* Allison Puri is the Senior Managing Editor of the Boston College International and Comparative Law Review. She dedicates this Note in loving memory of her grandmother, Mary G. MacLeod (1914–2001), whose kindness and intelligence will continue to inspire for years to come.
1 See, e.g., Esmeralda Barnes, Slaying Moves Mother to Action, Fairfax J. (Mar. 27, 1997), http://hope-dna.com/articles/ha_fairfaxjournal_970327_a1.htm; Jon Pope, TV Station Employee Found Dead, Richmond Times-Dispatch (July 12, 1994), http://hope-dna.com/ articles/ha_richtimesdisp_940712.htm; Nick Pronko, City Records Sixth Murder, Petersburg Progress Index (July 12, 1994), http://hope-dna.com/articles/ha_progressindex940712. htm.
2 E.g., Jon Pope, “Brilliant” Future Dashed, Richmond Times-Dispatch (July 12, 1994), http://hope-dna.com/articles/ha_ richtimesdisp_940712_a.htm; Memorial Service Is Set For Slain VSU Student (July 16, 1994), at http://hope-dna.com/articles/ha_richtimesdisp_ 940716.htm; Hope Denise Hall, JUC Article, at http://hope-dna.com/articles/ha_juc_art .htm (last visited Feb. 16, 2000) [hereinafter JUC Article].
3 See, e.g., Lorraine Blackwell, Jury Recommends Death in Murder Trial, Richmond Times Dispatch (July 24, 1998), http://hope-dna.com/articles/ha_richtimesdisp_980724_art2. htm; Barnes, supra note 1.
4 Barnes, supra note 1.
5 Blackwell, supra note 3; Barnes, supra note 1.
6 See Blackwell, supra note 3; Barnes, supra note 1.
7 Blackwell, supra note 3; Barnes, supra note 1.
8 Barnes, supra note 1.
9 See Barnes, supra note 1; Michael Grossman, DNA “Cold Hit” Gives Police a New Suspect in 1994 Murder, Petersburg Progress Index (Jan. 9, 1997), http://hope-dna.com/articles/ha_progressindex_960827.htm.
10 Barnes, supra note 1; JUC Article, supra note 2.
11 See Barnes, supra note 1; JUC Article, supra note 2.
12 See Barnes, supra note 1.
13 Id.
14 Id.
15 Id.
16 E.g., Barnes, supra note 1; Maribeth Brewster, Losing Hope, Style Weekly (July 19, 1994), http://hope-dna.com/ articles/ha_styleweekly_940719.htm; Pope, supra note 2.
17 See Barnes, supra note 1; Brewster, supra note 16; Pope, supra note 2.
18 See, e.g., Barnes, supra note 1; Pope, supra note 1; Pronko, supra note 1.
19 See Barnes, supra note 1; Pope, supra note 1; Pronko, supra note 1.
20 Barnes, supra note 1; Pope, supra note 1; Pronko, supra note 1.
21 E.g., Lorraine Blackwell, Women Tell of Earlier Attacks, Richmond Times Dispatch (July 23, 1998), http://hope-dna.com/articles/ha_richtimesdisp_980723.htm; Ellen Sorokin, Slaying Testimony Hits Rapist, Fairfax J. ( July 23, 1998); Michael Grossman, Death Penalty Is Sought in Hall Murder, Petersburg Progress Index (Mar. 21, 1997), http://hope-dna.com/articles/ha_ progressindex_970321.htm.
22 See Blackwell, supra note 21; Sorokin, supra note 21; Grossman, supra note 21.
23 See, e.g., Ellen Sorokin, Trial Begins in Hall Murder Case, Fairfax J. (July 22, 1998), http://hope-dna.com/articles/ ha_fairfaxjournal_980722_1.htm [hereinafter Trial]; Ellen Sorokin, DNA + Database Tells Tale, Fairfax J. (Mar. 27, 1997), http://hope-dna.com/art-icles/ha_fairfaxjournal_970327_1.htm [hereinafter DNA Database]; Grossman, supra note 9.
24 Id.
25 Pronko, supra note 1.
26 Ellen Sorokin, ‘94 Killing In Jury’s Hands, Fairfax J. (July 24, 1998), http://hope-dna.com/articles/ha_fairfaxjournal_980724.htm.
