* Sumathi Subbiah is the Senior Executive Editor of the Boston College International & Comparative Law Review.
1 See Graham Dutfield, TRIPS-Related Aspects of Traditional Knowledge, 33 Case W. Res. J. Int’l L. 233, 235–37 (2001); Shubha Ghosh, Globalization, Patents, and Traditional Knowledge, 17 Colum. J. Asian Law 73, 74–75 (2003); Symposium, Global Intellectual Property Rights: Boundaries of Access and Enforcement, 12 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 753, 771–72 (2002) [hereinafter Symposium].
2 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 240–42.
3 See Ghosh, supra note 1, at 74–75; Susan Scafidi, Intellectual Property and Cultural Products, 81 B.U. L. Rev. 793, 794 (2001).
4 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 248–49, 253, 258; Ghosh, supra note 1, at 90–91.
5 See, e.g., Dutfield, supra note 1, at 243–44 (delineating the global economic impact of TK products).
6 See id.
7 See id.
8 See Ghosh, supra note 1, at 75–76; Srividhya Ragavan, Protection of Traditional Knowledge, 2 Minn. Intell. Prop. Rev. 1, 5–7 (2001).
9 See, e.g., Dutfield, supra note 1, at 36–37; Ghosh, supra note 1, at 75–76.
10 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 243–44; Symposium, supra note 1, at 765–66.
11 See Vandana Shiva, Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge 10–11, 56 (1997) [hereinafter Shiva, Biopiracy]; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
12 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 248–60; Ghosh, supra note 1, at 80–81.
13 See U.S. Patent No. 5,663,484, Reexamination Certificate C1 (4525th) (reissued Jan. 29, 2002) [hereinafter USPTO Reexamination]; Press Release, Federal Trade Commission, Commission Denial of Petition for Rulemaking Proceeding (May 15, 2001), http://www.
ftc.gov/opa/2001/05/fyi0131.htm [hereinafter FTC Press Release].

14 Dutfield, supra note 1, at 240; Symposium, supra note 1, at 772. TK is an accepted abbreviation for “traditional knowledge” among international organizations and scholars who deal with the topic. See, e.g., Dutfield, supra note 1, at 234; Intellectual Property Needs and Expectations of Traditional Knowledge Holders: WIPO Report on Fact-Finding Missions on Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge (1998–1999) 25 (2001), http://www.wipo.int/tk/en/tk/ffm/report/final/pdf/part1.pdf [hereinafter WIPO FFM Report].
15 Dutfield, supra note 1, at 240; Symposium, supra note 1, at 772.
16 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 25; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 240; Symposium, supra note 1, at 772.
17 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 25.
18 Traditional Knowledge—Operational Terms and Definitions, Intergovernmental Comm. on Intellectual Prop. and Genetic Res., Traditional Knowledge & Folklore, at 7–8, WIPO/
GRTKF/IC/3/9 (June 13–21, 2002), http://www.wipo.int/eng/meetings/2002/igc/pdf/
grtkfic3_9.pdf; WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 25.

19 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 25; see also Scafidi, supra note 3, at 794; Madhavi Sunder, Intellectual Property and Identity Politics: Playing with Fire, 4 J. Gender Race & Just. 69, 70–74 (2000). Scholars and cultural critics have extensively examined the problematic ways in which the concept of tradition has been used, and often manipulated, to privilege and elevate certain accepted types of cultural production to the detriment of others. See Scafidi, supra note 3, at 794; Sunder, supra, at 70–74.
20 WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 25.
21 Id.
22 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 25; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 242.
23 Symposium, supra note 1, at 772.
24 Dutfield, supra note 1, at 240, 245.
25 Id.; WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 25.
26 Dutfield, supra note 1, at 240, 243.
27 See Scafidi, supra note 3, at 810.
28 See id.; WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 25.
29 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 240–41.
30 See id.; Scafidi, supra note 3, at 810.
31 Dutfield, supra note 1, at 234.
32 Id. at 243.
33 Id.
34 Id. at 243–444.
35 R.E. Huke & E.H. Huke, Int’l Rice Research Inst., Rice: Then and Now (1990), partially reprinted in Int’l Rice Research Inst., A Brief History of Rice, at http://www.riceweb.
org/History.htm [hereinafter Brief History]; Genetic Resources Action Int’l (GRAIN), Genetech Preys on the Paddy Field, Seedling (June 1998), available at http://www.grain.org/pub-
lications/jun982-en.cfm [hereinafter Genetech].

