* Dean’s Club Research Professor of Law; Fellow, Intellectual Property Center, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio. LL.B., B.L., University of Ghana; M.L.I., Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison. Professor Ocran reserves the right to publish a form of this Article in an upcoming book.
1 Michael Hirsch, Calling All Regio-Cops: Peacekeeping’s Hybrid Future, 79 Foreign Aff., Nov.-Dec. 2000, at 2, 2.
2 Edward N. Luttwak, Give War A Chance, 78 Foreign Aff., July-Aug. 1999, at 36, 37.
3 See Tim Judah, The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia 185–90 (1997); see also Marcus Tanner, Croatia: A Nation Forged in War 253–74 (1997).
4 See T. Modibo Ocran, How Blessed Were the U.N. Peacekeepers in Former Yugoslavia, 18 Wis. Int’l L.J. 193, 196–98 (2000) (providing an in-depth account of the Yugoslav crisis).
5 Hirsh, supra note 1, at 2.
6 Luttwak, supra note 2, at 44.
7 See Oscar Schachter, The U.N. Legal Order: An Overview, in The United Nations and International Law 3–26 (Christopher C. Joyner ed., 1997); see also Paul C. Szasz, General Law-making Processes, in The United Nations and International Law 27–64 (Christopher C. Joyner ed., 1997).
8 See Ocran, supra note 4, at 196–98.
9 Spyros Economides & Paul Taylor, Former Yugoslavia, in The New Interventionism 1991–1994 United Nations Experience in Cambodia, Former Yugoslavia and Somalia 59, 64 (James Mayall ed., 1996).
10 Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Building Peace and Development–1994: Annual Report on the Work of the Organization at 246–57, U.N. Sales No. E.95.1.3 (1994).
11 See id. at 265.
12 See Ocran, supra note 4, at 196–99.
13 “Peace operations have changed since the end of the Cold War. They are no longer limited to the interposition of small numbers of passive, unarmed observers. Today, they also include more complex and sometimes more robust uses of military resources to achieve a range of political and humanitarian objectives.” United States Department of State, Administration Policy on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations, April 1994, 33 ILM 705, 706, at 809–10 (emphasis supplied) [hereinafter U.S. DEPT. OF STATE].
14 Marrack Goulding, The Evolution of United Nations Peacekeeping, 69 Int’l Aff. 451, 459 (1993).
15 John Gerard Ruggie, Wandering in the Void: Charting the U.N.’s New Strategic Role, 72 Foreign Aff., Nov.-Dec. 1993, at 26, 29.
16 See Goulding, supra note 14, at 455.
17 See id. at 454.
18 See id. at 452–53.
19 See id. at 459.
20 See infra Part IV.B.
21 See Judah, supra note 3, at 239–40; see also Luttwak, supra note 2, at 38.
22 E. Stowell, International Law 349 (1931); Jean-Pierre Fonteyne, The Customary International Law Doctrine of Humanitarian Intervention: Its Current Validity Under the U.N. Charter, 4 Cal. W. Int’l L.J.203, 204 (1974).
23 Lassa F.L. Oppenheim, International Law 305 (H. Lauterpacht ed., 87th ed. 1955).
24 See Barry E. Carter & Phillip R. Trimble, International Law 1219–20 (3d ed. 1999).
25 See Lauterpacht, The Grotian Tradition in International Law, 23 Brit. Y.B. Int’l L. 46, 46 (1946).
26 Id.; Harcourt, Letters of Historicus on Some Questions of International Law 14 (1843).
27 See Hans Kelsen, What is Justice? 290 (1945).
28 There was no actual mention of humanitarian intervention in that case, but it was quite clear that the real driving force for intervention was the outrage over the massacre of civilians.
29 See Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 212–13.
30 Id. at 235.
31 See id. at 214, 226.
32 See id. at 215.
33 Carnazza-Amari, Traite de Droit International en Temps de Paix 557 (Montanari-Revest trans. 1880), quoted in Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 215.