27 Id.
28 See, e.g., Trial, supra note 23; DNA Database, supra note 23; Grossman, supra note 9.
29 See Trial, supra note 23; DNA Database, supra note 23; Grossman, supra note 9.
30 Trial, supra note 23; DNA Database, supra note 23; Grossman, supra note 9.
31 Trial, supra note 23; DNA Database, supra note 23; Grossman, supra note 9.
32 Trial, supra note 23; DNA Database, supra note 23; Grossman, supra note 9.
33 E.g., Trial, supra note 23; DNA Database, supra note 23; Grossman, supra note 9.
34 See Trial, supra note 23; DNA Database, supra note 23; Grossman, supra note 9.
35 Trial, supra note 23; DNA Database, supra note 23; Grossman, supra note 9.
36 Lorraine Blackwell, Jury Sentences Man to Death For Rape, Murder, Richmond Times Dispatch (July 25, 1998), http://hope-dna.com/articles/ha_richtimesdisp_980725.htm.
37 E.g., Victor Weedn & John Hicks, U.S. Dep’t of Justice, The Unrealized Potential of DNA Testing (1998); Tony & Carol Sievers, Letter From Tony & Carol Sievers, at http://www.hope-dna.com/letter.htm (last visited Feb. 16, 2000); Joseph Heeger, IUFO: Feds Want Your DNA http://www.beyond-the-illusion.com/lists/iufo/1998/Nov/0133.html (last visited Feb. 19, 2000).
38 E.g., Weedn, supra note 37; Sievers, supra note 37; Heeger, supra note 37.
39 Sievers, supra note 37.
40 See Weedn, supra note 37.
41 E.g., Weedn, supra note 37; Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, U.S. Dep’t of Justice, NCJ 177626, Postconviction DNA Testing: Recommendations for Handling Requests iii (1999); Heeger, supra note 37.
42 See, e.g., Michael Higgins, DNA Databases Help Nail Slippery Criminal, But Their Potential Uses Make Privacy Advocates Nervous When it Comes to Arrestees and Ordinary Citizens, 85-OCT A.B.A. J. 64 (1999); Gary Tuchman, New York to Expand DNA Testing of Convicts, CNN.Com (Oct. 20, 1999), at wysiwyg://21/http: //www.cnn.com/US/9910/20/dna.database/in-dex.htm; Dan L. Burk & Jennifer A. Hess, Genetic Privacy: Constitutional Considerations in Forensic DNA Testing, 5 Geo. Mason U. Civ. Rts. L.J. 1, 15–16 (1994).
43 Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 21.
44 Id.
45 Id.; Burk & Hess, supra note 42, at 3–4.
46 E.g., Angus J. Dodson, Comment, DNA “Line-Ups” Based on a Reasonable Suspicion Standard, 71 U. Colo. L. Rev. 221, 227 (2000); Robert W. Schumacher II, Article, Expanding New York’s DNA Database: The Future of Law Enforcement, 26 Fordham Urb. L.J. 1635, 1638–39 (1999); Burk & Hess, supra note 42, at 3–4.
47 Burk & Hess, supra note 42, at 4.
48 Id.
49 E.g., David F. Betsch, DNA Fingerprinting in Human Health and Society, at http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/rdna/fingerprint.html (last visited Feb. 20, 2000); Michelle Hibbert, DNA Databanks: Law Enforcement’s Greatest Surveillance Tool?, 34 Wake Forest L. Rev. 767, 818–19 (1999); Burk & Hess, supra note 42, at 4.
50 E.g., Dodson, supra note 46, at 227; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1638–39; Burk & Hess, supra note 42, at 3–4.
51 See Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1638–39.
52 Id.
53 Id.
54 Eric S. Lander, DNA on the Witness Stand, at http://www.accessexcellence.org/AB/ WYW/index.html (last visited Feb. 20, 2000).
55 E.g., Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1640; Lander, supra note 54.
56 E.g., Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1640; Lander, supra note 54.
57 E.g., Lander, supra note 54; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1639; Dodson, supra note 46, at 227. It is important to note, however, that identical twins have identical DNA and do not differ at any point along the molecule. Dodson, supra note 46, at 227.
58 Lander, supra note 54.
59 See, e.g., Lander, supra note 54; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1639; William C. Thompson, Evaluating the Admissibility of New Genetic Identification Tests: Lessons from the “DNA War,” 84 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 22, 26–27 (1993).
60 See Lander, supra note 54.
61 Id.
62 Id.
63 See id.
64 Id.
65 See, e.g., Lander, supra note 54; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1639; Charles M. Strom, Genetic Justice: A Lawyer’s Guide to the Science of DNA Testing, 87 Ill. B.J. 18, 20 (1999).