36 Genetech, supra note 35; Brief History, supra note 35.
37 Michael Woods, Food for Thought: The Biopiracy of Jasmine and Basmati Rice, 12 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 123, 137 (2002).
38 GRAIN, Protecting Asia’s Most Valuable Resource, Seedling (Dec. 2001), available at http://www.grain.org/publications/seed-01-12-3-en.cfm [hereinafter Protecting].
39 Genetech, supra note 35; Brief History, supra note 35.
40 Brief History, supra note 35.
41 See id.; Genetech, supra note 35.
42 Genetech, supra note 35.
43 See id.
44 See Genetech, supra note 35; Brief History, supra note 35.
45 Genetech, supra note 35.
46 Id.
47 See id.
48 Brief History, supra note 35.
49 Id.
50 Id.
51 Id.
52 Id.
53 See M. Hossain, Rice Supply and Demand in Asia: A Socioeconomic and Biophysical Analysis, in Applications of Systems Approaches at the Farm and Regional Levels (P.S. Teng et al. eds., 1997), partially reprinted in Int’l Rice Research Inst., Asia: Supply, Demand and Production Potential of Rice in Asia, at http://www.riceweb.org/g_overasia.htm [hereinafter Rice Asia]; Genetech, supra note 35.
54 Rice Asia, supra note 53.
55 Genetech, supra note 35.
56 Id.
57 Id.
58 Int’l Rice Research Inst., India, at http://www.riceweb.org/countries/india.htm.
59 Id.
60 See, e.g., Ghosh, supra note 1, at 97–98.
61 See Jonathan Madeley, Plant Patents Raise Fear of ‘Biopiracy,Fin. Times (London), Dec. 8, 2000, at 44; Research Found. for Sci., Tech. & Ecology, The Biopiracy Factsheet, Basmati Rice, at http://www.vshiva.net/archives/naturefacts/basmati_rice.htm (July 17, 2001) [hereinafter Factsheet].
62 Vandana Shiva, Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply 85 (2000) [hereinafter Shiva, Stolen].
63 M.R. Subramani, EU Moves WTO to Protect Basmati, Darjeeling Tea, Bus. Line, June 28, 2002.
64 See Factsheet, supra note 61.
65 See Shiva, Stolen, supra note 62, at 85.
66 Factsheet, supra note 61.
67 See U.S. Patent No. 5,663,484  2.3 (issued Sept. 2, 1997) [hereinafter RiceTec Patent]; Factsheet, supra note 61.
68 See RiceTec Patent, supra note 67,  2.3.
69 See id.  2.5; Factsheet, supra note 61.
70 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
71 See id. at 237.
72 See Shiva, Biopiracy, supra note 11, at 10–11; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
73 See Shiva, Biopiracy, supra note 11, at 10–11; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
74 See Shiva, Biopiracy, supra note 11, at 10–11; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
75 See Shiva, Biopiracy, supra note 11, at 56; Muria Kruger, Note, Harmonizing TRIPS and the CBD: A Proposal From India, 10 Minn. J. Global Trade 169, 181 (2001).
76 See Shiva, Biopiracy, supra note 11, at 10–11; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
77 See Shiva, Biopiracy, supra note 11, at 69; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
78 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237; Symposium, supra note 1, at 765–66.
79 See Shiva, Biopiracy, supra note 11, at 10–11; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
80 See GRAIN et al., Biopiracy, TRIPS and the Patenting of Asia’s Rice Bowl (May 1998), http://www.grain.org/briefings/?id=29 [hereinafter GRAIN, Biopiracy]; Shiva, Biopiracy, supra note 11, at 10–11; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
81 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38; Meetali Jain, Note, Global Trade and the New Millennium: Defining the Scope of Intellectual Property Protection of Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge in India, 22 Hastings Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 777, 815–16 (1999).
82 GRAIN, Biopiracy, supra note 80.
83 Id.
84 See id.
85 See Jain, supra note 81, at 816.
86 See, e.g., Shuchi Sinha, Basmati Patent: Whose Rice Is It Anyway?, India Today, Sept. 3, 2001, at 40.
87 Shalini Bhutani & Ashish Kothari, The Biodiversity Rights of Developing Nations: A Perspective From India, 32 Golden Gate U. L. Rev. 587, 603 (2002).
