* Regina Gerrick is the Managing Editor of the Boston College International & Comparative Law Review. She would like to thank Professor Frank Garcia for his helpful comments.
1 See Jessica L. Spiegel, Note, Will the Great Banana War Ever End: Will the Tariff Only System Be the Solution?, 24 B.C. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 219, 221 (2001).
2 See id.; Eur. Centre for Dev. Pol’y Mgmt. (ECDPM), Cotonou Infokit: History and Evolution of ACP-EU Cooperation (3), at http://www.oneworld.org/ecdpm/en/ cotonou/03_gb.htm (Jan. 2001) [hereinafter History and Evolution].
3 See History and Evolution, supra note 2.
4 See generally Spiegel, supra note 1, at 229.
5 See History and Evolution, supra note 2.
6 See Spiegel, supra note 1, at 224.
7 See id. at 228.
8 See id.
9 Eur. Centre for Dev. Pol’y Mgmt. (ECDPM), Cotonou Infokit: Regional Economic Partnership Agreements (14), at http://www.oneworld.org/ecdpm/en/coton-ou/14_gb.htm (Jan. 2001) [hereinafter REPAs].
10 Press Release, European Union Institutions, The European Community and Its Member States Sign a New Partnership Agreement with the African, Caribbean and Pacific states in Cotonou, Benin, at http://europa.eu.int/geninfo/whatwasnew/062000.htm [hereinafter EU Institutions].
11 Eur. Centre for Dev. Pol’y Mgmt. (ECDPM), Cotonou Infokit: The Cotonou Agreement at a Glance (2), at http://www.oneworld.org/ecdpm/en/cotonou/02_gb. htm (Jan. 2001) [hereinafter Cotonou at a Glance].
12 History and Evolution, supra note 2.
13 Id.
14 Id.
15 Id.
16 Id. In 1975, the nine member states of the European Community included Germany, Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. History and Evolution, supra note 2.
17 See generally European Commission, Development: The Cotonou Agreement: The Lomé Convention, at http://europa.eu.int/comm/development/body/cotonou/ lome_history_en.htm (last visited Jan. 26, 2004).
18 History and Evolution, supra note 2.
19 See generally European Commission Delegation to Guyana & Suriname, Lomé Convention: Five Generations of ACP-EC Agreements, at http://www.delguy.cec.eu.int.
20 History and Evolution, supra note 2.
21 See id.
22 Id.
23 The Future of EU-ACP Relations, at xi (Susanna Wolf ed., 1999).
24 History and Evolution, supra note 2.
25 See generally The Future of EU-ACP Relations, supra note 23, at 21.
26 History and Evolution, supra note 2.
27 Id.
28 Id.
29 Id.
30 Id.
31 History and Evolution, supra note 2.
32 See Lomé Convention IV, Dec. 15, 1989, art. 5, 29 I.L.M. 783 (1990), http://www. oneworld.org/acpsec/gb/lome/lome4_e.htm.
33 History and Evolution, supra note 2.
34 See id.
35 Id.
36 Id.
37 Id.
38 Spiegel, supra note 1, at 219.
39 See id.
40 Id. at 223. The new banana regime adversely affects Columbia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Honduras, Panama, Mexico, and El Salvador. Id.
41 Id. at 224.
42 Id.
43 Spiegel, supra note 1, at 224.
44 Id. at 228.
45 History and Evolution, supra note 2.
46 Id.
47 See id.
48 Id.
49 Id.
50 History and Evolution, supra note 2.
51 Id.
52 Id.
53 Id.
54 Id.
55 History and Evolution, supra note 2.
56 Spiegel, supra note 1, at 229.
57 See Cotonou Agreement, June 23, 2000, ACP-Eur., http://www.acpsec.org/gb/cotonou/accord1.htm.
58 Id. art. 93.
59 Id. art. 95.
60 See id.
61 Id. art. 1.
62 Cotonou Agreement, supra note 57, art. 2.
63 Id. art. 9(2).
64 Id. art. 9(3).
65 See Eur. Centre for Dev. Pol’y Mgmt. (ECDPM), Cotonou Infokit: Innovations in the Cotonou Agreement (4), at http://www.oneworld.org/ecdpm/en/cotonou/04_gb.htm (Jan. 2001) [hereinafter Innovations].