66 See Lander, supra note 54.
67 See id. Samples can come from a number of sources and, as the technology develops, even more plausible sources may develop. See Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, U.S. Dep’t of Justice, What Every Law Enforcement Officer Should Know About DNA (1999). Currently, samples can be taken from traditional bodily fluids such as blood, saliva, or semen. See id. However, they also can be taken from hair, bones, clothing, organ tissue, and even skin cells that have rubbed off onto inanimate objects such as glass, fabrics, or even dirt. See id.
68 Lander, supra note 54. When the samples do not match, however, it does not mean that the suspect did not commit the crime. Id. For instance, the DNA sample taken from the crime scene could be from an innocent person or a co-conspirator. Id.
69 Id.
70 Id.
71 Id.
72 See id.
73 See Lander, supra note 54.
74 See id. There has been a great deal of controversy among the scientific and legal communities surrounding these issues. See id. Currently there are no mandatory standards for forensic testing. Id. In fact, there are higher standards for the laboratory practices of someone who will diagnose strep throat. Id. In addition, people are worried that the statistical significance applied to DNA evidence is either over or underestimated. See id. Therefore, the National Research Council Committee from the National Academy of Sciences has taken important steps in defining standards for laboratory and statistical calculations. Id. One significant contribution has been the creation of a mandatory proficiency test for laboratories conducting DNA sampling and analyses. Id.
75 See id.
76 Id.
77 Id. In addition to statistical probabilities, other concerns must be addressed when determining the appropriate weight to be given to matches. See Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 21–29. For instance, identical twins are known to have exact DNA matches and therefore, must always be considered in identity issues. Id. at 21. In addition, scientists indicate that some samples from one individual could show multiple DNA sources due to recent blood transfusions. Id. at 22. Finally, the need for control samples is important, especially in sexual assault cases, to ensure that no one is improperly included or excluded as a suspect. Id. at 22.
78 Richard Zitrin, DNA Expert Retained for Decades-Old Murder Case, APB News (Oct. 15, 1999), http://www.apbnews.com/newscenter/breaki...ws/1999/10/15/oldcase1015_01. html?s=en. A result can be inconclusive for a number of reasons, such as an inadequate sample or the lack of a control sample. Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 29. A sample is considered conclusive if it matches along all tested points of variation and is compared to a control sample. Id. at 28. A sample can be considered irrelevant if it comes from a source that could be present legally, such as a consensual sexual partner. Id. at 29.
79 See, e.g., Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 26–28; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1640–46; Thompson, supra note 59, at 26–30.
80 See, e.g., Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 26–28; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1640–46; Thompson, supra note 59, at 26–30..
81 See Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1640–46.
82 Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 26–27. RFLP testing also has been used frequently in the area of familial testing, such as paternity tests. See id.
83 Id. at 26.
84 Id. There are approximately 300 appellate rulings regarding RFLP testing in the United States. Id.
85 See id. at 27; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1640–41.
86 See Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1640–41. It follows that a sample fragment that repeats a sequence three times will be longer than a fragment that only repeats twice. See id.
87 See id. For a more in depth analysis, see Nat’l Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 27.
88 Nat’l Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 26. A “large” sample would contain at least 100,000 cells, e.g., a dime-sized or larger saturated bloodstain. Id.
89 See id.
90 Id.; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1642.
91 See Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1642.
92 Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 27; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1641–42.
93 See Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 27. This statement assumes that the testing was conducted correctly and that other considerations previously mentioned were taken into account. See id. at 21–24.
94 Id. at 27.
95 Id.
96 Id.
97 Id.
98 See Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 27; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1642. A “smaller” sample only needs to contain fifty to one hundred cells, e.g., a visible dot of blood or a single hair root. Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 27. A less pristine sample is one that may have degraded because of improper storage or old age. Id.
99 See Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 27; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1642–43.
100 Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 27.
101 Id. at 27–28; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1643.
102 See Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 27; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1643.
103 Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 28; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1643–44.
104 Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1643.
105 Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 28. The mitochondria is a cell organelle involved in producing cellular energy. Id.
106 See id.
107 See id.
108 Id.
109 See id.
110 See, e.g., Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 1; Weedn & Hicks, supra note 37; Betty Anne Bowser, Strands of Justice, Online Newshour (July 10, 1998), at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/law/july-dec98/dna_7–10.html.
111 See Higgins, supra note 42, at 64–65; Weedn & Hicks, supra note 37.
112 Higgins, supra note 42, at 67.
113 Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 1.