34 Pradier-Fodere, Traite de Droit International Europeen et Americain 655 (1885), quoted in Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 216.
35 Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 217 (citing L. Pereira, Principios de Direito Internacional 97–98 (1902)).
36 Alex De Waal & Rakiya Omaar, Can Military Intervention Be “Humanitarian?, 24 Middle E. Rep. 8, 8 (1994).
37 Farook Hassan, RealPolitik in International Law: After Tanzanian-Ugandan Conflict—”Humanitarian Intervention” Reexamined, 17 Willamette L. Rev. 859, 881–82 (1981).
38 See Louis Henkin, How Nations Behave 145 (2d ed. 1979).
39 Richard B. Lillich, Forcible Self-Help Under International Law, 22 Naval War C. Rev. 56, 65 (1970).
40 Hugonis Grotius, 2 De Jure Belli Et Pacis 439 (William Whewell trans. 1853).
41 Rorin-Jacquemyms, Note Sur La Theorie du Droit d’Intervention, 8 Revue de Droit International et de Legislation Comparee 675 (1876), quoted in Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 220.
42 P. Fiore, Nouveau Droit International Public 524–25 (Charles Antoine trans., 1885).
43 C. Wilfred Jenks, A New World of Law? 30 (1969).
44 P.H. Winfield, The Grounds of Intervention in International Law, 5 Brit. Y.B. Int’l L. 149, 162 (1924).
45 Lauterpacht, supra note 25, at 46.
46 See Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 206–13.
47 See Thomas Joseph Lawrence, The Principles of International Law 129 (4th ed. 1910).
48 See T. LAWRENCE, THE PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 129 (4th ed. 1910), quoted in Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 224.
49 Lassa F. L. Oppenheim, International Law 229 (Ronald F. Roxburgh ed., 1920).
50 International Law Association, The International Protection of Human Rights by General International Law, in International Commission on Human Rights, Interim Report of the Subcommittee 11 (1970).
51 G.A. Res. 2625, U.N. GAOR, 25th Sess., Supp. No. 18, at 338, U.N. Doc. A/8082 (1970).
52 See G.A. Res. 2131, U.N. GAOR, 20th Sess., Supp. No. 12, at 107–08, U.N. Doc. A/6012 (1965); see also Charter of the Organization of the American States, 2 U.S.T. 2394, 119 U.N.T.S. 3, as amended Feb. 27, 1967, 21 U.S.T. 607, art. 18 (providing “no State or group of states has the right to intervene directly or indirectly, for any reason whatever, in the internal and external affairs of any other [s]tate . . . .”).
53 See Military and Paramilitary Activities (Nicar. v. U.S.), 1986 I.C.J. 14 (June 27).
54 Id. at 106 (emphasis added).
55 Ian Brownlie, International Law and the Use of Force by States 342 (1963).
56 U.N. GAOR 6th Comm., 18th Sess., at 113, U.N. Doc. A/C6/SR806 (1963) [hereinafter U.N. Doc. A/C6/SR806]. On this view, one might find it difficult to justify peacekeeping operations that do not necessarily fall under Chapter 7 enforcement action but sanctioned by the Security Council.
57 See Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 255.
58 See U.N. Charter art. 2, para 7.
59 See id. arts. 2, para. 6, 51.
60 U.N. Doc. A/C6/SR806, supra note 56, at 230.
61 See Richard B. Lillich, Intervention to Protect Human Rights, 15 McGill L.J. 205, 208–09 (1969).
62 See Giraud, L’Interdiction du Recours a la Force—La Theorie et la Pratique des Nations Unies, 67 Rev. Gen. Dr. Intl. Publ. 501, 512–513 (1963), quoted in Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 242–43. Article 10 of the League of Nations Covenant provides, “the Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled.” League of Nations Covenant art. 10.
63 Giraud, supra note 62, at 512-13.
64 See Waldock, The Regulation of the Use of Force by Individual States in International Law, 81 Recueil des Cours 455, 493 (1952), cited in Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 243.
