* Roseann M. Latore is the Solicitations Editor & Symposium Chair of the Boston College International & Comparative Law Review.
1 U.N. Preparatory Commission for International Criminal Court Begins First Session, M2 Presswire, Feb. 17, 1999, available at 1999 WL 12605515 [hereinafter First Session].
2 See id.
3 See Benjamin Ferencz, A Prosecutor’s Personal Account: From Nuremberg to Rome, 52 J. Int’l Aff. 455, 455 (1999), available at 1999 WL 32962031.
4 Jim Anderson, U.S. Shies Away From International Criminal Court, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, July 18, 1999, available at WL 7/18/99 DCHPA 22:33:00.
5 Id.
6 Ferencz, supra note 3.
7 U.S. at Odds with Global Criminal Court, Deseret News, June 12, 2000, at A02, available at 2000 WL 22773324 [hereinafter U.S. at Odds].
8 Id.
9 See Public Statement on the Rome Treaty on the International Criminal Court, Pub. Papers of the Presidents, available at LEXIS, News Group File [hereinafter Public Statement]; State Department Regular Briefing, Fed. News. Serv., Jan. 2, 2001, available at LEXIS, News Group File [hereinafter Briefing].
10 See Public Statement, supra note 9.
11 See Anderson, supra note 4; Elizabeth Neuffer, War Crimes Tribunal Adopted as U.S. Votes ‘No, Boston Globe, July 18, 1998, at A1, available at 1998 WL 9143924; Jeremy Rabkin, This Court Would be Criminal; Congressional Republicans’ Just War on the International Criminal Court, Wkly. Standard, June 26, 2000, at 19, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
12 Delay Amendment to Protect American Service Members Passes Overwhelmingly, PR Newswire, May 10, 2001, available at LEXIS, News Group File [hereinafter Amendment Passes]; see Rabkin, supra note 11, at 19.
13 See Amendment Passes, supra note 12.
14 See Jeffrey S. Morton, The International Law Commission of the United Nations 55–62 (2000).
15 Id. at 55–56.
16 M. Cherif Bassiouni, The Statute of the International Criminal Court, A Documentary History 6–7 (1998); Morton, supra note 14, at 56.
17 Bassiouni, supra note 16, at 6–7.
18 Morton, supra note 14, at 56.
19 Id.
20 Id.
21 Id. at 56–57.
22 Id. at 57.
23 Bassiouni, supra note 16, at 8.
24 Id. at 10–11. These included the Spanish Civil War, Italian invasions, and German aggressions. See id.
25 See Bassiouni, supra note 16, at 10–11; Morton, supra note 14, at 57–60; see also Ferencz, supra note 3, at 455.
26 Morton, supra note 14, at 30–31.
27 Bassiouni, supra note 16, at 7.
28 Morton, supra note 14, at 31.
29 See generally Ferencz, supra note 3.
30 Morton, supra note 14, at 31.
31 Id. at 57.
32 Id. at 62.
33 See id.
34 Bassiouni, supra note 16, at 10.
35 See generally id. at 10–19.
36 Id. at 11–12.
37 Id. at 12.
38 Id. at 16.
39 See Bassiouni, supra note 16, at 18.
40 U.S. at Odds, supra note 7.
41 Ferencz, supra note 3.
42 Chalmers Johnson, When Might Makes Wrong/Americans Are Bold. We Are Brash. And to the Rest of the World, We Are Clueless., S.F. Chron., Oct. 8, 2000, at 1Z1, available at 2000 WL 6493506.
43 First Session, supra note 1; Holger Jensen, Bush Facing International Criticism on Trio of Foreign Policy Issues, Rocky Mtn. News, July 14, 4001, at 7A, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
44 ICC Prep Com Shows Progress Despite U.S. Hesitation, Int’l Enforcement L. Rep., Jan. 2001, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
45 At Eighth Session of Preparatory Commission for International Criminal Court, Four Working Groups Announce Completion of Assignments, M2 PRESSWIRE, Oct.8, 2001, available at 2001 WL 28645411 [hereinafter Eighth Session].
