* L. Danielle Tully is the Solicitations and Symposium Editor of the Boston College International & Comparative Law Review.
1 See U.N. Dev. Programme, Human Development Report, 2001, at 46–63 (2001) [hereinafter Development Report].
2 For the WTO’s approach to the definitions of “developing” countries and “LDCs” see http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/devel_e/d1who_e.htm (last visited Nov. 12, 2002).
3 See Evelyn Su, The Winners and the Losers: The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Its Effects on Developing Countries, 23 Hous. J. Int’l L. 169, 195–97 (2000).
4 See Penny Fowler, Harnessing Trade for Development 35–36 (Oxfam International 2001), at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/policy/papers/trade/trade.pdf; PES Group, A New Direction in World Trade: Towards a WTO Round for Development, Democracy and Sustainability 11–12 (Apr. 2001), at http://www.ictsd.org/ministerial/doha/ WTO-shortpaper-ENfinal.PDF; see also Development Report, supra note 1, at 95–117 (discussing technology as a tool for development).
5 See PES Group, supra note 4, at 11–12; Carlos A. Primo Braga, Trade-Related Intellectual Property Issues: The Uruguay Round Agreement and Its Economic Implications, 45 (Jan. 1995) (paper presented at The Uruguay Round and the Developing Economies—A World Bank Conference); J.H. Reichman, From Free Riders to Fair Followers: Global competition Under the TRIPS Agreement, 29 N.Y.U. J. Int’l L. & Pol. 11, 22–23 (1996–1997).
6 See Braga, supra note 5, at 12; Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Apr. 15 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization(Apr. 15, 1994), Annex 1C, available at http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/ legal_e/04-wto.pdf. [hereinafter WTO Agreement]; Legal Instruments—Results of the Uruguay Round vol. 31, 33 I.L.M. 81 (1994) [hereinafter TRIPS Agreement], available at http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/t_agm0_e.htm.
7 See Ruth L. Gana, Prospects for Developing Countries Under the TRIPS Agreement, 29 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 735, 743 (1996).
8 Development Report, supra note 1, at 102; see also Keith E. Maskus, Intellectual Property Challenges for Developing Countries: An Economic Perspective, 2001 U. Ill. L. Rev. 457, 458 (2001).
9 Development Report, supra note 1, at 102.
10 Id.
11 See Ministerial Conference, Ministerial Declaration, WT/MIN(01)/DEC/1 (Nov. 20, 2001), at http://docsonline.wto.org/gen_search.asp [hereinafter Ministerial Declaration]; Ministerial Conference, Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, WT/MIN(01)/ DEC/2 (Nov. 20, 2001), at http://docsonline.wto.org/gen_search.asp. [hereinafter Public Health Declaration]
12 See Su, supra note 3, at 173.
12 See Su, supra note 3, at 178–81; Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, Mar. 20, 1883, at http://www.wipo.int/treaties/documents/english/pdf/d-paris.pdf (last visited Nov. 12, 2002); Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, Sept. 9, 1886, at http://www.wipo.int/treaties/documents/english/pdf/e-berne.pdf (last visited Nov. 12, 2002).
13 See Su, supra note 3, at 178–81.
14 Id. at 179–80.
15 Id. at 181.
16 Id. at 182.
17 See Braga, supra note 5, at 3.
18 See Marney L. Cheek, The Limits of Informal Regulatory Cooperation in International Affairs: A Review of the Global Intellectual Property Regime, 33 Geo. Wash. Int’l L. Rev. 277, 290 (2001); Su, supra note 3, at 183–84.
19 Braga, supra note 5, at 3.
20 Frederick M. Abbott, Protecting First World Assets in the Third World: Intellectual Property Negotiations in the GATT Multilateral Framework, 22 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 689, 697 (1989); see also Cheek, supra note 19, at 284–85.
21 See Cheek, supra note 19, at 286.
22 See Abbott, supra note 21, at 743 (summarizing Foreign Trade Barriers Report).
23 Marco C.E.J. Bronckers, The Impact of TRIPS: Intellectual Property Protection in Developing Countries, 31 Common Mkt. L. Rev. 1245, 1247 (1994).
24 Su, supra note 3, at 173–4; see also Abbott, supra note 21, at 697 (discussing how intellectual property is easily appropriated once it has been produced and that it has marginal reproduction costs).
25 See Abbott, supra note 21, at 699–700.
26 Id. at 700.
27 Id.; Cheek, supra note 19, at 287; U.S. Int’l Trade Commission, Pub. No. 2065, Foreign Protection of Intellectual Property Rights and the Effect on U.S. Industry and Trade (1988)
28 Abbott, supra note 21, at 701.
29 Id. at 701–02.
30 See id. at 695–96; General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Oct. 30, 1947, 61 Stat. A-11, T.I.A.S. 1700, 55 U.N.T.S. 194 [hereinafter GATT].
31 Cheek, supra note 19, at 288.
32 See Abbott, supra note 21, at 718.
33 WTO Agreement, supra note 6.
34 See Braga, supra note 5, at 12.
35 See Bronckers, supra note 24, at 1249–50; TRIPS Agreement, supra note 6, at part III.
36 Cheek, supra note 19, at 292.
37 TRIPS Agreement, supra note 6, at arts. 7–8.
38 See id.
39 Id.
40 TRIPS Agreement, supra note 6, at art. 7.
41 Id. art. 8.
42 See id. at arts. 27–34.
43 TRIPS Agreement art. 27(1).
44 Robert Weissman, A Long, Strange TRIPS: the Pharmaceutical Industry Drive to Harmonize Global Intellectual Property Rules, and the Remaining WTO Legal Alternatives Available to Third World Countries, 17 U. Pa. J. Int’l Econ. L. 1069, 1098 (1996).