88 Tina Rosenberg, The Year in Ideas; Patent Your Heritage, N.Y. Times, Dec. 15, 2002, at 107.
89 See Shiva, Biopiracy, supra note 11, at 69–70; Kruger, supra note 75, at 173–75.
90 Symposium, supra note 1, at 781–82; Jain, supra note 81, at 816.
91 Jain, supra note 81, at 816.
92 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
93 See id. at 237–38, 243–44.
94 See Shiva, Biopiracy, supra note 11, at 10–11; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
95 See Shiva, Biopiracy, supra note 11, at 10–11.
96 See id.; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
97 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 237–38.
98 See id.
99 See id. at 237–38, 243–57.
100 See id. at 273–74.
101 See id.
102 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 248; Symposium, supra note 1, at 765–66.
103 See id.
104 See id.
105 WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 31; Scafidi, supra note 3, at 799–800.
106 WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 31.
107 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 31–32; Scafidi, supra note 3, at 803–04.
108 WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 31–32.
109 Id.
110 Id.
111 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 31; Scafidi, supra note 3, at 803–04.
112 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 242–43; Scafidi, supra note 3, at 803–04.
113 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 248.
114 See id.; Symposium, supra note 1, at 766.
115 See Symposium, supra note 1, at 766.
116 World Intellectual Prop. Org., Traditional Knowledge, at http://www.wipo.int/tk/
en/tk/background/index.html [hereinafter WIPO Background]; see Symposium, supra note 1, at 766–67.

117 See Symposium, supra note 1, at 766
118 WIPO Background, supra note 116; see Symposium, supra note 1, at 766–67.
119 See Symposium, supra note 1, at 766–67; WIPO Background, supra note 116.
120 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 253; Kruger, supra note 75, at 183–84.
121 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 35–37, 39. A discussion of sui generis rights and trade secrets as ways to protect TK are beyond the scope of this Note. See id. at 24–25.
122 See id. at 35.
123 See id. at 32, 35–36.
124 See id. at 31, 35–37.
125 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 31, 35–37.
126 See Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1C, Legal Instruments—Results of the Uruguay Round, 33 I.L.M. 1197 (1994), http://www.wto.
org/english/docs_e/legal_e/27-trips_04c_e.htm#5 [hereinafter TRIPS Agreement]; WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 36; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 8.

127 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 253–60.
128 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 253–54.
129 See id. at 254–55; WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 25.
130 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 254; United States Responses to Survey on Existing Forms of Intellectual Property Protection for Traditional Knowledge, at http://www.wipo.
int/tk/en/questionnaires/ic-2-5/usa.pdf (last visited May 2, 2004) [hereinafter U.S. Survey Responses].

131 U.S. Survey Responses, supra note 130 (response to Question 27).
132 See id.
133 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 25–26; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 254.
134 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 245, 254.
135 See id. at 247–48, 254–55.
136 See id.
137 See id.
138 Jane C. Ginsburg et al., Trademark and Unfair Competition Law 52–53 (2001); Dutfield, supra note 1, at 254–55.
139 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 35 (summarizing general patent law); see also 35 U.S.C.  101–103 (2001) (setting forth analogous U.S. domestic patent requirements).
140 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 254–55; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 13.
141 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 13.
142 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 255; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 13.
143 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 255; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 13.
144 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 247–48; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 13–14.
145 35 U.S.C.  102(b).
146 Id. at  103(a).
147 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 247–48.
148 See id.; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 13–14.
149 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 247–48; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 13–14.
150 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 247–48; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 13–14.
151 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 36; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 247–48.
152 35 U.S.C.  103(a); see U.S. Survey Responses, supra note 130 (response to Question 1).
153 See 35 U.S.C.  103(a); Dutfield, supra note 1, at 248.
154 See 35 U.S.C.  103(a).
155 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 36; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 247–48.
156 WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 36; see Dutfield, supra note 1, at 248; Symposium, supra note 1, at 781.
157 WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 36; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 248.
158 WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 36.
159 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 240–41.
160 See id. at 247–48; WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 36.
161 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 36; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 247–48.
162 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 36; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 247–48.
163 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 254–56.
164 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 36.
165 See id.
166 Id.
167 Id.
168 Id.
169 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 254–56.
170 See id. at 253–55.
171 See id. at 253–56.
172 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 19–20.
173 See id.; Kruger, supra note 75, at 183.
174 TRIPS Agreement, supra note 126, art. 22.1.
175 See id. art. 22; M.R. Subramani, US Opposes EU Move to Protect Basmati Rice, Bus. Line, Oct. 8, 2002 [hereinafter Subramani, US Opposes].
176 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 19–20; Kruger, supra note 75, at 183.
