* Nathan Canestaro is a member of the Afghanistan Task Force, Central Intelligence Agency, 2001. Previously assigned to the CIA DCI Interagency Balkan Task Force. J.D. University of Tennessee, 2001. The author would like to thank Troy Sacquety for his valuable assistance in proofreading and editing. This material has been reviewed by CIA. That review neither constitutes CIA authentication of information nor implies their endorsement of the author’s views.
1 Daniel Schorr, Reviewing the Presidential Ban on Assassinations, NPR.org, at http:// www.npr.org/news/specials/response/essays/010917.schorrcommentary.html (last visited Nov. 14, 2002).
2 See Exec. Order No. 12,333, 3 C.F.R.  200 (1982), reprinted in 50 U.S.C.  401 (1982) [hereinafter Exec. Order No. 12,333].
3 H.R. 19, 107th Cong.  3 (2001).
4 Id.
5 Louis R. Beres, The Permissibility of State Sponsored Assassination During Peace and War, 5 Temp. Int’l & Comp. L.J. 231, 233–38 (1991); W. Hays Parks, Memorandum of Law: Executive Order 12333 and Assassination, 1989 Army Law. 4, 7–8 (1989); Michael N. Schmitt, State Sponsored Assassination in International and Domestic Law, 17 Yale J. Int’l L. 609, 618–51 (1992).
6 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 611–12; Thomas C. Wingfield, Taking Aim at Regime Elites: Assassination, Tyrannicide, and the Clancy Doctrine, 22 Md. J. Int’l L. & Trade 287, 306 (1999).
7 Parks, supra note 5, at 8.
8 Id. at 5.
9 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 632.
10 Lieutenant Commander Patricia Zengel, Assassination and the Law of Armed Conflict, 134 Mil. L. Rev. 123, 126 (1991).
11 Michael Howard Et Al., The Laws of War: Constraints on Warfare in the Modern World 2–3 (1994).
12 Id. at 3.
13 Id. at 87.
14 Id.
15 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 613–14.
16 Id. at 610.
17 Zengel, supra note 10, at 126–27.
18 Beres, supra note 5, at 231 (1991).
19 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 616.
20 Wingfield, supra note 6, at 300.
21 See id. at 300–01; Zengel, supra note 10, at 127.
22 Zengel, supra note 10, at 126–27.
23 Id. at 127.
24 Id. at 127(quoting H. Grotius, De Jure Belli ac Pacis Libri Tres (rev. ed. 1646), reprinted in 3(2) The Classics of International Law 653 (F. Kelsey trans.1925)).
25 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 628.
26 Howard, supra note 11, at 119.
27 Donald A. Wells, The Laws of Land Warfare: A Guide to the U.S. Army Field Manuals 1 (1992).
28 Id. at xi.
29 Id. at xiii.
30 Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, Gen. Orders No. 100, Apr. 24 1863, art. 148, available at http://www.fletcher.tufts.edu/multi/texts (last visited Oct. 28, 2001).
31 Wells, supra note 27, at 99.
32 See Zengel, supra note 10, at 131.
33 Wells, supra note 27, at 6.
34 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 629 (quoting The Laws of War on Land (1880) (U.K.)).
35 Wells, supra note 27, at 7.
36 Howard, supra note 11, at 121.
37 Convention IV Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its Annex: Regulations Concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, 18 October 1907,  22, 23(b), available at http://www.icrc.org/IHL.nsf/52d68d14de6160e0c12563da005fdb1b/ 1d1726425f6955aec125641e0038bfd6?OpenDocument (last visited Oct. 28, 2001) [hereinafter Hague IV].
38 Zengel, supra note 10, at 132 n.32.
39 Parks, supra note 5, at 5.
40 Id. at 6.
41 Id.
42 Boyd M. Johnson, Executive Order 12333: The Permissibility of an American Assassination of A Foreign Leader, 25 Cornell Int’l L.J. 401, 418 n.113 (1992).
43 Parks, supra note 5, at 6.
44 Id. at 5.
45 Johnson, supra note 42, at 418 n.118.
46Id. at 419 n.114.
47 Id. at 418 n.112.
48 Id.
49 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflict (Protocol I), 8 June 1977, art. 37, Oct. 28 2001 available at http://www.icrc.org/IHL.nsf/7c4d08d9b287a42141256739 003e636b/f6c8b9fee14 a77fdc125641e 0052 b079?OpenDocument [hereinafter Geneva Protocol].
