* Roseann M. Latore is the Symposium Chair & Solicitations Editor for the Boston College International & Comparative Law Review.
1 Carlos Santiago Nino, Radical Evil on Trial 86 (1996).
2 See id.
3 See id. at 33, 54.
4 See Amnesty Int’l, Getting Away with Murder 2 (1993); see also Gabrielle Gamini, Fujimori Accused of Over 4,000 Deaths in War Against Rebels, Times (London), Nov. 29, 2000, available at 2000 WL 28133479. Peru’s Congress plans to investigate the disappearance, killing, and torture of 4000 in a campaign against left-wing rebels in the 1990s. Id. Human rights groups allege thousands of abuses in President Fujimori’s war against the guerrillas and the drug trade, and claim that his campaign to ferret out rebels led to abuses against teachers, unionists, and students. Id. If these crimes actually were committed, Fujimori will be one of South America’s worst human rights abusers. Id.
5 Amnesty Int’l, supra note 4, at 6.
6 Id.
7 Id. at 2.
8 See Nino, supra note 1, at 33, 34, 36, 53.
9 See id. at 33, 35, 36, 54.
10 See Rita Arditti, Searching for Life 24, 50 (1999).
11 Nino, supra note 1, at 33.
12 Id.
13 Id.
14 See Cesar Chelala, US Should Declassify Files on Repression in Argentina, St. Louis
Post-Dispatch, Sept. 7, 2000, at B7, available at 2000 WL 3546303.
15 Id.
16 Patrice M. Jones, Brazil Probes Conspiracy by Dictators to Kill Foes, Chi. Trib., June 2, 2000, at 3, available at 2000 WL 3671072.
17 Chelala, supra note 14.
18 Marcia Valente, Rights-South America: Chipping Away at Impunity, Inter Press Serv., June 19, 2000, available at 2000 WL 4091773 [hereinafter Valente, Chipping Away].
19 Maria Osava, Rights-Latin America: Operation Condor Justice 20 Years Overdue, Inter Press Serv., May 11, 2000, available at 2000 WL 4091156.
20 Id.
21 Id.
22 Kevin G. Hall, South America Struggles to Uncover Past Abuses, Ariz. Repub., May 17, 2000, available at 2000 WL 8031739 [hereinafter Hall, South America].
23 See id.
24 See, e.g., Nino, supra note 1, at 33; Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
25 See id.
26 See Amnesty Int’l, supra note 4, at 9.
27 See id. at 13.
28 See Iain Guest, Behind the Disappearances Argentina’s Dirty War Against Human Rights and the United Nations 31 (1990); see also Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
29 Osava, supra note 19.
30 See id.
31 Id.
32 Id.
33 Hall, South America, supra note 22.
34 See Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
35 Nino, supra note 1, at 36.
36 Id.
37 Id.
38 Id. at 37.
39 Id.
40 See Nino, supra note 1, at 37.
41 See id.
42 Id. at 37–38.
43 Id. at 38.
44 Id.
45 Nino, supra note 1, at 34.
46 Id. at 34, 35.
47 Id. at 35.
48 Id.
49 See id.
50 Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
51 Nino, supra note 1, at 35.
52 Id.
53 Maria Delgado, Truth and Justice in Uruguay, NACLA Rep. on the Am., July 1, 2000, available at 2000 WL 12982323.
54 Id.
55 Id.
56 See Nino, supra note 1, at 33.
57 Id. at 33, 34; Osava, supra note 19; Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
58 Osava, supra note 19.
59 Id.
60 Hall, South America, supra note 22.
61 Nino, supra note 1, at 33–34.
62 Id.
63 See id.
64 Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
65 See Jones, supra note 16.
66 Nino, supra note 1, at 43.
67 Arditti, supra note 10, at 11.
68 Nino, supra note 1, at 53, 54.
69 Id. at 54.
70 Id.
71 Dave Perkins, Mothers Remember Victims of ‘Dirty War,’ Toronto Star, Dec. 8, 2000, at N02, available at 2000 WL 30322980.
72 See, e.g., Former Junta Member Jailed, AP Newswires, Dec. 1, 2000, available at 12/1/00 APWIRES 19:54:00; Marcela Valente, Right-Argentina: Senate Delays Military Promotions, Inter Press Serv., Dec. 21, 2000, available at 2000 WL 28920255 [hereinafter Valente, Senate Delays].