114 Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 1. Before the DNA identification, a seventeen-year-old mentally handicapped kitchen porter had been incarcerated for several months after confessing to one of the murders. Id.
115 See Lander, supra note 54.
116 Id.
117 Id.
118 Mike Blair, Feds Want Your DNA, at http://www.beyond-the-illusion.com/lists/iufo/ 1998/Nov/0133.html (last visited Feb. 19, 2000).
119 See, e.g., Hibbert, supra note 49, at 767; Weedn & Hicks, supra note 37; Burk & Hess, supra note 42, at 10–11.
120 See, e.g., Richard Willing, Mismatch Calls DNA Tests Into Question, USA Today (Feb. 8, 2000), http://www.usatoday.com/news/washdc/ncmon09.htm; Roderick Campbell, Matching of DNA Could Help Clean Up Crimes, Canberra Times, June 11, 1999, at 4, available at 1999 WL 15638053; Ng Kang-Chung, Legislatures Fear DNA Test Plans Open to Abuse, S. China Morning Post, Feb. 12, 1999, at 6, available at 1999 WL 2520961.
121 See Thompson, supra note 59, at 30–33.
122 See id.
123 Frye v. United States, 293 F. 1013 (D.C. Cir. 1923).
124 Thompson, supra note 59, at 30–31.
125 Frye, 293 F. at 1014.
126 See Edward Connors et al., U.S. Dep’t of Justice, NCJ 161258, Convicted by Juries, Exonerated by Science: Case Studies in the Use of DNA Evidence to Establish Innocence After Trial xii (1996).
127 Id.
128 See id. at xxii.
129 See id. at xii.
130 See id.; Thompson, supra note 59, at 31.
131 See supra text accompanying notes 82–102.
132 See supra text accompanying notes 103–109; Thompson, supra note 59, at 31.
133 See Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharm., 509 U.S. 579, 585 (1993).
134 Id.
135 Id. at 588–89.
136 Fed. R. Evid. 702.
137 Daubert, 509 U.S. at 592.
138 Id. at 593–94.
139 See Connors et al., supra note 126, at xii. In Daubert, Justice Blackmun stated that judges still have the power to limit scientific evidence admissibility under Fed. R. Evid. 403. Daubert, 509 U.S. at 595. He further stressed that caution is important because such evidence can have a very powerful and mystifying effect over jurors. Id.
140 See Connors et al., supra note 126, at xii.
141 See id.
142 Id.
143 Id. at 6.
144 Id. The four states that have not admitted DNA evidence are Maine, North Dakota, Rhode Island, and Utah. id. at ex. 1. The three states that have statutes requiring admission are Nevada, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. Id.
145 See Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, at 2.
146 See id.
147 Lander, supra note 54.
148 Id. Blood marker tests, such as the Lattes test, allow scientists to identify certain substances, such as ABO blood group substances, from a biological stain. See Connors et al., supra note 126, at xv. Although these tests are capable of narrowing down the possible source of the evidence, they often fail to yield usable results because they are less discriminating and more susceptible to deterioration. See id.
149 See, e.g., Geraldine Sealey, The DNA Revolution, at http:// abcnews.go.com/sections/ us/DailyNews/dnatesting990803.htm (last visited Feb. 22, 2000); Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41, passim; Connors et al., supra note 126.
150 See Sealey, supra note 149; Connors et al., supra note 126.
151 Connors et al., supra note 126.
152 See id. at iii.
153 Id. at 34–76.
154 Id. at iii.
155 Id. at 35. The Maryland Court of Appeals overturned Bloodsworth’s first conviction because the police had withheld evidence regarding a possible other suspect from his defense attorneys. Id. at 36.
156 Connors et al., supra note 126, at 36.
157 During a police interrogation, Bloodsworth mentioned a “bloody rock.” Id. This statement was considered significant because the murderer had beaten the girl’s head with a rock. Id. It was later revealed, however, that there was a bloody rock placed on the table next to Bloodsworth during the interrogation. Id.
158 The prosecution provided evidence that Bloodsworth had told acquaintances that he had done something “terrible” on the day of the murder that would affect his marriage. Id. It was later revealed, however, that he was referring to the fact that he had forgotten to buy his wife a promised taco salad. Id.
159 Id.
160 Id.
161 Connors et al., supra note 126, at 36. The first test conducted by the Forensic Science Associates revealed Bloodsworth’s DNA did not match any of the evidence received for testing. Id. at 37. A second test was requested, however, due to the possibility of improper sample labeling. Id. The second test affirmed the findings of the first. Id. Finally, the FBI conducted a third test, which confirmed the findings of the first two. Id.
