* Reuben B. Ackerman is the Senior Executive Editor of the Boston College International & Comparative Law Review. 1 E.g., Jitendra Joshi, Japan, U.S. Agree on Whaling Workshop but Sanctions Fate Unclear,Agence Fr. Presse, Jan. 11, 2001, available at 2001 WL 2318791. 2 Danielle Knight, Pressure Mounts on Japan to End Whaling Program,Inter Press Serv., Nov. 14, 2000, available at 2000 WL 28919729. 3Id.; Doug Struck, U.S. Fishing Sanctions Gall Japan; Clintons Response to Whaling is Seen as Election-Year Ploy,Wash. Post, Sept. 16, 2000, at A15. 4 Mark Rowe, U.S. Threatens Trade War with Japan,Indep. (London), Sept. 24, 2000, at 24. 5 Dexter Van Zile, Op-Ed: As You Were Saying . . . Its Time for Administration to Lift Moratorium on Whaling,Boston Herald, Oct. 1, 2000, at 26. 6Id. 7See David H. Feldman, Stop Japans Whale Killing,Baltimore Sun, Dec. 28, 2000, at 13A. 8 Sue Fisher, SavingWhales, World Today, July 1, 2001, at 25, available at 2001 WL 13346504; Intl Fund for Animal Welfare, Japans Scientific Whaling (Feb. 4, 2001), available at http://www.stopwhalingnow.com/info_japan1.html [hereinafter Japans Scientific Whaling]. 9See Japans Scientific Whaling, supra note 8, at 3. 10Id. at 3. 11Id. at 1. 12 Steven Pearlstein, Clinton Presses Japan to Halt Whale Hunts,Wash. Post, Sept. 14, 2000, at A31. 13See, e.g., Japans Scientific Whaling,supra note 8, at 3. 14Id. at 1. 15Id. 16Id. 17 Bandar Seri Begawan, Japan, U.S. Near Deal on Whaling Dispute,Japan Poly and Pol., Nov. 20, 2000, available at 2000 WL 29267352. 18Id. 19 Joshi, supra note 1. 20Id. 21See id. 22 Kathy Gambrell, Clinton Skips Japan Sanctions,United Press Intl, Dec. 29, 2000, at 1. 23See Feldman, supra note 7, at 13A. 24U.S. Reiterates Objection to Japans Whale Hunt,Japan Poly & Pol., Aug. 13, 2001, available at 2001 WL 24327338. 25U.S. Lawmakers Making Anti-Whaling Noises Ahead of Japan-U.S. Summit,Asia Pulse, June 28, 2001, available at 2001 WL 20126665. 26See Daily Press Briefing, U.S. State Dept. (May 15, 2001), available at 2001 WL 20824385. 27 Anthony DAmato & Sudhir K. Chopra, Whales: Their Emerging Right to Life, 85 Am. J. Intl L. 21, 2829 (1991). 28Id. at 28. The total number of whales killed increased from over 10,000 in 1910 to 54,664 in 1938. Anthony Matera, Note, Whale Quotas: A Market-Based Solution to the Whaling Controversy, 13 Geo. Intl Envtl. L. Rev. 23, 37 (2000). The United States began commercial whaling in the eighteenth century utilizing whales as an important source of oil. Sarah Suhre, Note, Misguided Morality: The Repercussions of the International Whaling Commissions Shift From a Policy of Regulation to One of Preservation, 12 Geo. Intl Envtl. L. Rev. 305, 30708 (1999). With the development of the U.S. petroleum industry, the U.S. whaling industry gradually declined. Id. 29 DAmato & Chopra, supra note 27, at 30. 30Id. 31Id. 32Id.; Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, Sept. 24, 1931, 49 Stat. 3079, T.S. No. 880, 155 L.N.T.S. 349. 33 DAmato & Chopra, supra note 27, at 30. 34Id. at 31. 35Id. at 31, 32. 36Id. at 33. 37 II A Guide to the United States Treaties in Force 777 (Igor I. Kavass ed., 1999). Today, the parties to the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling include Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominica, Finland, France, Germany, Grenada, Guinea, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Peru, Russia, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Intl Whaling Commn, List of Member Nations,available at http://ourworld. compuserve.com/homepages/iwcoffice/iwc.htm#members (last modified Mar. 24, 2001). 38 Intl Whaling Commn, List of Member Nations,supra note 37. 