177 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 19–20; Kruger, supra note 75, at 183.
178 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 19–20; Kruger, supra note 75, at 183.
179 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 19–20.
180 See Ginsburg, supra note 138, at 45.
181 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 20.
182 See id.
183 See Bhutani & Kothari, supra note 87, at 604; Desa Philadelphia, Catfish by Any Other Name, Time, Feb. 25, 2002, at B14; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
184 See Philadelphia, supra note 183.
185 Ginsburg, supra note 138, at 1009.
186 See id.; Kruger, supra note 75, at 183–84.
187 See TRIPS Agreement, supra note 126, art. 22.2(a).
188 See id. art. 22(3); Kruger, supra note 75, at 183–84.
189 See Bhutani & Kothari, supra note 87, at 604; Kruger, supra note 75, at 184.
190 See TRIPS Agreement, supra note 126, art. 23; Kruger, supra note 75, at 184.
191 See TRIPS Agreement, supra note 126, art. 23; Kruger, supra note 75, at 184.
192 See Daniel Pruzin, Australia Assails EU Over WTO Talks on Geographical Indications, BNA Int’l Trade Rep., Mar. 14, 2002, at 457; Subramani, US Opposes, supra note 175.
193 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 20; Subramani, US Opposes, supra note 175.
194 See Indian Basmati Is Quite Well, Thank You, Fin. Express, Oct. 5, 2001.
195 See Pruzin, supra note 192, at 457; Subramani, US Opposes, supra note 175.
196 See Philadelphia, supra note 183; Subramani, US Opposes, supra note 175.
197 See TRIPS Agreement, supra note 126, art. 22–24; Subramani, US Opposes, supra note 175.
198 See TRIPS Agreement, supra note 126, art. 22–24; Subramani, US Opposes, supra note 175.
199 See Philadelphia, supra note 183.
200 See Symposium, supra note 1, at 766; Saritha Rai, India-U.S. Fight on Basmati Rice Is Mostly Settled, N.Y. Times, Aug. 25, 2001, at C1; WIPO Background, supra note 116.
201 See Rai, supra note 200.
202 See id.; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
203 See FTC Press Release, supra note 13; Jairam Ramesh, Viewpoint, Basmati Gets Steaming Again, India Today, Sept. 3, 2001, at 35.
204 Sinha, supra note 86, at 40; Research Found. for Sci., Tech. and Ecology, Chronology of Events of Basmati Battle, at http://www.vshiva.net/aticles/chronology_basmati_battle.htm (Sept. 4, 2001) [hereinafter Chronology].
205 Sinha, supra note 86, at 40; Brad Tyer, RiceTec Paddy Whack, Houston Press, Nov. 23, 2000.
206 Tyer, supra note 205.
207 Id.; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
208 Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
209 Ramesh, supra note 203, at 35.
210 Id.; Tyer, supra note 205.
211 See RiceTec Patent, supra note 67 (heading); Rai, supra note 200.
212 See Rai, supra note 200.
213 See RiceTec Patent, supra note 67 (heading); Rai, supra note 200.
214 See RiceTec Patent, supra note 67 (heading).
215 See Ramesh, supra note 203, at 35; Tyer, supra note 205.
216 See David Ivanovich, RiceTec Sees Partial Win Over Patents; Indian Government Angry That Basmati Types OK’d, Houston Chron., Aug. 24, 2001, at 1; Rai, supra note 200.
217 See Michela Wrong, Helping Itself to Basmati Rice, Fin. Times (London), Nov. 25, 2000, at 17.
218 See, e.g., Ivanovich, supra note 216, at 1; Rai, supra note 200; Chronology, supra note 204.
219 See Chronology, supra note 204.
220 Id.
221 See Rai, supra note 200.
222 See Tyer, supra note 205.
223 See Madeley, supra note 61, at 44; Tyer, supra note 205.
224 Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
225 Rai, supra note 200; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
226 See Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
227 Id.; Chronology, supra note 204.
228 See Rai, supra note 200.
229 See Rai, supra note 200; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
230 See Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
231 Id.
232 Id.
233 Protecting, supra note 38; Chronology, supra note 204.
234 Sinha, supra note 86, at 40; Chronology, supra note 204.
235 Sinha, supra note 86, at 40; Chronology, supra note 204.
236 Sinha, supra note 86, at 40; Chronology, supra note 204.
237 See Rai, supra note 200; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
238 U.S. Patent No. 5,663,484, Reexamination Certificate C1 (4525th) (reissued Jan. 29, 2002); Chronology, supra note 204.