65 See Hans Wehberg, L’Interdiction du Recours a la Force, 78 Recueil des Cours 7, 70 (1951).
66 Philip Jessup, A Modern Law of Nations 169–70 (1958).
67 U.N. Doc. A/C6/SR806, supra note 56, at 230.
68 Felix Ermacora, Human Rights and Domestic Jurisdiction, 124 Recueil des Cours 375, 436 (1968).
69 See Michael Reisman, Humanitarian Intervention to Protect the Ibos, in Humanitarian Intervention and the United Nations 167, 189–91 (Richard B. Lillich ed., 1973).
70 See id. at 179; see also Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 241.
71 See Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 243–44.
72 See id. at 244.
73 See Humanitarian Intervention and the United Nations, supra note 69, at 64 (citing Professor Thomas N. Franck).
74 See Lillich, supra note 69, at 61–62, 118.
75 Reisman, supra note 69, at 177.
76 Id. at 171.
77 McDougal & Reisman, Response, 3 Int’l Lawyer 434, 444 (1960).
78 However, the extent to which the right to self-defense includes a right of protection of nationals abroad has been the subject of acute controversy in international law because it is difficult to equate protection of nationals abroad with the preservation of the state itself.
79 Mary Ellen O’Connell, Continuing Limits on U.N. Intervention in Civil War, 67 Ind. L.J. 903, 911 (1992).
80 See id. at 903–04.
81 See S.C. Res. 688, U.N. SCOR, 46th Sess., 2982d mtg. at 31–32, U.N. Doc. S/Res/688 (1991).
82 See O’Connell, supra note 79, at 909.
83 Id. at 910.
84 Paul Lewis, U.S. Offering to Send Force to Yugoslavia, N.Y. Times, Nov. 28, 1991, at A1; see also S.C. Res. 721, U.N. SCOR, 46th Sess., 3018th mtg. at 44, U.N. Doc. S/23280 (1991).
85 O’Connell, supra note 79, at 906. O’Connell cites the ICJ decision in Nicaragua v. United States, in which the court wrote: “There can be no doubt that the provision of strictly humanitarian aid to persons or forces in another country, whatever their political affiliations or objectives, cannot be regarded as unlawful intervention, or as in any other way contrary to international law.” Id. quoting Nicaragua. v. U.S., 1986 I.C.J. at 14.
86 See O’Connell, supra note 79, at 904.
87 See, e.g., Siderman de Blake v. Argentina, 965 F.2d 699 (9th Cir. 1992).
88 Jost Delbruck, A Fresh Look at Humanitarian Intervention Under the Authority of the United Nations, 67 Ind. L.J. 887, 899 (1992) (emphasis added).
89 Id.
90 Id. at 900.
91 S.C. Res 232, U.N. SCOR, 21st Sess., 1340th mtg. at 7, U.N. Doc S/7610 (1966).
92 S.C. Res. 181, U.N. SCOR, 18th Sess., 1041st mtg. at 7, U.N. Doc S/5386 (1963); see also S.C. Res. 418, U.N. SCOR, 32d Sess., 2046th mtg. at 5, U.N. Doc S/12470 (1977).
93 See S.C. Res 688, supra note 81, at 31–32.
94 See Lori Fisler Damrosch, Introduction and Concluding Reflection, in Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts 363–64 (Lori Fisler Damrosch ed., 1993).
95 Delbruck, supra note 88, at 900.
96 See Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 269–70.
97 See Reisman, supra note 69, at 178.
98 See Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 249.
99 See generally Terry Nardin & Kathleen D. Pritchard, Case 502: Ethics and Intervention: The United States in Grenada, 1983, in Georgetown University: Pew Case Studies in International Affairs 12 (1990).
100 Dep. Sec. of State Kenneth W. Dam, Statement on Grenada before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs (Oct. 25, 1983), quoted in Marian Nash Leich, Rescue Operation by Armed Forces—Grenada, 78 Am. J. Int’l L. 200, 200 (1984).