39 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, Dec. 2, 1946, art. XI, 62 Stat. 1716, T.I.A.S. No. 1849, 161 U.N.T.S. 72, 4 Bevans 248, 249 [hereinafter Whaling Convention]. 40 DAmato & Chopra, supra note 27, at 33. 41 Whaling Convention, supra note 39, 4 Bevans at 250. 42Id. at 25051. 43 For a brief history of the IWC, see The Humane Socy of the U.S., It Wont Be Smooth Sailing at the First IWC Meeting of the Millennium (Feb. 4, 2001), available at http://www.hsus. org/programs/wildlife/marine/iwc00.html [hereinafter First IWC Meeting]. See generally Johanna Matanich, A Treaty Comes of Age for the Ancient Ones: Implications of the Law of the Sea for the Regulation of Whaling, 8 Intl Legal Persp. 37, 37 (1996). 44 Rowe, supra note 4, at 24. 45Japans Scientific Whaling,supra note 8, at 5. 46Id. 47Id. Similarly, Norway has defied international pressures to cease lethal whaling in other restricted areas. Id. at 3. 48 Whaling Convention, supra note 39, 4 Bevans at 252. Exceptions also have been granted for certain aboriginal groups. DAmato & Chopra, supra note 27, at 56. DAmato and Chopra maintain, however, that the aboriginal exemption and Japanese whaling are wholly unrelated. Id. 49 The Humane Socy of the U.S., U.S. Threatens Sanctions Over Japans Extended Scientific Whale Hunt (Aug. 1, 2000), available at http://www.hsus.org/whatnew/whale0801000.html. 50Japans Scientific Whaling,supra note 8, at 5; see also Simon Cunliffe, Japanese Whaling: Good Science of Bad Taste,The Press, at 5, Mar. 23, 2001, available at 2001 WL 14118565. 51Id. 52 Blair Pethel, Japan Escapes Sanctions Over Whaling,The Record (Bergen Co., N.J.), Dec. 30, 2000, at A12. Pethel notes that Japans Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries estimates that sales of whale products totaled $6.7 million in 1998, the last complete year for which data are available. Id. 53Japans Scientific Whaling,supra note 8, at 1. For the details of this research of Japanese markets, see The Humane Socy of the U.S., Japan Kills a Brydes Whale (Aug. 11, 2000), available at http://www.hsus.org/whatnew/whale081100.html [hereinafter Japan Kills a Brydes Whale ]. 54 Elizabeth Sullivan, Weeping and Whaling,Plain Dealer (Cleveland), July 2, 2000, at 5D. 55See Whaling Convention, supra note 39, 4 Bevans at 252. 56Japans Scientific Whaling,supra note 8, at 5. 57Id. 58 Dan Goodman, U.S. Whaling Sanctions Smack of Hypocrisy,The Japan Times, Sept. 17, 2000, at 1. 59 The Humane Socy of the U.S., Japan Wants to Hunt Two More Whale Species (May 11, 2000), available at http://hsus.org/whatnew/japan051100.html [hereinafter Japan Wants to Hunt Two More Whale Species]. 60 DAmato & Chopra, supra note 27, at 54. 61Id. 62See id. at 5455. 63 Goodman, supra note 58. Article VIII, section 3 of the Whaling Convention provides that, [a]ny whales taken [for research purposes] . . . shall so far as practicable be processed and the proceeds . . . dealt with in accordance with the directions issued by the Government by which the permit was granted. Whaling Convention, supra note 39, 4 Bevans at 252. 64 Goodman, supra note 58. 65 22 U.S.C. § 1978(a) (2000). 66 18 U.S.C. § 1821(e)(2)(A) (2000). 67 Gene S. Martin & James W. Brennan, Enforcing the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling: The Pelly and Packwood-Magnuson Amendments, 17 Denv. J. Intl L. & Poly 293, 294 (1989). 68 22 U.S.C. § 1978(a). 69See id. 70 Feldman, supra note 7, at 13A. 71 Suhre, supra note 28, at 31718. 