239 U.S. Patent No. 5,663,484, supra note 238; Chronology, supra note 204.
240 Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
241 Id.
242 See India Not To Contest Basmati Patent for Texan Company, Fin. Express, Oct. 5, 2001; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
243 Ivanovich, supra note 216, at 1.
244 See Ramesh, supra note 203, at 35; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
245 See Ramesh, supra note 203, at 35; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
246 Ramesh, supra note 203, at 35; Protecting, supra note 38.
247 FTC Press Release, supra note 13; Protecting, supra note 38.
248 See FTC Press Release, supra note 13; Protecting, supra note 38.
249 See FTC Press Release, supra note 13; Protecting, supra note 38.
250 See FTC Press Release, supra note 13; Protecting, supra note 38.
251 See FTC Press Release, supra note 13; Protecting, supra note 38.
252 Letter Declining to Take Action on Request for Rulemaking to Prevent Such Advertising (May 9, 2003), http://www.ftc.gov/os/2001/05/riceletter.pdf [hereinafter FTC Letter]; FTC Press Release, supra note 13.
253 FTC Letter, supra note 252; FTC Press Release, supra note 13.
254 FTC Letter, supra note 252.
255 Id.
256 Id.
257 FTC Press Release, supra note 13; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
258 See FTC Letter, supra note 252; Sinha, supra note 72, at 53.
259 See Philadelphia, supra note 183; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
260 See FTC Letter, supra note 252; FTC Press Release, supra note 13.
261 See FTC Letter, supra note 252; FTC Press Release, supra note 13.
262 See FTC Letter, supra note 252; FTC Press Release, supra note 13.
263 See D. Sampathkumar, India: Basmati: The Threat Still Lingers, Bus. Line, Sept. 2, 2001; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
264 See Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
265 See Ramesh, supra note 203, at 35; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
266 See Symposium, supra note 1, at 766.
267 See id.; WIPO Background, supra note 116.
268 See Symposium, supra note 1, at 766; WIPO Background, supra note 116.
269 See Symposium, supra note 1, at 766.
270 See id.
271 See id.
272 See id.
273 See id.; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
274 See Symposium, supra note 1, at 766; Rai, supra note 200.
275 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 254; Rai, supra note 200.
276 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 253–54.
277 See id.; Factsheet, supra note 61.
278 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 254; Symposium, supra note 1, at 766.
279 See Rai, supra note 200; Sinha, supra note 86, at 40.
280 See Ramesh, supra note 203, at 35; Sampathkumar, supra note 263.
281 See FTC Letter, supra note 252; FTC Press Release, supra note 13.
282 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 19–20; Kruger, supra note 75, at 83–84.
283 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 39; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 19–20.
284 See FTC Letter, supra note 252; Bhutani & Kothari, supra note 87, at 604–05.
285 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 20; Kruger, supra note 75, at 183–84, 198.
286 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 20.
287 See id.
288 See id.
289 See id.
290 See TRIPS Agreement, supra note 126, art. 22.
291 See id.; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 20.
292 See WIPO FFM Report, supra note 14, at 25; Dutfield, supra note 1, at 241–42.
293 RiceTec Patent, supra note 67,  2.3.
294 See id.; Factsheet, supra note 61.
295 See TRIPS Agreement, supra note 126, art. 23; Kruger, supra note 75, at 184.
296 See Kruger, supra note 75, at 197–98.
297 See id.
298 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 253–54; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 20.
299 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 254.
300 See TRIPS Agreement, supra note 126, art. 22; Ragavan, supra note 8, at 20.
301 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 14, 20.
302 See Bhutani & Kothari, supra note 87, at 604; Kruger, supra note 75, at 197–98.
303 See TRIPS Agreement, supra note 126, arts. 22–24; Kruger, supra note 75, at 198.
304 See Bhutani & Kothari, supra note 87, at 604–05; Kruger, supra note 75, at 184, 197–98.
305 See Subramani, US Opposes, supra note 175.
306 Id.
307 See Pruzin, supra note 192, at 457; Subramani, US Opposes, supra note 175.
308 See Pruzin, supra note 192, at 457.
309 See id.; Subramani, US Opposes, supra note 175.
310 See Kruger, supra note 75, at 184, 198.
311 See id. at 198.
312 See Dutfield, supra note 1, at 253.
313 See Ragavan, supra note 8, at 19–20; Kruger, supra note 75, at 184, 198.