgomery, 109 F. Supp. 2d at 1090; Yunits, No. 00–1060–A, slip op. at 10–12.
221 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 451–53; Eisemann, supra note 22, at 160.
222 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 452, 468, 470; Greenberg, supra note 9, at 326–27.
223 See Dang, supra note 5, at 4–5; Arriola, supra note 8, at 452, 470. See generally Sommers, supra note 1.
224 See Arriola, supra note 8, at 469–70.