101 Christopher C. Joyner, Reflection on the Lawfulness of Invasion, 78 Am. J. Int’l L. 131, 131 (1984).
102 Id.
103 Dam, supra note 100, at 204.
104 Cf. Nardin & Pritchard, supra note 99. See generally Dam, supra note 100, at 204.
105 Leich, supra note 100, at 200.
106 It was estimated that there were 130 on the True Blue campus, and 224 at the Grand Anse end. See Nardin & Pritchard, supra note 99, at 11–12.
107 See id. at 7.
108 Id. at 1.
109 Id. at 2.
110 Id. at 3.
111 Nardin & Pritchard, supra note 99, at 3.
112 Id.
113 Quoted in CARTER & TRIMBLE, supra note 24, at 1175.
114 The doctrine was as follows:
[A] particular socialist state, staying in a system of other states composing the socialist community, cannot be free from the common interests of that community. The sovereignty of each socialist country cannot be opposed to the interests of that community. The sovereignty of each socialist country cannot be opposed to the interests of the world of socialism, of the world revolutionary movement. . . . Discharging their inter-nationalist duty toward the fraternal peoples of Czechoslovakia and defending their own socialist gains, the USSR and other socialist states had to act decisively . . . against the anti-socialist forces in Czechoslovakia.
Id. at 1170.
115 Gordon et al., International Law and the United States Action in Grenada: A Report, 18 Int’l Law 339, 339 (1984).
116 President George Bush, Report to Congress and Hon. Thomas S. Foley, Speaker of the House of Representatives (Dec. 21, 1989), in Covey T. Oliver et al., International Legal System 1299 (4th ed. 1995) [hereinafter President’s Letter].
117 For a detailed account of these events and the immunity and jurisdictional issues, see this Journal, Adam I. Hasson, Note, Extraterritorial Jurisdiction and Sovereign Immunity on Trial: Noriega, Milosevic, and Pinochet—Trends in Political Accountability and Transnational Criminal Law, 25 B.C. INT’L & COMP. L. REV 125, 127 (2000).
118 President’s Letter, supra note 116.
119 See id. at 1288.
120 Abraham D. Sofaer, The Legality of the United States Action in Panama, 29 Colum. J. Transnat’l L. 281, 290 (1991).
121 Anthony D’Amato, The Invasion of Panama Was a Lawful Response to Tyranny, 84 Am. J. Int’l L. 516, 516 (1990).
122 Id.
123 Id.
124 See id. at 516–18.
125 Id. at 522–23.
126 See D’Amato, supra note 121, at 516–17.
127 See id. at 524.
128 See id. at 519.
129 Id.
130 Louis Henkin, The Invasion of Panama Under International Law: A Gross Violation, 29 Colum. J. Transnat’l L. 293, 307 (1991).
131 Id. at 309.
132 Id. at 310.
133 Id. at 313.
134 See Tom J. Farer, Panama: Beyond the Charter Paradigm, 84 Am. J. Int’l L. 503, 505–06 (1990).
135 See id. at 509–10.
136 See id. at 514.
137 Ved P. Nanda, The Validity of United States Intervention in Panama Under International Law, 84 Am. J. Int’l L. 494, 494 (1990).
138 See Sarah A. Rumage, Panama and the Myth of Humanitarian Intervention in U.S. Foreign Policy: Neither Legal Nor Moral, Neither Just Nor Right, 10 Ariz. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 1, 34 (1993).
139 Id. at 70.
140 See Nanda, supra note 137, at 502.
141 See David Wippman, Enforcing the Peace: ECOWAS and the Liberian Civil War, in Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts, supra note 94, at 157–203.
142 U.N. CHARTER art. 52, para. 1.
143 Id. art. 53, para. 1.
144 Anthony Chukwuka Ofodile, The Legality of ECOWAS Intervention in Liberia, 32 Colum. J. Transnat’l L. 381, 410 (1994).