162 Id.
163 Id. Because courts in Maryland only allow new evidence to be presented within one year of the final appeal, Bloodsworth could not have been granted a new trial. Id.
164 Id.
165 Nat’l Comm’n on the Future of DNA Evidence, supra note 41.
166 See id.
167 See id.
168 Id. at iii.
169 See, e.g., R v. Sauve [1999] 41 W.C.B.2d 1; R v. Dougherty [1996] 3 N.Z.L.R. 257; R v. Yee David, [1995] 3 H.K.C. 525.
170 See id.
171 See Jack King, The Ordeal of Guy Paul Morin: Canada Copes With Systemic Injustice, The Champion (Aug. 1998), http://209.70.38.3/Champion/Articles/98aug01.htm; Connors et al., supra note 126, at iii.
172 See id.
173 See id.
174 Hibbert, supra note 49, at 774.
175 Id.
176 Id.
177 962 F.2d 302 (4th Cir. 1992).
178 Hibbert, supra note 49, at 774.
179 Id. at 774–75. Juveniles offenders are required to submit samples if they committed crimes that would constitute felonies if they had been tried as adults. See id.
180 See id. at 775.
181 See id.
182 See id. at 775–78.
183 See, e.g, Ala. Code  36–18–24 (1998); N.M. Stat. Ann.  29–16–6 (Michie Supp. 1997); Va. Code Ann.  19.2–310.2 (Michie 1995 & Supp. 1999).
184 See, e.g, Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann.  31–281(A)(West Supp. 1998); Ark. Code Ann.  12–12–1109 (Michie Supp. 1997); Del. Code Ann. tit. 29,  4713 (1997).
185 See La. Rev. Stat. Ann.  609 (West 1999).
186 See Tex. Gov’t Code Ann.  411.148(a)(2)(Vernon 1998).
187 See, e.g., Alaska Stat.  44.41.035 (Michie 1998); Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann.  54–102g (West 1994 & Supp. 1998); Fla. Stat. Ann.  943.325 (West 1996 & Supp. 1999).
188 See Hibbert, supra note 49, at 779–81.
189 See id. at 779.
190 See id.
191 See id. at 788.
192 Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1646.
193 Id.
194 See id.
195 Id. at 1646 n.88.
196 Id.
197 Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1646 n.88.
198 See, e.g., Sealey, supra note 149; Tuchman, supra note 42; Beverly Lumpkin, DNA Commission Issues Reports, ABC News (Sept. 27, 1999), at http://www.abcnews.go. com/ sections/us/DailyNews/dnatesting990927.htm.
199 See Mark Hamblett, Sex Offender DNA Sampling Upheld, N.Y. L.J. (Feb. 22, 2000), http://www.nylj.com/stories/99/09/092199a1.htm.
200 Steve Niezgoda, Comments at the Meeting of the National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence, in Proceedings, at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/dnamtgtrans/trans-e.html (last visited Apr. 19, 2000).
201 Id.
202 Hamblett, supra note 199.
203 See id.
204 Hibbert, supra note 49, at 778; Benjamin Keehn, Strands of Justice: Do DNA Databanks Infringe on Defendants’ Rights?, Online News Hour (July 17, 1998), at http:// www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/july98/dna_databanks02.html.
205 See Mark Hansen, Banking on DNA, at http:// www.abcnet.org/journal/aug99/ 08NDNA.html (last visited Feb. 22, 2000); Higgins, supra note 42, at 64–64.
206 See, e.g., Tuchman, supra note 42; Christopher Asplen, The Future of DNA Evidence, ABC News (Aug. 4, 1999), at http:// www.abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/ dnaexpert080499_chat.htm; Dr. Philip Reilly, Comments at the Meeting of the National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence (July 26, 1999), in Proceedings, at http://www.ojp. usdoj.gov/nij/dnamtgtrans6/trans-h.html (last visited Feb. 22, 2000).
207 Hamblett, supra note 199; Keehn, supra note 204.
208 See Niezgoda, supra note 200.
209 See, e.g., Hamblett, supra note 199; Higgins, supra note 42, at 86; Burk & Hess, supra note 42, at 18–21.
210 See, e.g., Hamblett, supra note 199; Higgins, supra note 42, at 86; Burk & Hess, supra note 42, at 18–21.
211 Landry v. Attorney General, 709 N.E.2d 1085 (Mass. 1999).
212 Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 22E,  1–15 (1997).