46 Ferencz, supra note 3.
47 Id.
48 See e.g., Ferencz, supra note 3; Morton, supra note 14, at 62.
49 See Annals of Justice: In What Court?, Time, Oct. 16, 2000, at 58, available at 2000 WL 25227420.
50 See generally Rush to Judgment, Times (London), Aug. 26, 2000, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
51 Id.
52 See id.
53 See generally U.S. at Odds, supra note 7.
54 Public Statement, supra note 9.
55 See Bush Administration Ponders Position Towards International Criminal Court, Int’l Enforcement L. Rep., June 2001, available at LEXIS, News Group File [hereinafter Bush Administration].
56 Anderson, supra note 4.
57 See Rabkin, supra note 11.
58 Brett D. Schaefer, Heritage Foundation Executive Memorandum No. 537, The International Criminal Court: Threatening U.S. Sovereignty and Security (July 2, 1998), available at http://www.nyu.edu/globalbeat/pubs/shaefer070298.html; see Fred Hiatt, The Court of No Resort, Wash. Post, July 2, 2001, at A17, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
59 Schaefer, supra note 58.
60 Johnson, supra note 42; Neuffer, supra note 11.
61 See Johnson, supra note 42.
62 Neuffer, supra note 11; Susan Riggs, The Risks New World Court Poses for the United States, Record (New Jersey), Aug. 31, 2000, at L11, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
63 Neuffer, supra note 11.
64 Henry Kissenger, The Pitfalls of Universal Jurisdiction, Foreign Aff., July/Aug. 2001, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
65 Neuffer, supra note 11.
66 Id.
67 See id.
68 See id.
69 Barbara Crossette, U.S. Seeks Exemption From New World Court, U.N. Meets Today on Organizing Issues, S.D. Union-Trib., June 12, 2000, at A2.
70 See Jim Wurst, Politics: Disagreement Over Meaning of Criminal Court Compromise, Inter Press Serv., July 2, 2000, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
71 Crossette, supra note 69.
72 Bruce Zagaris, PrepCom to Finish Work on Procedure and Elements of Crime While Status of U.S. to the Court Undecided, Int’l Enforcement L. Rep., July 2000, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
73 Wurst, supra note 70.
74 Report of the U.N. Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court, Addendum, Finalized Draft Text of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, at 89, U.N. Doc. PCNICC/ 2000/INF/3/Add.1 (2000) [hereinafter Rule 195].
75 Betsy Pisik, No War Criminals Here, Wash. Times, Nov. 27, 2000, at A16, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
76 Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright, Remarks at the “Conflicts and War Crimes: Challenges for Coverage” Seminar for Editors Sponsored by The Crimes of War Project and The Freedom Forum (May 5, 2000), available at http://secretary.state.gov/www. statements/2000/000505.html.
77 Id.
78 Press Statement, U.S. Department of State, Office of the Spokesman, U.S. Initiative on the International Criminal Court (June 13, 2000), available at http://secretary.state. gov/www/briefings/statements/2000/ps000613a.html.
79 See id.
80 Wurst, supra note 70.
81 U.S. Wants Deal Exempting Americans From U.N. Court by Dec. 31, Dow Jones Int’l News, Oct. 18, 2000, available at WL 10/18/00 DJINS 23:30:00.
82 See Wurst, supra note 70.
83 Id.
84 Pisik, supra note 75.
85 See Report of the Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court, Proceedings of the Preparatory Commission at its Seventh Session, at 16, U.N. Doc. PCNICC/2001/L.1/Rev.1/ Add.1 (2001); Eighth Session, supra note 45.
86 Proposed Text of Rule to Article 98 of the Rome Treaty, CICC, available at http://www.igc. apc.org/icc/html/U.S.2000.html (last visited Sept. 25, 2000).
87 See Bush Administration, supra note 55.
88 Id.
89 Rabkin, supra note 11.
90 Amendment Passes, supra note 12; see H.R. 1646, 107th Cong.  635 et. seq. (2001).
91 Rabkin, supra note 11.
92 See id.
93 Id.; H.R. 1646  634(b)–(d).
94 Kofi Annan Urges Ratification of Rome Statute as U.S. Deliberates its Position, Int’l Enforcement L. Rep., Nov. 2000, available at LEXIS, News Group File [hereinafter U.S. Deliberates Its Position].