72 18 U.S.C. § 1821(e)(2)(A); Kazuo Sumi, The Whale War Between Japan and the United States: Problems and Prospects, 17 Denv. J. Intl L. & Poly 317, 344 (1989). In addition to condemning the international communitys treatment of whaling nations, Sumi contends that the Pelly and Packwood-Magnuson Amendments are of dubious legality under international law. Id. at 318. The utilization of the Packwood-Magnuson Amendment presumably provides the authority for the U.S. restriction of Japanese fishing rights in the EEZ. See 18 U.S.C. § 1821(e)(2)(A). 73See 18 U.S.C. § 1821(e)(2)(A). 74 Feldman, supra note 7, at 13A. 75See id. 76Id. The author refers to a similar trade dispute resolution under the WTO between the United States and Mexico, where it was determined that the U.S. could not impose import restrictions on Mexican tuna despite Mexicos use of dolphin-killing nets. Id. So long as the product met U.S. health standards, the production process was beyond the reach of U.S. trade policy. Id.; GATT Dispute Panel Report on U.S.--Restrictions on Imports of Tuna, DS29/R (May 20, 1994), 33 I.L.M. 839 (1994), available at 1994 WL 907620 [hereinafter Tuna II]; GATT Dispute Panel Report on U.S.Restrictions on Imports of Tuna, Aug. 16, 1991, GATT B.I.S.D. (39th Supp.) at 155 (1993), available at 1991 WL 771248 [hereinafter Tuna I]. See generally GATT Appellate Body Report on U.S.Imp. Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Prods., WT/DS58/AB/R (Oct. 12, 1998), available at 1998 WL 720123 [hereinafter Shrimp-Turtle]. 77Id. 78Id.; Edward Alden, U.S. Takes Action on Japanese Whaling, Sanctions Threat Fleets Face Ban From American Waters,The Fin. Times (London), Sept. 14, 2000, at 11. 79Id. 80See id. 81See Alden, supra note 78, at 11. 82Id. 83 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Oct. 30, 1947, art. XX, 61 Stat. A-11, T.I.A.S. 1700, 55 U.N.T.S. 194 [hereinafter GATT]. 84See id. 85 Kuei-Jung Ni, Contemporary Prospects for the Application of Principle 12 of the Rio Declaration, 14 Geo. Intl Envtl. L. Rev. 1, 2, 31 (2001). 86Id. at 2829. 87Id. 88Id. 89Id. at 29. 90 Ni, supra note 85, at 31. 91Id. at 30. 92See infra note 145 and accompanying text. 93 Knight, supra note 2. 94 Japan Whaling Assn, The Facts, Japanese Culture (Mar. 2, 2001), available at http://www.jp-whaling-assn.com/facts.html. 95See, e.g., Japan Wants to Hunt Two More Whale Species,supra note 59. 96 Van Zile, supra note 5, at 26. 97Restatement of the Law (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of United States § 514 cmt. a (1987) [hereinafter RESTATEMENT]. 98Id. § 514 cmt. c. The norms for the law of the sea derive from the Second United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Id. Although the United States did not sign or ratify that convention, the description of the EEZ, and many other provisions of the convention, have been assimilated to U.S. practice under customary international law. Id. cmt. a. 99Id. § 511 cmt. b. 100Id. § 514 cmt. d. 101See Alden, supra note 78, at 11. 102See RESTATEMENT, supra note 97, § 514. 103See id. In October, 2000, in response to the Japanese actions, members of the U.S. Congress introduced a resolution calling on the U.S. president to withhold support for Japans efforts to gain a seat on the U.N. Security Council. Knight, supra note 2. 104See, e.g., Humane Society of the United States Says New Leadership Provides Opportunity to End Japanese Whaling,U.S. Newswire, June 28, 2001, available at 2001 WL 21895384; Japan Kills a Brydes Whale,supra note 48. 105 Pethel, supra note 49, at A12. 106See id. 107Japan Kills a Brydes Whale,supra note 53. Others dispute that the particular species of whales being killed by Japan actually are endangered. Van Zile, supra note 5, at 26. Van Zile suggests that the population is large enough to support an annual commercial harvest, and that the conservationists concerns are not well founded. See id. 108 U.S. Fish & Wildlife Serv., Species List, Species Profile, available at http://ecos.fws. gov/species_profile/species_profile.html (last visited Mar. 15, 2001). 