213 Landry, 709 N.E.2d at 1085. An attempt or conspiracy to commit an enumerated crime also falls under the challenged statute. See id. at 1087.
214 Id.
215 See id. at 1088.
216 Id.
217 Id. at 1089.
218 Landry, 709 N.E.2d at 1089.
219 Id. at 1090.
220 Id.
221 Id. at 1091.
222 Id. The court cites to high rates of recidivism among certain types of felons to support the government interest. Id. at 1091 n.10. Later in the opinion, however, the court puzzlingly states that its opinion does not rely on recidivism issues. See id. at 1092.
223 Landry, 709 N.E.2d at 1091.
224 Id.
225 Id. at 1094. The state constitutional analysis was essentially the same as the federal analysis. See id.
226 Roe v. Marcotte, 193 F. 3d 72 (2d Cir. 1999).
227 Conn. Gen. Stat.  54–102g (1994).
228 Roe, 193 F.3d at 75–76.
229 Id. at 77.
230 Id.
231 See id.
232 Id. at 77–78.
233 Skinner, 489 U.S. at 624.
234 Id.
235 See, e.g., O’Connor v. Ortega, 480 U.S. 709, 725 (1987) (finding search of hospital employees’ desks and offices falls within “special needs” exception); New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. 325, 346–47 (1985) (holding search of student property reasonable under “special needs” exception); Bell v. Wolfish, 441 U.S. 520, 558–60 (1979) (upholding body cavity inspections of prison inmates).
236 Roe, 193 F.3d at 78–79.
237 Id. at 79.
238 Id.
239 Griffen, 483 U.S. at 870–74.
240 Id. at 875.
241 Id.
242 Roe, 193 F.3d at 79.
243 Id.
244 See Skinner, 489 U.S. at 625 (confirming that blood tests do not constitute an unduly extensive imposition on an individual’s privacy).
245 See National Treasury Employees Union v. Von Raab, 489 U.S. 656, 667 (1989) (testing of all employees who applied for certain positions was reasonable because no official discretion was involved).
246 Roe, 193 F.3d at 80. Applying the “rational basis” test, the court held that the statute did not violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. See id. at 82. The court held that the even if the statute was under-inclusive, it could not be invalidated on that basis alone. See id.
247 Id. at 81–82.
248 See, e.g., Roe, 193 F.3d at 79; Jones v. Murray, 962 F.2d 302, 307 (4th Cir. 1992); Landry, 709 N.E.2d at 1091 n.10.
249 See Ala. Code 36–18–24 (1994); N.M. Stat. Ann.  29–16–6 (Michie 1997); Va. Code Ann.  19.2–310.2 (Michie 1995); Wyo. Stat. Ann.  7–19–403 (Michie 1999).
250 See La. Rev. Stat. Ann.  15:609 (West 1999).
251 See Michael Smith, Comments at the Meeting of the National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence (July 26, 1999), in Proceedings, at http: //www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/ dnamtgtrans6/trans-j.html (last visited Feb. 22, 2000).
252 See Higgins, supra note 42, at 65–66.
253 See id. at 66–67.
254 See Bowser, supra note 110.
255 See Hibbert, supra note 49, at 779.
256 See id.
257 Bowser, supra note 110.
258 See Benjamin Keehn, Strands of Justice: Do DNA Databanks Infringe on Defendants’ Rights?, Online News Hour (July 17, 1998), at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/ july98/dna_databanks01.html.
259 Id.
260 Bowser, supra note 110.
261 Id.
262 Id.
263 See Hibbert, supra note 49, at 821.
264 See id.
265 See id. at 779–81.
266 See id. at 781–82.
267 See id.
268 Hibbert, supra note 49, at 782.
269 Bowser, supra note 110; Schumacher, supra note 46, at 1654–55.
270 Bowser, supra note 110.
271 See Reilly, supra note 206.
272 See Tuchman, supra note 42; Asplen, supra note 206.
273 Asplen, supra note 206.
274 Niezgoda, supra note 200.
275 Id.
276 Id.
277 See id.
278 See id.
279 Niezgoda, supra note 200.
280 See id.
281 See id.
282 See id.
283 See id.
284 Niezgoda, supra note 200.
285 See Lander, supra note 54.
286 Niezgoda, supra note 200.
287 See Hibbert, supra note 49, at 797.
288 See id.
289 Lynn Fereday, Comments at the Meeting of the National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence (July 26, 1999), in Proceedings, at http: //www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/ dnamtgtrans6/trans-i.htm(last visited Feb. 22, 2000).
