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ARTICLE CONTENTS

[Pages 147-172]
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Introduction
I.  Chilling Effects Generally
II.  Standing Doctrine Generally
III.  Chilling Effects and Standing in the U.S. Supreme Court
IV.  Chilling Effects as a Basis for Standing in
Lower Federal Courts

V.  Chilling Injuries Based on Fear of Injury to One’s Spouse
VI.  Analysis
    A.  The Independent Injury Test Inadequately Protects First Amendment Rights and Is Inconsistent with the Overbreadth Doctrine
    B.  The Objectively Reasonable Test Yields Inconsistent Results
Because It Focuses on the Harm Threatened Rather
Than the Resultant Chilling Effect

    C.  The Choice Test Most Appropriately Protects First Amendment Rights
Conclusion