145 Julius Stone, Legal Controls of International Conflict 247–49 (1959).
146 Ofodile, supra note 144, at 418.
147 S.C. Res. 788, U.N. SCOR, 47th Sess., 3138th mtg., ¶¶ 2, 8, U.N. Doc. S/RES/788 (1992).
148 See Michael Walzer, Just & Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations 86 (2d ed. 1992).
149 Id. at 61–62.
150 Id. at 86.
151 Id. at 108.
152 Id. at 90.
153 WALZER, supra note 148, at 101.
154 Id.
155 Id. at 106.
156 See Rougier, La Théorie de l’Intervention d’Humanité, 17 Rev. Gen. Dr. Int’l Publ. 468, 502 (1910), cited in Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 228.
157 See Fonteyne, supra note 22 and accompanying text.
158 See id. at 260.
159 See id. at 262–63.
160 See id. at 265.
161 See id.
162 See Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 266–67.
163 Id.
164 See id. at 267.
165 Id. at 268.
166 Id. at 259.
167 Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 260 n.244.
168 Id.
169 Id. at 263.
170 John Norton Moore, The Control of Foreign Intervention in Internal Conflicts, 9 Va. J. Int’l L. 205, 264 (1969).
171 Hirsh, supra note 1, at 2–3 (emphasis added).
172 See Goulding, supra note 14, at 461–63.
173 Id. at 461.
174 See Certain Expenses of the United Nations, 1962 I.C.J. 151, 151 (Jul. 20).
175 See Karen Breslau, Interview of Boutros-Ghali, Newsweek, Oct. 3, 1994, at 52.
176 See generally U.S. Department of State, supra note 13. The paper referred hereto is a summary of a Presidential Decision Directive (PDD), signed on May 3, 1994 by President Clinton. The PDD was the product of an inter-agency review involving the following offices: The State Department; the Office of the Secretary of Defense; the Joint Chiefs of Staff; the U.S. mission to the United Nations; the Office of Management & Budget; the Central Intelligence Agency; and the National Security Council. See id.
177 See id. at 11.
178 See id. at 12.
179 This was amply demonstrated by the U.N. command structure in the Congo Crisis in 1960, and many other U.N. missions since then.
180 U.S. Department of State, supra note 13, at 16.
181 See id at 15.
182 See Report of the Secretary General Pursuant to Security Council Resolutions 982 (1995) and 987 (1995), U.N. SCOR at ¶¶ 72–79, U.N. Doc. S/1995/444 (1995).
183 See S.C. Res. 1031, U.N. SCOR, 50th Sess., 3607th mtg. ¶ 14, U.N. Doc. S/Res/1031 (1995).
184 See id. ¶¶ 15, 17.
185 See id. ¶¶ 12, 14.
186 See generally id.
187 Named after its Chairman, former Algerian Foreign Minister Lakhdar Brahimi.
188 See Comprehensive Review of the Whole Question of Peacekeeping Operations in All their Aspects, U.N. GAOR, 55th Sess., U.N. Doc. A/55/305-S/2000/809 (2000) [hereinafter Comprehensive Review].
189 Id. at 10, ¶ 55.
190 See id.
191 See id.
192 Id. at xi; see also id. at 15–16, ¶¶ 86–91; 17–29, ¶¶ 102–169.
193 Comprehensive Review, supra note 188, at 33.
194 Id. at 29–30, 33.
195 Id. at 54, ¶ 4(d).
196 See Fonteyne, supra note 22, at 219.
197 Id. at 223; see also supra Parts I and II.
198 H. Shawcross, Expose Introduction au Proces de Nuremberg, in Aroneau, L’ Intervention d’Humanite et le Declaration Universelle des Droits de l’homme, 33 Revue de Droit International, de Science Diplomatique et Politique 127 (1955).
199 Richard B. Lillich, Forcible Self-Help to Protect Human Rights, 53 Iowa L. Rev. 344, 344 (1967).