290 Id.
291 See id.
292 Id.
293 Id.
294 See Fereday, supra note 289.
295 Blair, supra note 118.
296 See Willing, supra note 120.
297 Id.
298 See FBI National DNA Database Is Up and Running, Conspiracy Newsline (Oct. 15, 1998), at http://www.parascope.com/articles/cnews/981015.htm [hereinafter FBI National DNA Database].
299 Id.
300 See id.
301 Id.
302 Fereday, supra note 289.
303 Id.
304 Id.
305 Id.
306 Id.
307 See Fereday, supra note 289.
308 See id.
309 Id.
310 Id.
311 FBI National DNA Database, supra note 298.
312 Blair, supra note 118.
313 See Asplen, supra note 206; Deborah Smith, Cops and Swabbers, Sydney Morning Herald, Dec. 1, 1999, at 19, available at 1999 WL 29631811.
314 Fereday, supra note 289.
315 See Willing, supra note 120.
316 See id.
317 Id.
318 Id.
319 Id.
320 Willing, supra note 120.
321 Id.
322 Id.
323 Id. A technique that examines ten loci has a one in one billion likelihood of a mismatch. Id.
324 Id.
325 See Willing, supra note 120.
326 Id.
327 Id.
328 Id.
329 Id.
330 See Michael Zeigler, State DNA Data Locks in on Felons, Rochester News (Feb. 12, 2000), available at http://www.rochesternews.com/0212dna.html.
331 See Willing, supra note 120.
332 See, e.g., Smith, supra note 313; Audrey Parwani, Voluntary Donations of DNA ‘A Danger,’ S. China Morning Post, June 19, 1999, at 1, available at 1999 WL 19486409; Tim McBride, State Surveillance: The Slippery Slope, 4 PLPR 71 (1997), http:// www.austlii.edu. au/au/other/plpr/vol4/no4/71.html.
333 See Smith, supra note 313; Parwani, supra note 332, McBride, supra note 332.
334 See Smith, supra note 313; Parwani, supra note 332, McBride, supra note 332.
335 See Crispin Hull, DNA Sampling Is the Way to Go But There Are Legitimate Concerns, Canberra Times, Feb. 13, 2000, at 2, available at 2000 WL 4604059.
336 See id.
337 Smith, supra note 313.
338 See id.
339 See id.
340 Chris Puplick, Sirens Sound Over Privacy, at wysiwyg: //99/http://www.smh.com.au: 80/news/0004/13/text/features3.html (last visited Apr. 19, 2000).
341 Smith, supra note 313.
342 See id.
343 Id.
344 See id.
345 See Puplick, supra note 340.
346 See id.
347 Shawn Donnan, Willing To Give Up Their DNA, But Privacy Too?, The Christian Science Monitor (Apr. 13, 2000), available at http://www. csmonitor.com/durable/2000/ 04/13/pls4.htm.
348 Id.
349 Id.
350 See id.
351 Id.
352 Les Kennedy, A Small Town, A Rapist At Large...600 Men Called For DNA Tests, SMH (Apr. 6, 2000), available at wysiwyg://59/http://www. smh.com.au/news/0004/06/ pageone/pageone10.html. The DNA database legislation was passed through the Senate in March, 2001. Shortly thereafter in April, 2001, MP Peter Lindsay recommended mandatory DNA samples to be taken from all Australians at birth and anyone who chooses to immigrate to Australia as a condition of entry to the country. Take DNA at Birth: Politician, AustrailianIT.com.au (Apr. 25, 2001), at wysiwyg://26/http://news.com.au:80...ge/ 0,4057,1932042%255E1702,00.html.
353 Id.
354 Id.
355 Christina Ho, Libertarians Cry Foul at DNA Tests for Rape Investigation, SMH (Apr. 10, 2000), available at wysiwyg://61/http://www. smh.com.au:80/news/0004/10/text/nation-al01.html.
356 Puplick, supra note 340.
357 Id.
358 Id.
359 See id.
360 McBride, supra note 332.
361 See id.
362 See id.
363 See id.
364 Id.
365 ESR, The DNA Databank, at http://www.esr.cri.nz/ features/databank/index.html (last visited Apr. 19, 2000).
366 Id.
367 Id.
368 Id.
369 Id.
370 ESR, supra note 365.
371 See McBride, supra note 332.
372 See Office of the Privacy Commissioner, Reports on Proposed Legislation, at http://privacy.org.nz/search97cgi/s97_c...y%26ResultStart%3D1%26ResultCount%3D25&.html (last visited Apr. 14, 2000).
