[A] general, special, primary, or runoff election; a convention or caucus of a political party which has authority to nominate a candidate; a primary election held for the selection of delegates to a national nominating convention of a political party; and a primary election held for the expression of a preference for the nomination of individuals for election to the office of President.
Id. § 431(1)(A)(D). This means, for instance, that the contribution limit of $1,000 per person to any given candidate per election allows a donor to give $1,000 in the primary and another $1,000 in the general election and in any special or runoff election that includes that candidate. See id.; 2 U.S.C. § 441a(a). Political action committees are multicandidate political committees that do not have ties to the national parties or to a particular candidate. Karen OConnor & Larry J. Sabato, The Essentials of American Government, Continuity and Change 336 (3d ed. 1998).
[A]ny committee, club , association, or other group of persons which receives contributions aggregating in excess of $1,000 during a calendar year or which makes expenditures aggregating in excess of $1,000 during a calendar year; or any separate segregated fund under the provisions of section 316(b) [2 U.S.C.S. § 441b(b)]; or any local committee of a political party which receives contributions aggregating in excess of $5,000 during a calendar year, or makes payments exempted from the definition of contribution or expenditure as defined in section 301(8) and (9) aggregating in excess of $5,000 during a calendar year, or makes contributions aggregating in excess of $1,000 during a calendar year or makes expenditures aggregating in excess of $1,000 during a calendar year.
Id. § 431(4)(A)(C).
For purposes of the limitations imposed by this section, all contributions made by a person, either directly or indirectly, on behalf of a particular candidate, including contributions which are in any way earmarked or otherwise directed through an intermediary or conduit to such candidate, shall be treated as contributions from such person to such candidate. The intermediate or conduit shall report the original source and the intended recipient of such contribution to the Commission and to the intended recipient.
2 U.S.C. § 441a(a)(8).
(1) IN GENERALA national committee of a political party (including a national congressional campaign committee of a political party) may not solicit, receive, or direct to another person a contribution, donation, or transfer of funds or any other thing of value, or spend any funds, that are not subject to the limitations, prohibitions, and reporting requirements of this Act.