50 Zengel, supra note 10, at 139–40.
51 Geneva Protocol, supra note 49, at art. 37.
52 See id. at art. 37(a)-(d).
53 Int’l and Operat’l Law Dep’tment, U. S. Army Judge Advoc. Gen. Sch., Law of War Workshop Manual 7–3 (CDR Brian J. Bill, USN, ed., 1999) [hereinafter Workshop Manual] (on file with author).
54 Wells, supra note 27, at 100–01.
55 Id. at 101.
56 Id.
57 Id.
58 Workshop Manual, supra note 53, at 7–33.
59 Id.; Parks, supra note 5, at 4.
60 See Parks, supra note 5, at 5; Workshop Manual, supra note 53, at 7–32.
61 Workshop Manual, supra note 53, at 7–4, 7–5; Schmitt, supra note 5, at 640–41.
62See Parks, supra note 5, at 4–5.
63 Parks, supra note 5, at 4; Schmitt, supra note 5, at 625.
64 Murray Clark Havens et al., The Politics of Assassination 3 (1970); see also Franklin L. Ford, Political Murder: From Tyrannicide to Terrorism 1–3 (1985).
65 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 627–28.
66 Parks, supra note 5, at 4.
67 See Wingfield, supra note 6, at 306.
68 Id.
69 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 625.
70 Id. at 639.
71 Id.
72 Id. at 613–14.
73See id. at 621–23.
74 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 618 n.37.
75 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, Including Diplomatic Agents, 14 Dec. 1973, art. 2, reprinted in United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, Oct. 28, 2001, available at http://www.undcp.org /terrorism_convention_protected_persons.html.
76 Id. at art. 2,  1.
77 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 619 n.44.
78 Parks, supra note 5, at 4; U.N. Charter art. 2, para. 4.
79 U.N. Charter art. 2, para. 4.
80 Military and Paramilitary Activities (Nicar. v. U. S.), 1986 I.C.J. 14, para. 190 (June 27), available at http://www.gwu.edu/~jaysmith /nicus3.html [hereinafter Nicaragua] (last visited October 28, 2001).
81 Int’l and Oper’l Law Dep’t, U. S. Army Judge Advoc. Gen. Sch., Operational Law Handbook 2–3, (Maj. Mike O. Lacey & Cdr. Brian J. Bill eds., 2001) [hereinafter Operational Law].
82U.N. Charter art. 51.
83 Id.
84 Robert F. Teplitz, Taking Assassination Seriously: Did the United States Violate International Law in Forcefully Responding to the Iraqi Plot to Kill George Bush?, 28 Cornell Int’l L.J. 569, 569(1995).
85 See id. at 575–76.
86 Id. at 577.
87 Id.
88 Johnson, supra note 42, at 578–79.
89 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 647–48.
90 Id..
91Id. at 647.
92 Id. at 648.
93 Id.
94 Operational Law, supra note 81, at 3.
95 Id.
96 Id.
97 Id. at 3–4.
98 Beres, supra note 5, at 239.
99Id.
100 Bert Brandenburg, The Legality of Assassination as an Aspect of Foreign Policy, 27 Va. J. Int’l L. 655, 668 n.88 (1987).
101 Id. at 238–39.
102 Johnson, supra note 42, at 420 n.123.
103 Abraham D. Sofaer, The Sixth Annual Waldemar A. Solf Lecture in International Law: Terrorism, the Law and the National Defense, 126 Mil. L. Rev. 89, 99–105 (1989).
104 United States v. Arjona, 120 U.S. 479, 484 (1887).
105 Sofaer, supra note 103, at 103 n.35.
106 Beres, supra note 5, at 248 n.73.
107 Teplitz, supra note 84, at 614.
108 G.A. Res. 3314, Definition of Aggression, U.N. GAOR, 29th Sess., Supp. No. 31, at 142, U.N. Doc. A/9631 (1974), available at http://jurist. law.pitt.edu/3314.htm (last visited October 29, 2001).
109 Teplitz, supra note 84, at 615.
110 Sofaer, supra note 103, at 93.
111 Nicaragua, 1986 I.C.J. 14 at para. 249.
112 Teplitz, supra note 84, at 616 n.397.
113 Exec. Order No. 12,333, supra note 2, at  200.
114 Parks, supra note 5, at 8; Zengel, supra note 10, at 146–47.
115 Alleged Assassination Plots Against Foreign Leaders, S. Rep. No. 94–465, at 1 (1975) [hereinafter Church Report].
116 Id. at 2.
117 Id. at 4 n.1.
118 Id.; Jonathan M. Fredman, Policy And Law: Covert Action, Loss of Life, and the Prohibition on Assassination, 1976–96, in 40 Central Intelligence Agency: Studies In Intelligence 2, 2 (1996) (on file with author).