373 Id.
374 Id.
375 Id.
376 McBride, supra note 332.
377 See id.
378 DNA Tests Now Mandatory for Sex Offenders, China News, Jan. 16, 1999, available at 1999 WL 7538992.
379 Id.
380 Id.
381 Id.
382 See id.
383 DNA Tests Now Mandatory for Sex Offenders, supra note 378.
384 Id.
385 Id.
386 Id.
387 See Parwani, supra note 332.
388 Kang-Chung, supra note 120.
389 Privacy Chief to Check DNA Sample Bill, Hong Kong Standard, Feb. 10, 1999, available at 1999 WL 5640593.
390 Parwani, supra note 332.
391 See Kang-Chung, supra note 120.
392 See id.
393 See id.
394 See Parwani, supra note 332.
395 See id.
396 See id.
397 Privacy Chief to Check DNA Sample Bill, supra note 389.
398 Honorable Laurie Robinson, Address at The 12th International Congress on Criminology (Aug. 28, 1998).
399 Id.
400 Id.
401 Id.
402 Id.
403 Robinson, supra note 398.
404 See Fereday, supra note 289; Sievers, supra note 37.
405 Fereday, supra note 289.
406 See, e.g., Tuchman, supra note 42; Hibbert, supra note 49, at 769; Smith, supra note 313.
407 See, e.g., Tuchman, supra note 42; Hibbert, supra note 49, at 769; Smith, supra note 313.
408 See, e.g., Smith, supra note 313; Parwani, supra note 332; Smith, supra note 251.
409 See, e.g., Hull, supra note 335; Smith, supra note 313; Robisnon, supra note 398.
410 Joseph Altman, Jr., Formal Charges Loom for Man Linked by Police to Serial Killings, Associated Press (Apr. 14, 2000), http://www.foxnews.com/national/041400.html.
411 Id.
412 Id.
413 See Lander, supra note 54.
414 See Robinson, supra note 398.
415 See Lander, supra note 54.
416 See, e.g., Lander, supra note 54; Robinson, supra note 398; Higgins, supra note 42, at 64–64.
417 See Tuchman, supra note 42; Willing, supra note 120.
418 See Tuchman, supra note 42; Willing, supra note 120.
419 See Willing, supra note 120.
420 See id.
421 See id.; Lander, supra note 54.
422 See Zeigler, supra note 330; Willing, supra note 120.
423 See Lander, supra note 54.
424 See Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharm., 509 U.S. 579, 593-94 (1993); Frye v. United States, 293 F. 1013, 1014 (D.C. Cir. 1923).
425 See Daubert, 509 U.S. at 595.
426 See, e.g., Hibbert, supra note 49, at 776–81; Smith, supra note 313; Parwani, supra note 332.
427 See, e.g., Hibbert, supra note 49, at 776–81; Smith, supra note 313; Parwani, supra note 332.
428 See, e.g., Hibbert, supra note 49, at 776–81; Smith, supra note 313; Parwani, supra note 332.
429 See, e.g., Hibbert, supra note 49, at 776–81; Smith, supra note 313; Parwani, supra note 332.
430 See, e.g., Hibbert, supra note 49, at 776–81; Smith, supra note 313; Parwani, supra note 332.
431 See Smith, supra note 313.
432 See Puplick, supra note 340.
433 See Bowser, supra note 110.
434 See Fereday, supra note 289; Smith, supra note 313.
435 See Smith, supra note 313; Hamblett, supra note 199.
436 See Fereday, supra note 289.
437 See Zeigler, supra note 330.
438 See Fereday, supra note 289; Smith, supra note 313.
439 See Fereday, supra note 289.
440 See Smith, supra note 313; Privacy Chief to Check DNA Sample Bill, supra note 389.
441 See Smith, supra note 313.
442 See id.
443 See Fereday, supra note 289.
444 See id.
445 See Smith, supra note 313.
446 See Willing, supra note 120; Lander, supra note 54.
447 See Willing, supra note 120; Lander, supra note 54.
448 See Willing, supra note 120; Lander, supra note 54.
449 See Willing, supra note 120.
450 See Lander, supra note 54.
451 See Puplick, supra note 340.
452 See id.
453 See Bowser, supra note 110.