73 Daughter of Military Regime Victim Sues Adoptive Mother, Agence Fr.-Presse, Dec.1, 2000, available at 2000 WL 24771593; Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
74 Nino, supra note 1, at 57.
75 See id.
76 See Arditti, supra note 10, at 21.
77 Id.; Nino, supra note 1, at 57.
78 Arditti, supra note 10, at 21; Guest, supra note 28, at 31.
79 Nino, supra note 1, at 56.
80 See id.
81 See Arditti, supra note 10, at 14.
82 See id. at 14, 15.
83 Guest, supra note 28, at 25.
84 See Nino, supra note 1, at 54.
85 Id.
86 See Guest, supra note 28, at 26.
87 Arditti, supra note 10, at 40; Nino, supra note 1, at 60, 61.
88 See Nino, supra note 1, at 61.
89 Id. at 61–62.
90 See id. at 62.
91 See id. at 62, 81.
92 Id. at 64.
93 Arditti, supra note 10, at 43.
94 Nino, supra note 1, at 65.
95 See id.
96 See id. at 71; Guest, supra note 28, at XV.
97 Nino, supra note 1, at 70, 71.
98 Id. at 88, 89.
99 See Arditti, supra note 10, at 46–47.
100 Id. at 47.
101 Id.
102 Id. at 48.
103 Id. at 49.
104 Nino, supra note 1, at 103.
105 Id. at 104.
106 See id.
107 Id. at 32.
108 See id.
109 Nino, supra note 1, at 32.
110 See id.
111 Id. at 32–33.
112 See id. at 33.
113 See, e.g., Delgado, supra note 53; Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
114 See e.g., Army Chief Balza Harshly Criticizes Predecessor Over Human Rights, BBC Summary of World Broad., Apr. 30, 1999, available at LEXIS, News Group File [hereinafter Army Chief]; Ken Warn, Net Starts to Close on Aging Generals as Argentina Probes Baby Kidnappings, Fin. Times (London), Apr. 10, 1999, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
115 See Yanina Olivera, LatAm Governments Seek Pragmatic Middle Way Over Past Rights Abuses, Agence Fr.-Presse, May 8, 2000, available at 2000 WL 2788971 [hereinafter Olivera, LatAm Governments].
116 Id.
117 Id.
118 See, e.g., Delgado, supra note 53; Marcia Valente, Argentina: No Consensus on Chilean-Style Human Rights Panel, Inter Presse Serv., July 12, 2000, available at 2000 WL 4092037 [hereinafter Valente, No Consensus]; Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
119 See Nino, supra note 1, at 72–73.
120 See Mark Ensalaco, Chile Under Pinochet Recovering the Truth 197–98, 199–201, 210–11 (2000); Nino, supra note 1, at 72, 79–80.
121 See Nino, supra note 1, at 72, 73.
122 Id. at 72, 79.
123 Id. at 80; Arditti, supra note 10, at 43.
124 See Marguerite Feitlowitz, A Lexicon of Terror 13 (1998).
125 Ensalaco, supra note 120, at 183.
126 Id. at 186.
127 Id. at 188.
128 Id.
129 Id. at 188, 199.
130 Ensalaco, supra note 120, at 186–187, 188.
131 Id. at 197.
132 Id. at 198.
133 See id. at 210.
134 See Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
135 Id.
136 See Ensalaco, supra note 120, at 199–200, 201–202; Guest, supra note 28, at 384–85.
137 See Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
138 Id.
139 Id.
140 Id.
141 Kevin G. Hall, White House to Bare CIA Data on Americans Missing in Chile, Houston Chron., June 30, 2000, at 28, available at 2000 WL 4308232 [hereinafter Hall, White House].
142 See Valente, No Consensus, supra note 118; Marcela Valente, Rights-South America: Puzzling Out the Truth of the Disappeared, Inter Press Serv., Jan. 19, 2001, available at 2001 WL 4802430 [hereinafter Valente, Puzzling].
143 Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
144 Valente, No Consensus, supra note 118.
145 See id.
146 See Argentina: Human Rights Developments, Hum. Rts. Watch World Rep. 2001, available at http://www.hrw.org/wr2k1/americas/argentina.html (last visited Feb. 8, 2001) [hereinafter Argentina: Human Rights].