119 See Church Report, supra note 115, at 4–5.
120 Id.
121 Id. at 6–7.
122 Id. at 1.
123 Id. at 257.
124 Church Report, supra note 115, at 281–82.
125 Id. at 282.
126 Id. at 258.
127 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 658.
128Church Report, supra note 115, at 258.
129 Id. at 281–82.
130 Id.
131 Id. at 283.
132Johnson, supra note 42, at 407 nn.33–35.
133 Church Report, supra note 115, at 282–83.
134 See Johnson, supra note 42, at 409–11.
135 Exec. Order No. 11,905, 3 C.F.R.  90 (1976), reprinted in 50 U.S.C.  401 (1976).
136 Id.
137 See Zengel, supra note 10, at 145.
138 Fredman, supra note 119, at 2.
139 Exec. Order No. 12,036, 3 C.F.R.  112 (Jan. 24, 1978), reprinted in 50 U.S.C.  401 (1979).
140 Fredman, supra note 119, at 2.
141 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 663.
142 Id.
143 Zengel, supra note 10, at 145.
144See id.
145 Johnson, supra note 42, at 403.
146Id. at 427 n.165.
147 Id. at 403 n.13.
148 Id. at 403 n.14.
149 See id. at 403 n.15.
150 Johnson, supra note 42, at 40; Parks, supra note 5, at 8; Zengel, supra note 10, at 146.
151 Parks, supra note 5, at 8.
152 Id.
153 See Schmitt, supra note 5, at 662 n.232.
154 Id. at 666.
155 Brandenburg, supra note 100, at 690–92.
156 Id. at 690.
157 Id. at 690 n.230.
158 Johnson, supra note 42, at 421.
159 Id.
160 Brandenburg, supra note 100, at 690–91.
161 Id. at 690.
162 Daniel Schorr, Commentary, Christian Science Monitor (Oct. 29, 2001), available at http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0921/p11s1-cods.html.
163 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 667–68.
164 Id. at 668–69.
165 Id. at 668.
166 Id.
167 Johnson, supra note 42, at 421 n.129.
168 Sofaer, supra note 103, at 92.
169 Id.
170 Id. at 92, 95.
171 Id. at 123.
172 Walter Pincus, Saddam Hussein’s Death A Goal, Says Ex-CIA Chief, Wash. Post, Feb. 15, 1998, at A36.
173 Schmitt, supra note 5, at 673.
174 Schorr, supra note 162, at 2.
175 Michael P. Scharff, The Tools for Enforcing International Criminal Justice In the New Milennium: Lessons From the Yugoslavia Tribunal, 49 DePaul L. Rev. 925, 974 (2000).
176 The Gulf War: Interview with General Charles Horner, Commander of the Ninth Air Force, PBS Frontline (Oct. 29, 2001), at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ gulf/oral/horner/2.html.
177 Id.
178 Id.
179 See generally Teplitz, supra note 84, at 575.
180 Pincus, supra note 172, at A36.
181 Id.
182 Jonathan Karl & Brent Sadler, Milosevic Home a Legitimate Target, British Say, CNN.com (Apr. 22, 1999), at http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/europe/9904/22/kosovo.02 (Oct. 29, 2001); see also Scharff, supra note 175, at 974 n.266.
183 See Schorr, supra note 162, at 2.
184 Id.
185 See Bradley Graham, Bin Laden Was at Camp Just Before Attack, Wash. Post, Aug. 29, 1998, at A1.
186 Id.
187 Bob Woodward & Thomas E. Ricks, US Was Foiled Multiple Times in Efforts to Capture Bin Laden or Have Him Killed: CIA trained Pakistanis to nab terrorist but Military Coup put on end to 1999 plot, Wash. Post, Oct. 3, 2001, at A1.
188 Bob Woodward, CIA Told to Do ‘Whatever Necessary’ to Kill Bin Laden: Agency and Military Collaborating at ‘Unprecedented’ Level; Cheney Says War Against Terror ‘May Never End,Wash. Post, Oct. 21, 2001, at A1.
189 Barton Gellman, CIA Weighs ‘Targeted Killing’ Missions: Administration Believes Restraints Do Not Bar Singling Out Individual Terrorists, Wash. Post, Oct. 28, 2001, at A1.
190Id.
191 Woodward, supra note 188, at A1.
192 Id.
193 Church Report, supra note 115, at 1.
194 Robert G. Kaiser, U.S. Message Lost Overseas: Officials See Immediate Need For Public Democracy, Wash. Post, Oct. 15, 2001, at A1.
195 Christiane Amanpour, Pakistanis’ Loyalties Divided, CNN.com (Oct. 29, 2001) at http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/central/10/15/ret.amanpour.otsc.