* Michael A. Goldberg is the Editor in Chief of the Boston College International & Comparative Law Review.
1 North Atlantic Treaty, Apr. 4, 1949, art. 5, 63 Stat. 2241, 2244 34 U.N.T.S. 243, 246, available at http://www.nato.int/docu/basictxt/treaty.htm.
2 See generally North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an Encarta Encyclopedia Article, at http://encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761573186 (last visited Nov. 1, 2002) [hereinafter North Atlantic Treaty Organization].
3 See What is Article 5?, NATO Issues, at http://www.nato.int/terrorism/five.htm; NATO Formally Invokes Article Enabling Collective Self-Defense, Japan Econ. Newswire, Oct. 2, 2001.
4 NATO Formally Invokes Article Enabling Collective Self-Defense, supra note 3.
5 See NATO Aircraft Guard U.S. Skies, CNN.com, Oct. 12, 2001, at http://www.cnn.com/ 2001/US/10/12/ret.nato.awacs/index.html.
6 NATO Enlargement 32 (Ted Galen Carpenter & Barbara Conry eds., 1998).
7 Robert S. McNamara, The Essence of Security 33 (1968).
8 Id.
9 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, supra note 2.
10 Id.
11 See NATO: Welcome to NATO, at http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm (last visited Nov. 1, 2002).
12 Id.
13 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, supra note 2.
14 Id.
15 Id.
16 Id.
17 Paul E. Gallis, CRS Report for Congress, NATO: Article V and Collective Defense, at http://www.fas.org/man/crs/97–717f.htm (last visited Oct. 29, 2001).
18 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, supra note 2; Don Cook, Forging The Alliance 204 (1989).
19 North Atlantic Treaty, supra note 1.
20 See Gallis, supra note 17.
21 See id.
22 Id.
23 NATO: Welcome to NATO, supra note 11.
24 Gallis, supra note 17.
25 Id.
26 Id. (emphasis added).
27 Id.
28 See The Alliance’s Strategic Concept, at http://www.nato.int/docu/pr/1999/p99–065e.htm (last visited Nov. 1, 2002).
29 Id.
30 Id.
31 Id.
32 Id.
33 For the purpose of Article Five, an armed attack on one or more of the Parties is deemed to include an armed attack: (1) on the territory of any of the Parties in Europe or North America, on the Algerian Departments of France, on the territory of or on the Islands under the jurisdiction of any of the Parties in the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer; (2) on the forces, vessels, or aircraft of any of the Parties, when in or over these territories or any other area in Europe in which occupation forces of any of the Parties were stationed on the date when the Treaty entered into force or the Mediterranean Sea or the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer. North Atlantic Treaty, supra note 1.
34 The Alliance’s Strategic Concept, supra note 28.
35 Id.
36 Id.
37 Geraldine Sealey et al., Acts of Terror, ABC News.com, Sept. 11, 2001, available at http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/WTC_MAIN010911.html;Michael Grunwald, Terrorists Hijack 4 Airliners, Destroy World Trade Center, Hit Pentagon, The Washington Post, Sept. 12, 2001, at A1.; see Timeline of Events, at http://www.cstratfor.com/home/ timeline.htm.
38 Id.
39 Id.
40 Id.
41 Serge Schmemann, Hijacked Jets Destroy Twin Towers and Hit Pentagon, The N.Y. Times On the Web, Sept. 12, 2001, available at http://www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/ featured_articles/20010912wednesday.html ; Still Unbearable, But Better, N.Y. TIMES, Nov. 25, 2001, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/25/weekinreview/25week.html? searchpv=past7days.
42 Condemnation and Condolences, ABC News.com, Sept. 11, 2001, available at http:// abcnews.go.com/sections/world/DailyNews/wtc_010911_worldreax.html.
43 Statement by the North Atlantic Council, NATO Press Release, at http://www.nato.int/ docu/pr/2001/p01–124e.htm (last visited Nov. 1, 2002).
44 NATO: U.S. Evidence ‘Compelling’, CNN.com, at http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD /europe/10/02/inv.nato.if/index.html (last visited Nov. 1, 2002).
45 Statement by the North Atlantic Council, NATO Press Release, supra note 43.
46 NATO Ready for Terror War, CNN.com, Oct. 4, 2001, at http://www.cnn.com/ 2001/WORLD/europe/10/04/ret.nato.support/index.html.
47 NATO Accepts Case Outlining Role of bin Laden in U.S. Terror Attacks; bin Laden Guarded by Afghan Rulers, Facts on File World News Digest, Oct. 2, 2001, at A1.
48 Id.; NATO Ready for Terror War, supra note 46.
49 NATO Formally Invokes Article Enabling Collective Self-Defense, supra note 3.
50 What is Article 5?, supra note 3.
51 Id.
52 NATO Command—Who’s in Charge?, at http://www.europeaninternet.com/central europe/special/nato/natochar.html (last visited Nov. 1, 2002).
