* Dinesh D. Banani is an Executive Editor of the Boston College International & Comparative Law Review.
1 See Patrick R. Hugg, The Republic of Turkey in Europe: Reconsidering the Luxembourg Exclusion, 23 Fordham Int’l L.J. 606, 606 (2000).
2 Paul J. Magnarella, The Legal, Political and Cultural Structures of Human Rights Protections and Abuses in Turkey, 3 J. Int’l L. & Prac. 439, 439 (1994).
3 Id.
4 Id.
5 Id. at 439–40.
6 Hugg, supra note 1, at 614.
7 Id. at 614–15.
8 John Newhouse, Europe Adrift 252 (1997), quoted in Hugg, supra note 1, at 615.
9 See Hugg, supra note 1, at 615.
10 See generally Magnarella, supra note 2, at 440–41 (providing political and legal background on Ataturk’s reforms).
11 Id. at 442.
12 Id. at 448.
13 Id. at 448.
14 Id. at 440.
15 See Hugg, supra note 1, at 624.
16 Id.
17 Magnarella, supra note 2, at 439.
18 See Commission of the European Communities, 2001 Regular Report on Turkey’s Progress Towards Accession, SEC (2001)1756, 28 (Nov. 13, 2001), available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/report2001/tu_en.pdf [hereinafter 2001 Regular Report].
19 See U.S. Dep’t of State, Turkey Country Report on Human Rights (Feb. 23, 2001), available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/eur/844.htm [hereinafter State Department Report].
20 See id.
21 See id.
22 Id.
23 See Hugg, supra note 1, at 627.
24 See generally Phillip G. Smucker, The meaning of a scarf: Turkish students fight to wear Islamic head coverings, U.S. News & World Rep., Mar. 16, 1998, at 31, 33.
25 Hugg, supra note 1, at 661.
26 2001 Regular Report, supra note 18, at 33.
27 Hugg, supra note 1, at 645.
28 Id.
29 Id.
30 See id. at 646.
31 Id.
32 Hugg, supra note 1, at 646.
33 See Christopher Preston, Enlargement and Integration in the European Union 215 (Clive Church ed., 1997).
34 Hugg, supra note 1, at 646-647.
35 See id. at 647–48.
36 Id.
37 Id. at 648.
38 Id.
39 Giorgio Maganza, The Treaty of Amsterdam’s Changes to the Common Foreign and Security Policy Chapter and an Overview of the Opening of the Enlargement Process, 22 Fordham Int’l L.J. 174, 183–84 (1999), quoted in Hugg, supra note 1, at 648.
40 See Hugg, supra note 1, at 649.
41 Id. at 650.
42 Id.
43 Id. at 651.
44 See generally Council Decision 2001/235/EC, Annex, 2000 O.J. (L 85) 15 [hereinafter Council Decision].
45 See generally id.
46 See Graham Avery & Fraser Cameron, The Enlargement of the European Union 17 (Clive Archer ed., 1998).
47 See id. at 16.
48 Id. at 17.
49 See Hugg, supra note 1, at 659.
50 Id.
51 Council Decision, supra note 44, at 16.
52 Id. at 16–17.
53 Id. at 19.
54 Hugg, supra note 1, at 661.
55 See Ergun Ozbudun, Chapter 2: Constitutional Law, in Introduction to Turkish Law 19, 19(Tugrul Ansay & Don Wallace, Jr. eds., 1996).
56 Turk. Const. art. 2, available at http://www.ibb.gov.tr/ibbeng/244/24400/01/.
57 Id. art. 67.
58 Id.
59 See Magnarella, supra note 2, at 446.
60 Turk. Const. at pmbl.
61 Id. art. 60.
62 See Magnarella, supra note 2, at 447; Turk. Const. arts. 24–28.
63 Turk. Const. art. 13.
64 Ozbudun, supra note 55, at 30.
65 Magnarella, supra note 2, at 447.
66 Turk. Const. art. 24.
67 Id. at arts. 25–26.
68 Id. at art. 228.
69 See Edip Yuksel, Cannibal Democracies, Theocratic Secularism: The Turkish Version, 7 Cardozo J. Int’l & Comp. L. 423, 432 (1999); Turk. Const. art. 118.
70 Turk. Const. art 118.
71 See Mark Muller, Nationalism and the Rule of Law in Turkey: The Elimination of Kurdish Representation during the 1990, reprinted in The Kurdish Nationalist Movement in the 1990’s: Its Impact on Turkey and the Middle East 173, 178 (Robert Olson ed., 1996).
72 Id.
73 See id. at 43.
74 See Hugg, supra note 1, at 662.
75 Id.
76 Id. at 665.
77 State Department Report, supra note 19.
78 Id.
79 See id.
80 See Hugg, supra note 1, at 678–79.
81 2001 Regular Report, supra note 18, at 21.
82 Hugg, supra note 1, at 678–79.
83 See 2001 Regular Report, supra note 18, at 17.
84 See Id. at 18.
85 See Hugg, supra note 1, at 666.
86 Id.
87 Id.
88 See id.
89 See id.
90 Hugg, supra note 1, at 666.
91 See Council Decision, supra note 44, at 19.
92 See Muller, supra note 71, at 178.
93 See 2001 Regular Report, supra note 18, at 13; see generally Muller, supra note 71, at 178.
94 See 2001 Regular Report, supra note 18, at 31.
95 Id. at 8.
96 Id. at 14.
97 Id. at 15.
98 Id. at 14.
99 2001 Regular Report, supra note 18, at 14.
100 Id. at 19.
101 Id.
102 Id.
103 Id.
104 2001 Regular Report, supra note 18, at 16, 19.
105 Id. at 17.
106 Id. at 16.
107 Id. at 19.
108 Id.
109 2001 Regular Report, supra note 18, at 19.
110 Id. at 20.
111 Id.
112 Id.
113 Id.
114 2001 Regular Report, supra note 18, at 21-22, 24.
115 See id. at 33.
116 See generally Why are we waiting?, The Economist, June 8, 2000, available at 2000 WL 8142371.
117 See id.
118 See id.
119 Id.