45 Id.; TRIPS Agreement, supra note 6, at art. 33.
46 TRIPS Agreement, supra note 6, at arts. 28, 31.
47 Tara Kalagher Giunta & Lily H. Shang, Ownership of Information in a Global Economy, 27 Geo. Wash. J. Int’l L. & Econ. 327, 330 (1993–1994).
48 See Gana, supra note 7, at 746–47.
49 Id. at 746.
50 Id. at 764; Giunta & Shang, supra note 48, at 329–30.
51 See Giunta & Shang, supra note 48, at 330–31.
52 Id. at 331.
53 Ha-Joon Chang, Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Development: Historical Lessons and Emerging Issues, 2 J. Hum. Dev. 287, 288–93 (2001).
54 Bronckers, supra note 24, at 1247; Development Report, supra note 1, at 39.
55 Giunta & Shang, supra note 48, at 332.
56 Id.
57 Chang, supra note 54, at 300–01.
58 Id. at 301.
59 See generally Giunta & Shang, supra note 48, at 346–58 (discussing the levels of IPR protection available in Japan, China, and India); Christopher S. Mayer, The Brazilian Pharmaceutical Industry Goes Walking from Ipanema to Prosperity: Will the New Intellectual Property Law Spur Domestic Investment?, 12 Temp. Int’l & Comp. L.J. 377, 378–80 & 387–89 (1998) (discussing Brazilian patent law).
60 Compiled from data listed in the Annex to Braga, supra note 5, at A9-A11, (listing Membership in GATT and in Major WIPO conventions as of April 5, 1994), and from WTO Members and Observers, at http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/ org6_e.htm (containing the date of membership for each member)(last visited Nov. 12, 2002).
61 Id.
62 See Cheek, supra note 19, at 294–95.
63 Id. at 295; TRIPS Agreement, supra note 6, at arts. 65(2), 66–67.
64 Development Report, supra note 1, at 104.
65 Id.
66 Bronckers, supra note 24, at 1257.
67 See Cheek, supra note 19, at 295; TRIPS Agreement, supra note 6, at arts. 65(2)& 66.
68 Bronckers, supra note 24, at 1258; TRIPS Agreement, supra note 6, at art. 65(4).
69 Bronckers, supra note 24, at 1253; TRIPS Agreement, supra note 6, at art. 70(8).
70 Bronckers, supra note 24, at 1253.
71 Id.
72 Id.; see TRIPS Agreement, supra note 6, at art. 70(8).
73 TRIPS Agreement, supra note 6, at art. 67.
74 Id. at art. 67.
75 Id. at art. 66(2).
76 See Carlos Correa, Review of the TRIPS Agreement: Fostering the Transfer of Technology to Developing Countries, at http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/foster.htm (last visited Nov. 17, 2002).
77 See, e.g., Fowler, supra note 4, at 2–3; PES Group, supra note 4, at 2; Developing Country Group’s Paper, TRIPS Council, IP/C/W/296 (June 20, 2001) [hereinafter Developing Country Paper].
78 See generally PES Group, supra note 4, at 11–12; Fowler, supra note 4, at 36–42; Developing Country Paper, supra note 78.
79 See The Economist Global Agenda, Getting Close (Nov. 13, 2001), at http://www. economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=862698.

80 See Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights General Council: Proposal by the African Group, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Peru, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Venezuela, IP/C/W/312 (Oct. 4, 2001), available at http://docsonline.wto.org/gen_search.asp [hereinafter Developing Country Proposal].

81 Id. at pmbl.
82 Id.
83 Id. at para. 4.
84 Id. at para. 10.
85 See Developing Country Proposal, supra note 81, at para. 13.
86 Id.
87 Id.
88 Id. at pmbl.
89 See Developing Country Paper, supra note 78, at paras. 4, 17–23.
90 Id.; Correa, supra note 77, at 11–12.
91 See Developing Country Paper, supra note 78, at para. 19.
92 See General Council, Draft Declaration on Intellectual Property and [Access to Medicines] [Public Health], at http://www.ictsd.org/ministerial/doha/docs/IP27oct.pdf [hereinafter Draft Ministerial Declaration] (last visited Nov. 12, 2002).
93 See id; see generally TRIPS Agreement.
94 See Draft Ministerial Declaration, supra note 93; Public Health Declaration, supra note 11.
95 Director-General Mike Moore, Address at the 14th general meeting of the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (Nov. 28, 2001), at http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/ spmm_e/spmm73_e.htm.
96 See Ministerial Declaration, supra note 11, at paras. 17–19.
97 Public Health Declaration, supra note 11.
98 Id. at paras. 5b, 5d.
99 Id. at para. 5a.
100 Giuta & Shang, supra note 48, at 329–30.
101 See Cheek, supra note 19, at 286.
102 See Chang, supra note 54, at 294–95; Braga, supra note 5, at 36–47.
103 Su, supra note 3, at 171.