147 Valente, Puzzling, supra note 142.
148 Id.
149 Delgado, supra note 53.
150 See, e.g., Delgado, supra note 53; Nino, supra note 1, at 37, 103, 104.
151 See Nino, supra note 1, at 37, 103, 104.
152 Delgado, supra note 53.
153 Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
154 See id.; Delgado, supra note 53; Valente, No Consensus, supra note 118.
155 Delgado, supra note 53.
156 Id.
157 See Delgado, supra note 53; Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18; Valente, No Consensus, supra note 118.
158 See Delgado, supra note 53; Valente, No Consensus, supra note 118.
159 See Valente, Puzzling, supra note 142.
160 See Delgado, supra note 53; Valente, No Consensus, supra note 118.
161 Jones, supra note 16; Valente, Chipping Away, supra note 18.
162 See id.; Osava, supra note 19.
163 Jones, supra note 16.
164 Osava, supra note 19.
165 Jones, supra note 16.
166 Marcela Valente, Court Orders Ex-Dictator’s Return to Prison, Inter Press Serv., Dec. 1, 2000, available at 2000 WL 28919964 [hereinafter Valente, Court Orders].
167 See id.
168 See id.
169 Id.
170 Id.
171 See Marcela Valente, Rights-Argentina: Six Officers Arrested in Adoption Scandal, Inter Press Serv., Jan. 10, 2000, available at 2000 WL 4089352 [hereinafter Valente, Six Officers].
172 Id.
173 Howard LaFranchi, Argentina Seeks Justice for Kidnapped Children, Christian Sci. Monitor, Nov. 3, 1999, at 1, available at 1999 WL 5383480.
174 Id.; Valente, Court Orders, supra note 166.
175 Chelala, supra note 14.
176 Jan McGirk, Argentine Officers Are Accused of Baby Thefts, Indep. (London), Jan. 10, 2000, at 11, available at 2000 WL 6449618.
177 Caroline Graham, Was My Papa Really the Secret Policeman Who Killed My Mother?, Mail on Sun., Sept. 10, 2000, at 49, available at 2000 WL 24064430.
178 Id.
179 Arditti, supra note 10, at 50.
180 Id.; Christina Lamb, Lost, Found, and Lost Again, Nat’l Post, Sept. 25, 2000, available at 2000 WL 26899515. Other sources put the number of kidnapped babies at over 500. See Simone Lauenstein, Argentina Probes Fate of Missing Babies, Deutsche Presse-Agentur (Hamburg), Feb. 20, 2000, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
181 Arditti, supra note 10, at 22, 24; 60 Minutes: Argentina’s Dirty War (CBS television broadcast, Apr. 23, 2000), available at 2000 WL 4212887.
182 Graham, supra note 177.
183 All Things Considered (NPR radio broadcast, Oct. 18, 2000), available at 2000 WL 21472431.
184 Graham, supra note 177.
185 See Arditti, supra note 10, at 65.
186 Graham, supra note 177.
187 Valente, Court Orders, supra note 166.
188 See Tim Cornwell, Junta Bosses Under Arrest “Stole Babies,” Scotsman (Edinburgh), Jan. 10, 2000, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
189 LaFranchi, supra note 173; Valente, Court Orders, supra note 166. Convicted offenders over the age of seventy are entitled to house arrest instead of prison time in Argentina. See Valente, Court Orders, supra note 166.
190 LaFranchi, supra note 173.
191 See Argentina: Human Rights, supra note 146; Army Chief, supra note 114; Rights Groups to Complain Against State In Regional Rights Body, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 22, 2000, available at LEXIS, News Group File [hereinafter Rights Groups to Complain].
192 See Argentina: Human Rights, supra note 146.
193 Rights Groups to Complain, supra note 191.
194 Id.
195 Argentina: Human Rights, supra note 146.
196 See Army Chief, supra note 114.
197 See Warn, supra note 114.
198 Id.
199 See Lamb, supra note 180.
200 See Hall, White House, supra note 141.
201 See id.
202 Id.
203 Italy Sentences Two Argentinean Ex-Military Chiefs to Life, Agence Fr.-Presse, Dec. 6, 2000, available at 2000 WL 24775546 [hereinafter Italy Sentences].
204 Id.
205 Osava, supra note 19.
206 Id.
207 Italy Sentences, supra note 203.
208 Argentina: The Role of the International Community, Hum. Rts. Watch World Rep. 2001, available at http://www.hrw.org/wr2k1/americas/argentina3.html (last visited Feb. 8, 2001) [hereinafter Argentina: The Role].