95 H.R. 1646  637(a)–(c); Rabkin, supra note 11.
96 H.R. 1646  638(a); Rabkin, supra note 11.
97 Id.
98 Dave McIntyre, Prosecute or Invade The Hague—That’s the Question, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, Sept. 15, 2000, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
99 Prepared Testimony of the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights Before the House Committee on International Relations, Fed. News Serv. (July 25, 2000), available at LEXIS, News Group File [hereinafter Lawyers].
100 Johnson, supra note 42.
101 Crossette, supra note 69.
102 See id.
103 Letter from Benjamin Ferencz, Fears About an International Criminal Court Are Misguided, N.J. Law J., June 19, 2000, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
104 Geoffrey Robertson, Paradox of U.S. Role in Global Justice, Canberra Times, July 20, 2000, at 9, available at 2000 WL 23496222. Ghana peacekeepers in Rwanda handed Tutsi officials whom they were guarding over to opposition death squads. Id.
105 See id.
106 Crossette, supra note 69.
107 See Neuffer, supra note 11.
108 Id.
109 Wurst, supra note 70.
110 McIntyre, supra note 98.
111 See Wurst, supra note 70.
112 See Lawyers, supra note 99.
113 See id.
114 See Zagaris, supra note 72.
115 Wurst, supra note 70 (internal quotations omitted).
116 See Rule 195, supra note 74, at 89; Zagaris, supra note 72.
117 Id.
118 See Zagaris, supra note 72.
119 See id.
120 See id.; Bush Administration, supra note 55.
121 See U.S. at Odds, supra note 7.
122 For further information on the U.S. position, see David J. Scheffer, Ambassador at Large for War Crimes Issues and Head of the U.S. Delegation to the United Nations Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court, Statement before the House International Relations Committee (July 26, 2000), available at http://www.state.gov/ www/policy_remarks/2000/000726_scheffer_service.html.
123 Id.
124 See Lawyers, supra note 99.
125 Riggs, supra note 62.
126 See Scheffer, supra note 122.
127 See U.S. Deliberates Its Position, supra note 94.
128 See Lawyers, supra note 99.
129 U.S. Deliberates Its Position, supra note 94.
130 See H.R. 1646 635(a).
131 Scheffer, supra note 122.
132 Id.
133 See Lawyers, supra note 99.
134 Id.
135 Id.
136 Johnson, supra note 42.
137 See Lawyers, supra note 99.
138 Id.
139 Robertson, supra note 104. The United States has inquired into allegations that U.S. Marines committed war crimes in South Korea in 1950. Id. See also William J. Aceves, Investigating War Crimes, The Struggle for Accountability Hits Home, S.D. Union-Trib., Nov. 4, 1999, available at 1999 WL 29191923.
140 See Lawyers, supra note 99.
141 Id.
142 Id.
143 See id.
144 Bush Administration, supra note 55.
145 See id.; Leo Wallach, UCLA Hosts Famous Nuremberg Prosecutor, U. Wire, May 24, 2001, available at LEXIS, New Group File.
146 E.U. Environment Ministers Lash Out at Bush on Kyoto About-Turn, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, Apr. 1, 2001, available at LEXIS, News Group File. The United States signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. Id. President Bush repudiated it in March, 2001. Id. The Protocol aims to reduce global warming by cutting greenhouse gas emissions. Id. President Bush decided that the United States no longer supports Kyoto because it is not in the country’s economic interests. Id.
147 Jensen, supra note 43.
148 Bush Administration, supra note 55.
149 Id.
150 Id.
151 Tom Malinowski, The ICC: An Alliance for Justice, Wash. Post, July 9, 2001, at A17, available at LEXIS, News Group File.
152 Justice, Not Military Force, Must Rule Secretary-General Asks Harvard Jurists To Work for Better Understanding of Benefits of International Criminal Court, M2 Presswire, Oct. 2, 2000, available at 2000 WL 26607365.
153 Id.
154 Id.
155 Id.
156 See Martin Woollacott, It’s Time Americans Woke up to the Rest of the Planet: U.S. Foreign Policy is Mainly an Exercise in Adhering to the Past, Guardian, Oct. 20, 2000, available at 2000 WL 28346986.
157 See id.
158 Id.
159 Asides: America in the Dock, Wall St. J., Oct. 23, 2000, at A38, available at 2000 WL-WSJ 26614066.