* Sumathi Subbiah is the Senior Executive Editor of the Boston College International & Comparative Law Review.
1 See Sumit Ganguly, The Origins of war in South Asia 9–10 (1994) [hereinafter Ganguly, Origins]; Somini Sengupta, The India-Pakistan Tension: The Background, N.Y. Times, Jan. 13, 2002,  1, at 12.
2 See Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 1; Sengupta, supra note 1, at 12.
3 See Erik Eckholm, The India-Pakistan Tension: The Brink, N.Y. Times, Jan. 14, 2002, at A6; Sengupta, supra note 1, at 12.
4 See U.N. Charter art. 3, para. 1.
5 See Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 52–53; Ali Khan, The Kashmir Dispute: A Plan for Regional Cooperation, 31 Colum. J. Transnat’l L. 495, 512–16 (1994).
6 See Khan, supra note 5, at 516.
7 See id. at 522.
8 See id. at 528–29.
9 See Sumit Ganguly, The Crisis in Kashmir 8 (1997) [hereinafter Ganguly, Crisis]; Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 9; Alastair Lamb, Kashmir, A Disputed Legacy, 1846–1990, at 101 (1991).
10 See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 7; Khan, supra note 5, at 496. Hereinafter, the region of “Jammu and Kashmir” will be referred to as “Kashmir” as it is in much of the scholarship and press. See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 7.
11 Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 6.
12 Id. at 7–8.
13 Id.
14 Id.
15 Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 32–34.
16 See id. at 36.
17See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 9–11.
18 See Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 36.
19 See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 157 (providing text of the Instrument of Accession signed by Hari Singh); Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 36.
20 See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 10 n.23, 157; Lamb, supra note 9, at 136–37.
21 Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 36–37.
22 See Sengupta, supra note 1, at 12.
23 Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 11; Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 37.
24 Letter from the Representatives of India Addressed to the President of the Security Council Dated 1 January 1948, U.N. Doc. S/628, at 1 (1948) [hereinafter Indian Complaint]; Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 11.
25 See Indian Complaint, supra note 24, at 1; Pauline Dawson, The Peacekeepers of Kashmir 23 (1994); Damodar R. SarDesai, The Origins of Kashmir’s International Legal Status, in Perspectives on Kashmir 80, 85–86 (Raju G.C. Thomas ed., 1992).
26 See Indian Complaint, supra note 24, at 1, 3.
27 Letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan Addressed to the Secretary-General Dated 15 January 1948 Concerning the Situation in Jammu and Kashmir, U.N. Doc. S/646, at 12 (1948) [hereinafter Pakistani Reply]; Lamb, supra note 9, at 165.
28 Pakistani Reply, supra note 27, at 2–3; see Lamb, supra note 9, at 165.
29 See Pakistani Reply, supra note 27, at 18–22; Dawson, supra note 25, at 23.
30 See Pakistani Reply, supra note 27, at 18–22; Lamb, supra note 9, at 150–51.
31 See Pakistani Reply, supra note 27, at 6–9.
32 See id.; Lamb, supra note 9, at 151.
33 See Pakistani Reply, supra note 27, at 10–11; Khan, supra note 5, at 513.
34 See S.C. Res. 39, U.N. SCOR, 3d Sess., at 2, U.N. Doc. S/654 (1948) [hereinafter S.C. Res. 39]; S.C. Res. 38, U.N. SCOR, 3d Sess., at 1, U.N. Doc. S/651 (1948) [hereinafter S.C. Res. 38]; Dawson, supra note 25, at 23.
35 S.C. Res. 39, supra note 34, at 2.
36 Id.
37 See Khan, supra note 5, at 513.
38 S.C. Res. 47, U.N. SCOR, 3d Sess., Supp. for Apr. 1948, at 9–12, U.N. Doc. S/726 (1948) [hereinafter S.C. Res. 47].
39 Id. at 9–10.
40 Id. at 9–12.
41 Id. at 8–12; Pakistani Reply, supra note 27, at 9; Indian Complaint, supra note 24, at 1.
42 See Dawson, supra note 25, at 24.
43 See S.C. Res. 47, supra note 38, at 9; Dawson, supra note 25, at 25.
44 Dawson, supra note 25, at 25.
45 See id.
46 Id. at 25–26.
47 Interim Report of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (Nov. 9, 1948), U.N. Doc S/1100, at 59 (1948) [hereinafter UNCIP Interim Report]; see S.C. Res. 38, supra note 34, at 1; Dawson, supra note 25, at 25.
48 See UNCIP Interim Report, supra note 47, at 59; Dawson, supra note 25, at 26.
49 See Dawson, supra note 25, at 26; Lamb, supra note 9, at 168–69.
50 Dawson, supra note 25, at 26.
51 Id.
52 Khan, supra note 5, at 514–15.
53 See Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 53.
54 See Sengupta, supra note 1, at 12.
55 See Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 53.
56 See SarDesai, supra note 25, at 89–90.
57 See Khan, supra note 5, at 515–16.
58 See S.C. Res. 80, U.N. SCOR, 5th Sess., U.N. Doc. S/1469 (1950) [hereinafter S.C. Res. 80]; United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan, Third Interim Report (Dec. 9, 1949), U.N. Doc. S/1430, at 79 (1949) [hereinafter UNCIP Third Interim Report].