209 Italy Sentences, supra note 203.
210 See Italian Judge Investigates Disappeared Cases, Santiago Times, June 14, 2001, available at 2001 WL 5995671.
211 E.g., Chile: Human Rights Developments, Hum. Rts. Watch World Rep. 2001, available at http://www.hrw.org/wr2k1/americas/chile.html (last visited Feb. 8, 2001) [hereinafter Chile: Human Rights]; Marcela Valente, Rights-Argentina: Justice Nabs Another Dictatorship Official, Inter Press Serv., Aug. 8, 2000, available at LEXIS, News Group File [hereinafter Valente, Justice].
212 See Valente, Justice, supra note 211.
213 Chile: Human Rights, supra note 211.
214 See Jose de Cordoba, Mexico Allows Extradition of Former Argentine Officer, Wall St. J., Jan. 15, 2001, at A19, available at 2001 WL-WSJ 2850966; Mexico: The Search for ‘Serpico,’ Newsweek Int’l, Sept. 18, 2000, available at 2000 WL 9728428 [hereinafter Serpico].
215 Serpico, supra note 214; Ex-Argentine Officer Charged With Genocide, L.A. Times, Sept. 2, 2000, at A4, available at 2000 WL 25892449 [hereinafter Ex-Argentine Officer].
216 Ex-Argentine Officer, supra note 215.
217 Id.
218 Court Says Spain Can’t Take Up Guatemalan Genocide Case, Dow Jones Int’l, Dec. 13, 2000, available at 12/13/00 DJINS 18:24:00 [hereinafter Court Says].
219 See Argentina: The Role, supra note 208.
220 Id.
221 Pierre-Antoine Souchard, French Judge Issues Arrest Warrants, AP Online, Oct. 25, 2001, available at 2001 WL 29337362.
222 See Argentina: The Role, supra note 208.
223 See, e.g., Chelala, supra note 14; Hall, White House, supra note 141; Christopher Marquis, CIA Document Release is Subject of Tussle, N.Y. Times, Aug. 20, 2000, available at 2000 WL 3876796.
224 See, e.g., Marquis, supra note 223.
225 Clifford Krauss, Albright Supports Declassifying Files on South American Regimes, Portland Oregonian, Aug. 17, 2000, at A7, available at 2000 WL 5424788.
226 See Linda Diebel, Latin America’s Dictators Face a Day of Reckoning Over Human-Rights Issues, Toronto Star, Jul. 15, 2001, at B1, available at 2001 WL 23662276.
227 Marquis, supra note 223.
228 Chile: The Role of the International Community, Hum. Rts. Watch Rep. 2001, available at http://www.hrw.org/wr2k1/americas/chile3.html (last visited Feb. 8, 2001) [hereinafter Chile: The Role].
229 Marquis, supra note 223.
230 Chelala, supra note 14; Krauss, supra note 225.
231 Chile: The Role, supra note 228.
232 See Chelala, supra note 14; Hall, White House, supra note 141.
233 Id.
234 Id.
235 Chile: The Role, supra note 228.
236 See Marc Champion, Pinochet is Freed, But No Ex-Dictator Should Feel Safe, Wall St. J. Eur., Mar. 3, 2000, available at 2000 WL-WSJE 294859; Osava, supra note 19.
237 See Alison Brysk, Globalization: The Double Edged Sword, NACLA Rep. on the Am., July 1, 2000, at 29, available at 2000 WL 12982320.
238 See id.
239 See id.
240 See Brysk, supra note 237; Mexico Extradition of Argentina Official Breaks Legal Ground, Dow Jones Int’l News, Feb. 3, 2001, available at 2/3/01 DJINS 16:16:00 [hereinafter Mexico].
241 Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, G.A. Res. 39/46, U.N. GAOR, 39th Sess., Supp. No. 51, at 197, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984) (entered into force June 26, 1987), reprinted in 23 I.L.M. 1027 (1984); Champion, supra note 236; see Mexico, supra note 240.
242 Champion, supra note 236.
243 Mexico, supra note 240.
244 See Champion, supra note 236.
245 Id.
246 See Brysk, supra note 237; Champion, supra note 236.
247 See Brysk, supra note 237.
248 See Mexico, supra note 240.
249 See id.; Valente, Justice, supra note 211.
250 See Cordoba, supra note 214.
251 Mexico, supra note 240.
252 Id.
253 See id.; Cordoba, supra note 214.
254 Cordoba, supra note 214; Patrick Moser, Mexican Authorities to Extradite Argentine Ex-Officer to Spain, Agence Fr.-Presse, Feb. 3, 2001, available at 2001 WL 2334111.