109Japan Kills a Brydes Whale,supra note 53. 110Japan Wants to Hunt Two More Whale Species,supra note 59. 111Id. 112See DAmato & Chopra, supra note 27, at 29. 113 22 U.S.C. § 1978(a). 114See id. 115 18 U.S.C. § 1821(e)(2)(A). 116 Martin & Brennan, supra note 67, at 31415. 117See Rowe, supra note 4, at 24. Rowe describes the use of sanctions as a nuclear trade weapon that rarely has been threatened or used. Id.; see also Martin & Brennan, supra note 67, at 31415 (concluding that the imposition and threat of sanctions under the Pelly Amendment have been relatively successful in encouraging whaling nations to comply with the Whaling Convention). 118See Alden, supra note 78, at 11. 119See Feldman, supra note 7, at 13A. 120See Knight, supra note 2. See generally Tuna I, supra note 76; Tuna II, supra note 76; Shrimp-Turtle, supra note 76. 121See First IWC Meeting, supra note 43. 122See Matanich, supra note 43. 123See First IWC Meeting, supra note 43. 124Id. 125Id. 126See Japan Whaling Assn, Why was the International Whaling Commission established? (Mar. 2, 2001), available at http://www.jp-whaling-assn.com/qa/why_iwc.html. 127See id. 128Id. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties provides that treaties shall be interpreted in good faith in light of the treatys object and purpose. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Jan. 27, 1980, art. 31, 1155 U.N.T.S. 331, 340. 129 Matera, supra note 28, at 37. 130Id. 131Id. For this proposition, the author relies upon the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, which provides that states are to recognize the identity, culture, and interests of indigenous people and their communities. 132 Matera, supra note 28, at 4041. 133First IWC Meeting, supra note 43. 134Id. 135Id. The push for a Revised Management Scheme comes from both sides of the whaling debate. World Wildlife Fund, WWFs Policy on Whaling, available at http://www. worldwildlife.org/species (last visited Mar. 8, 2002). Conservationists cite a need for a new, presumably more restrictive RMS in light of the increasing number of whales killed each year under the current regulations. Id. 136See World Wildlife Fund, WWFs Policy on Whaling, supra note 135. 137See id. 138See Whaling Convention, supra note 39, 4 Bevans at 250. 139See Japan Kills a Brydes Whale,supra note 53. 140Id. 141 Joshi, supra note 1. 142See id. 143 Struck, supra note 3, at A15. 144See 22 U.S.C. § 1978(a). 145See General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Oct. 30, 1947, 61 Stat. A-11, T.I.A.S. 1700, 55 U.N.T.S. 194; Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Apr. 15, 1994, art. XX, Legal InstrumentsResults of the Uruguay Round vol. 1, 33 I.L.M. 1153 (1994). The chapeau provides that an exception to protect human, animal or plant life or health must not be applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination . . . or a disguised restriction on international trade . . . . Article XX is reprinted in International Trade Law Handbook 227 (Raj Bhala, ed. 2001). 146See Japan Kills a Brydes Whale, supra note 53. 147Japans Scientific Whaling,supra note 8, at 1, 5. 148See Joshi, supra note 1. 149See Struck, supra note 3, at A15. 150Japans Scientific Whaling, supra note 8, at 5. 151See id. 152See Japan Kills a Brydes Whale, supra note 53. 153 World Wildlife Fund, Endangered Species, Minke Whales (Mar. 15, 2001), available at http://www/worldwildlife.org/species.