59 See Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 53–55. Among these attempts included those by General McNaugton, Sir Owen Dixon, Dr. Frank Graham, and Mr. Gunnar V. Jarring. See id. at 53–55, 59–60.
60 See Khan, supra note 5, at 516.
61 See id. at 521–22.
62 See id.
63 See id. at 521–23. India and Pakistan agreed to allow the Soviet Union to be the main mediator, and the negotiations resulted in the Tashkent Declaration, which returned the situation in Kashmir to the status quo ante bellum and annulled all territorial gains. See id.
64 See id. at 523–24.
65 See Lamb, supra note 9, at 297; Khan, supra note 5, at 525–29.
66 See Khan, supra note 5, at 529–30.
67 See id.
68 See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 14–16; Sengupta, supra note 1, at 12.
69 See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 15–16; Khan, supra note 5, at 528–30; Sengupta, supra note 1, at 12.
70 See Khan, supra note 5, at 534.
71 See Eckholm, supra note 3, at A6; Sengupta, supra note 1, at 12.
72 See S.C. Res. 47, supra note 38, at 8; UNCIP Third Interim Report, supra note 58, at 77; Fredric L. Kirgis, Jr., The United Nations at Fifty: The Security Council’s First Fifty Years, 89 Am. J. Int’l L. 506, 527–29 (1995).
73 See S.C. 47, supra note 38, at 8; Dawson, supra note 25, at 23.
74 See Kirgis, supra note 72, at 509–10, 528–29.
75 See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 11–13; Kirgis, supra note 72, at 527–28.
76 See S.C. Res. 47, supra note 38, at 8; UNCIP Third Interim Report, supra note 58, at 77–79; Pakistani Reply, supra note 27, at 9; Indian Complaint, supra note 24, at 1; Kirgis, supra note 72, at 527–28.
77 See S.C. Res. 47, supra note 38, at 9–12; Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 157–59.
78 See id.
79 See S.C. Res. 47, supra note 38, at 9.
80 See id. at 10–12; Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 157–59.
81 See S.C. Res. 47, supra note 38, at 10–12.
82 See id. at 8–12.
83 See id. at 9.
84 See id. at 10–12.
85 See Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 53–55; Kirgis, supra note 72, at 527–28.
86 See Dawson, supra note 25, at 24.
87 See id.
88 See Khan, supra note 5, at 513–15.
89 See Dawson, supra note 25, at 25–26.
90 See id. at 25–27.
91 See id.; Lamb, supra note 9, at 168–69.
92 See Dawson, supra note 25, at 26; Lamb, supra note 9, at 169.
93 See Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 53–55; Khan, supra note 5, at 514–16.
94 See Ganguly, Origins, supra note 1, at 54–55; Khan, supra note 5, at 517–20.
95 See Khan, supra note 5, at 520–22.
96 See Sengupta, supra note 1, at 12.
97 See Anthony Wanis St. John, The Mediating Role in the Kashmir Dispute Between India and Pakistan, 21 SPG Fletcher F. World Aff. 173, 176 (1997) (quoting Jacob Bercovitch, The Structure and Diversity of Mediation in International Relations, in Mediation in International Relations: Multiple Approaches to Conflict Management (Jacob Bercovitch & Jeffrey Z. Rubin eds., 1992)).
98 See Brian Farrell, The Role of International Law in the Kashmir Conflict, 21 Pa. St. Int’l L. Rev. 293, 313 (2003); Khan, supra note 5, at 528–30.
99 See Khan, supra note 5, at 528–30.
100 See Dawson, supra note 25, at 24; Farrell, supra note 98, at 300–01.
101 See Khan, supra note 5, at 527–29.
102 See id. at 529.
103 See Kirgis, supra note 72, at 527–28.
104 See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 14–16; Eckholm, supra note 3, at A6.
105 See Lamb, supra note 9, at 297; Khan, supra note 5, at 525–29.
106 See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 14–16; Sengupta, supra note 1, at 12.
107 See Indian Complaint, supra note 24, at 1; Eckholm, supra note 3, at A6.
108 See Pakistani Reply, supra note 27, at 2; Eckholm, supra note 3, at A6.
109 See Eckholm, supra note 3, at A6; Sengupta, supra note 1, at 12.
110 See Kirgis, supra note 72, at 527–28; Sengupta, supra note 1, at 12.
111 See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 15–16; Eckholm, supra note 3, at A6.
112 See Eckholm, supra note 3, at A6.
113 See Ganguly, Crisis, supra note 9, at 15–16; Kirgis, supra note 72, at 527–29; Eckholm, supra note 3, at A6.
114 See Khan, supra note 5, at 529.
115 See St. John, supra note 97, at 176; Eckholm, supra note 3, at A6.