66 Id.
67 REPAs, supra note 9.
68 Id.
69 Stephen J.H. Dearden & Clara Mira Salama, The Cotonou Agreement, (Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Dep’t of Econ., Eur. Dev. Pol’y Study Group, Discussion Paper No. 20, 2001), at http://www.edpsg.org/Documents/Dp20.doc.
70 Id.
71 REPAs, supra note 9.
72 See id.
73 Id.
74 Eur. Centre for Dev. Pol’y Mgmt. (ECDPM), Cotonou Infokit: ACP-EU Trade Negotiations After Cotonou (15), at http://www.oneworld.org/ecdpm/en/cotonou/ 15_gb.htm (Jan. 2001) [hereinafter ACP-EU Trade Negotiations].
75 Id.
76 See id.
77 Innovations, supra note 65.
78 See id.
79 Id.
80 REPAs, supra note 9.
81 See Innovations, supra note 65.
82 Id.
83 See id.
84 Id.
85 Id.
86 Innovations, supra note 65.
87 Id.
88 Id.
89 Id.
90 Id.
91 Innovations, supra note 65.
92 Id.
93 See id.
94 Hale Sheppard, Note, The Lomé Convention in the Next Millennium: Modification of the Trade/Aid Package for Regional Integration, 7 Kan. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 84, 85 (1998). The Caribbean Islands that are part of the Cotonou Agreement include Antigua & Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, St. Kitts-Nevis, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, and Haiti. Eur. Centre for Dev. Pol’y Mgmt. (ECDPM), Cotonou Infokit: Some Basic Facts (5), at http://www.oneworld.org/ecdpm/en/cotonou/05_gb.htm (Jan. 2001) [hereinafter Some Basic Facts].
95 See Sheppard, supra note 94, at 86.
96 Id. at 85.
97 Id.; Claire Godfrey, Oxfam GB, A Future for Caribbean Bananas: The Importance of Europe’s Banana Market to the Caribbean, at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/ what_we_do/issues/trade/wto_bananas.htm (Mar. 1998).
98 Id.
99 Sheppard, supra note 94, at 94.
100 Id. at 85
101 Id.
102 Godfrey, supra note 97.
103 Cotonou Agreement, supra note 57, art. 1.
104 See generally Godfrey, supra note 97.
105 Id.
106 Id.
107 Id.
108 Id.
109 Hon. Ignatius Jean, Ensuring a Fair and Equitable Trading System: The Vulnerability of Small Countries, 5–6, (22nd Conference of Members from Small Countries, 2001), at http://www.cpahq.org.
110 See id.
111 See id.
112 See REPAs, supra note 9.
113 See ACP-EU Trade Negotiations, supra note 74.
114 REPAs, supra note 9.
115 Id.
116 See generally id.
117 See generally id.
118 Id.
119 Cotonou Agreement, supra note 57, art. 37(9). The thirty-nine least developed ACP countries are most of the African countries, a few Pacific countries, and one Caribbean country, Haiti. See Some Basic Facts, supra note 94.
120 Dearden & Salama, supra note 69.
121 See REPAs, supra note 9.
122 Sheppard, supra note 94, at 97.
123 REPAs, supra note 9.
124 Id.
125 Id.
126 Id.
127 See generally Cotonou Agreement, supra note 57.
128 See generally Godfrey, supra note 97; Sheppard, supra note 94, at 98.
129 See generally Cotonou Agreement, supra note 57.
130 See generally id.
131 Sheppard, supra note 94, at 95.
132 Id.
133 Id.
134 Id.
135 See Godfrey, supra note 97; Sheppard, supra note 94, at 98.
136 See Godfrey, supra note 97.
137 Id.
138 See Innovations, supra note 65.
139 Sheppard, supra note 94, at 98.
140 Id. at 95.
141 Michael B. Joseph, Post Lomé IV Arrangements Must Mirror the Principles and Instruments of Lomé: A Perspective from the Banana Sectors of the Windward Islands (ECDPM Working Paper No. 18, Apr. 1997), at http://www.ecdpm.org/pubs/wp18_gb.htm.