255 Valente, Justice, supra note 211.
256 See id.; Cordoba, supra note 214; Champion, supra note 236. This method is already seeming to take hold. In 2000, Argentina also made an extradition request for Pinochet and other Chileans in order to try them for the assassination of a former Argentinean general and his wife. See Argentina: Human Rights, supra note 146.
257 See Argentina: The Role, supra note 208.
258 Valente, Justice, supra note 211.
259 Argentina: The Role, supra note 208. In the Italian case against former Argentinean officers for the deaths of Italian-born Argentineans, the judge “underscored the Argentine authorities lack of cooperation with his investigations of [the] cases.” Id.
260 See Valente, Justice, supra note 211; see also Chile: Human Rights, supra note 211.
261 See Valente, Justice, supra note 211.
262 Id.
263 See Brysk, supra note 237.
264 Id.
265 See id.
266 Chile: Human Rights, supra note 211.
267 See id.; Yanina Olivera, Ruling Stripping Pinochet of Immunity Death Knell to Dictator Freedom, Agence Fr.-Presse, June 8, 2000, available at 2000 WL 2810270 [hereinafter Olivera, Ruling].
268 Chile: Human Rights, supra note 211.
269 Brysk, supra note 237.
270 See Reed Brody, Justice: the First Casualty of Truth? The Global Movement to End Impunity for Human Rights Abuses Faces a Daunting Question, Nation, Apr. 30, 2001, at 25, available at 2001 WL 2132497.
271 See Eduardo Gallardo, Pinochet Hit With Criminal Complaint, AP Online, Nov. 6, 2001, available at 2001 WL 29791226.
272 See id.
273 See Olivera, Ruling, supra note 267.
274 See Delgado, supra note 53.
275 See Olivera, Ruling, supra note 267.
276 Id.
277 Human Rights Group Welcomes Warrant for Stroessner’s Arrest, Agence Fr.-Presse, Dec. 12, 2000, available at 2000 WL 24779269 [hereinafter Stroessner].
278 Oscar Serrat, Ex-Argentine Leader is Indicted, AP Online, Jul. 10, 2001, available at 2001 WL 24710765.
279 See Marcela Valente, Rights-Argentina: Court Deals Another Blow to Military Impunity, Inter Press Serv., Nov. 9, 2001, available at 2001 WL 4805918.
280 See id.
281 See id.
282 Id.
283 See id; Diebel, supra note 226.
284 See Serpico, supra note 214; Stroessner, supra note 277.
285 See Serpico, supra note 214.
286 See Court Says, supra note 218. Guatemalan Nobel Laureate Rigoberta Menchu brought a complaint of genocide, terrorism, and human rights abuses against former dictator Efrain Rios Mott and seven other officials for their actions during that country’s military regime on the theory that the cases never would receive a full investigation by the Guatemalan courts. See id. However, the Spanish National Court ruled that the case could be handled adequately by Guatemalan courts and therefore Spain lacked jurisdiction to investigate. Id.
287 Brysk, supra note 237.
288 See Champion, supra note 236.
289 See id.
290 See Waging War Against War Crimes, Newsweek Int’l, Jan. 8, 2001, available at 2001 WL 8108828.
291 See id.
292 See id.
293 See id.
294 See Olivera, LatAm Governments, supra note 115.
295 See id.
296 See Lamb, supra note 180.
297 Id.; see Valente, Court Orders, supra note 166.
298 LaFranchi, supra note 173; see Graham, supra note 177. Despite the desire of some kidnapped children not to find out who their biological parents were, the Argentinean Supreme Court has ruled that the need to solve a crime outweighs an individual’s right not to give blood in order to make an identification. All Things Considered, supra note 183.
299 See Branko Milinkovic, Politics—The Netherlands: A Controversial Royal Love Story, Inter Press Serv., May 15, 2000, available at 2000 WL 4091175.
300 See generally Margot Olavarria, Human Rights Activists Under Attack in Chile and Argentina, NACLA Rep. On The Am., Sept. 1, 2000, at 2, available at 2000 WL 12982334; Guatemala: Defending Human Rights, Hum. Rts. Watch World Rep. 2001, available at http://www.hrw.org/wr2k1/americas/guatemala2.html (last visited Feb. 8, 2001).
301 Valente, Senate Delays, supra note 72.