53 What is Article 5? supra note 3.
54 See North Atlantic Treaty, supra note 1.
55 What is Article 5?, supra note 3.
56 Id.
57 NATO’s Strategy And Force Structure, at http://www.europeaninternet.com/central europe/special/nato/natostru.html (last visited Nov. 1, 2002).
58 NATO in the 21st Century, at http://www.nato.int/docu/21-cent/21st_eng.pdf (last visited Nov. 1, 2002).
59 Id.
60 Id.
61 See NATO Aircraft Guard U.S. Skies, supra note 5.
62 Id.
63 Id.
64 Id.
65 Statement to the Press Oct. 4, 2001, at http://www.nato.int/docu/speech/2001/ s011004b.htm.
66 What is Article 5?, supra note 3.
67 Id.
68 See id.
69 Munro MacCloskey, Pacts for Peace 53 (1967).
70 Id.
71 See id.
72 See Cook, supra note 18.
73 Id.
74 Id.
75 Id. at 205. An armed attack by any state against a Party shall be considered as an attack against all the Parties, and, consequently, each Party undertakes to assist in meeting the attack in the exercise of the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense recognized by Article Fifty-one of the Charter. Id.
76 Id. If any Party should be the object of an armed attack in the area covered by the Treaty, the other Parties will, in accordance with the provision of Article Fifty-one of the Charter, afford the Party so attacked all the military and other aid and assistance in their power. Id.
77 Cook, supra note 18, at 205.
78 See id.
79 See id.
80 Id. at 206.
81 Id.
82 Cook, supra note 18, at 206.
83 Id. at 204.
84 See id. at 213.
85 See id.
86 Id.
87 See Cook, supra note 18, at 209.
88 Id. at 213–14.
89 Id. at 213.
90 Id.
91 See McNamara, supra note 7.
92 See generally id.
93 See Cook, supra note 18, at 216.
94 Id.
95 Id. at 217.
96 See id.
97 See id.
98 Id.
99 Gallis, supra note 17.
100 David Ochmanek, NATO’s Future: Implications for U.S. Military Capabilities and Posture, at http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1162/ (last visited Nov. 1, 2002).
101 Id.
102 Gallis, supra note 17.
103 See id.
104 Id.
105 See id.
106 See id.
107 See Gallis, supra note 17
108 Id.
109 Id.
110 NATO to Support U.S. Retaliation, CNN.com Sept. 12, 2001, at http://www.cnn.com/ 2001/WORLD/europe/09/12/nato.us/index.html.
111 ‘Difficult Territory’ for NATO, CNN.com Oct. 24, 2001, at http://www.cnn.com/2001 /WORLD/europe/10/24/nato.changes/index.html.
112 Id.
113 NATO One Part of Anti-Terror Force, CNN.com Sept. 19, 2001, at http://www.cnn. com/2001/WORLD/europe/09/19/oakley.nato/index.html.
114 Id.
115 ‘Difficult Territory’ for NATO, supra note 111.
116 NATO Aircraft Guard U.S. Skies, supra note 5.
117 Stephen Castle & Andrew Grice, Campaign Against Terrorism: Policy—Blair Will Urge Bush to Accept Europe’s Help, The Independent, Nov. 6, 2001, at 6; see ‘Difficult Territory’ for NATO, supra note 111.
118 Stephen Castle & Andrew Grice, Campaign Against Terrorism: Policy—Blair Will Urge Bush to Accept Europe’s Help, The Independent, Nov. 6, 2001, at 6; see ‘Difficult Territory’ for NATO, supra note 111.
119 See ‘Difficult Territory’ for NATO, supra note 111.
120 See id.
121 See Cook, supra note 18, at 213.
122 See id.
123 See id.
124 See generally id.
125 See generally id. at 212.
126 See generally Cook, supra note 18.
127 See generally Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1998, at http://www. fas.org/man/docs/fy98/budget/fy98_123.htm (last visited Nov. 1, 2002).
128 See id.
129 See Gallis, supra note 17.
130 See generally id.
131 See generally McNamara, supra note 7.
132 See NATO One Part of Anti-Terror Force, supra note 113.
133 See id.
134 See id.; ‘Difficult Territory’ for NATO, supra note 111.
135 See Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1998, supra note 127.
136 CATO Institute, Handbook for Congress, 105th Congress (1997), available at http://www.cato.org/pubs/handbook/handbook105.html (last visited Nov. 1, 2002) [hereinafter Handbook for Congress].
137 Id.
138 See id.
139 See id.
140 Id.
141 Handbook for Congress, supra note 136. .
142 Id.
143 See J.D. Godwin, NATO’s Role in Peace Operations: Reexamining the Treaty After Bosnia and Kosovo, 160 Mil. L. Rev. 1, 90 (1999).
144 Id. at 93.
145 See id.
146 Id. at 90–91.