1 E.g., Parliament Resolution on the European Health Card, 1996 O.J. (C 141) 104 [hereinafter 1996 Parliament Resolution]; Resolution of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments the Member States, Meeting Within the Council, of 29 May 1986 Concerning the Adoption of a European Emergency Health Card, 1986 O.J. (C 184) 4 [hereinafter 1986 Council Resolution]; Draft Council Recommendation Concerning the Adoption of a European Emergency Card, 1984 O.J. (C 337) 449 [hereinafter 1984 Draft Council Recommendation]; Resolution Closing the Procedure for Consultations of the European Parliament on the Proposal from the Commission of the European Communities to the Council for a Recommendation Concerning the Adoption of a European Emergency Card, 1984 O.J. (C 337) 450 [hereinafter 1984 Parliament Resolution]; Parliament Resolution on a European Healthcard, 1981 O.J. (C 287) 32 [hereinafter 1981 Parliament Resolution]. The relevant literature uses the terminology “healthcard” and “health card.” This Note employs the former.
2 The Clinical Information Consultancy, Healthcards, at http://www.cix.co.uk/~cic/ euhci.htm (last modified Mar. 12, 1998).
3 Hervé Doare, Data Cards in Healthcare, Parallel Session: Healthcare Telematics, at http://www.echo.lu/ (Apr. 4, 1997).
4 Arthur Rogers, Plans for European Union Healthcards Flounder, The Lancet, Jun. 12, 1999, available at 1999 WL 9763575.
5 Id.
6 See, e.g., Daniel L. Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, Conference Proceedings Paper, Department of Veterans Affairs (discussing German and French projects), at http://www.va.gov/card/presentations.htm (May 14, 1999); Daniel L. Maloney, Healthcare Applications, Slide Presentation, Department of Veterans Affairs (discussing same), at http://www.va.gov/card/presentations.htm (May 14, 1999); Otfrid P. Schaefer, Evolution of Health Care Cards & Networks in Europe, PowerPoint Presentation, Central Research Institute of Ambulatory Health Care in Germany (discussing projects or proposed projects in Germany, Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, as well as eight Eastern European card proposals), at http://www.va.gov/card/presentations.htm (1997).
7 See Schaefer, supra note 6 (“Many European smart health card projects have been running within the last ten years, have demonstrated functional and organizational benefits in health care, have been researched and teste[d] for administrativ[e] as well as for specific medical applications. None of them have been compatible with each other.”).
8 See, e.g., 1996 Parliament Resolution, supra note 1, at 104; 1986 Council Resolution, supra note 1, at 4.
9 See The Legislative Observatory, Decision of Committee Responsible, http://www. europarl.eu.int/oeil (Mar. 20, 1996).
10 Herbert EGM Hermans & Philip C. Berman, Access to Health Care and Health Services in the European Union: Regulation 1408/71 and the E111 Process, in Health Care and Its Financing in the Single European Market 324, 331 (R. Leidl ed., 1998).
11 Id. at 326.
12 1981 Parliament Resolution, supra note 1, at 32.
13 1996 Parliament Resolution, supra note 1, at 105.
14 See, e.g., 1996 Parliament Resolution, supra note 1, at 104; 1986 Council Resolution, supra note 1, at 4; 1984 Draft Council Recommendation, supra note 1, at 449; 1981 Parliament Resolution, supra note 1, at 32.
15 1981 Parliament Resolution, supra note 1, at 32–33.
16 Id. at 32.
17 Id. The European Parliament did not indicate why conditions did not favor the introduction of such a card. See id.
18 Id. at 33.
19 1984 Draft Council Recommendation, supra note 1, at 449.
20 See 1986 Council Resolution, supra note 1, at 4–14.
21 Id. at 4–7.
22 Id. at 7–11.
23 Id. at 10–14.
24 1996 Parliament Resolution, supra note 1, at 104–106.
25 Id.
26 See Doare, supra note 3.
27 Id.
28 Department of Vetrans Affairs, Overview of the G-8 Healthcare Data Card Project, at http://www.va.gov/card/g7card.htm (last visited Sept. 24, 2000).
29 G-7 Global Healthcare Applications Project: 5th Progress Report, at http://www.ispo.cec. be/ (May 1996).
30 Doare, supra note 3.
31 Id.
32 Id.
33 See id.; G-7 Global Healthcare Applications Project: 5th Progress Report, supra note 29.
34 See Doare, supra note 3.
35 See id.
36 The Clinical Information Consultancy, supra note 2.
37 See Doare, supra note 3.
38 Ina Bauer, Israeli Card Firm Gears Up To Take a Swipe at Europe, WALL ST. J. EUR., Aug. 24, 1999, available at 1999 WL-WSJE 18412162.
39 Id.
40 Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, supra note 6.
41 Rogers, supra note 4; Europe Information Service, Health Ministers Discuss Disease Network and EU Health Card, Eur. Rep., Nov. 11, 1996, available at 1996 WL 11075034.
42 Doare, supra note 3.
43 The Clinical Information Consultancy, supra note 2.
44 Id.
45 See Doare, supra note 3.
46 See id.
47 See Rogers, supra note 4; Europe Information Service, supra note 41.
48 The Clinical Information Consultancy, supra note 2.
49 Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, supra note 6 (CardLink, NetLink, and TrustHealth); Schaefer, supra note 6 (CardLink, DiabCard, TrustHealth).
50 See Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, supra note 6.
51 Id.
52 G-7 Global Healthcard Applications Project: 3rd Progress Report, at http://www.echo.lu/ (Nov. 1995).
53 The Clinical Information Consultancy, supra note 2 (providing links to the reports, which can be downloaded).
54 Doare, supra note 3.
55 See AIM DG XIII “Eurocards” Concerted Action, Final Report, 15–22 (ethical and legal aspects), 24–26 (security requirements), at http://www.cix.co.uk/~cic/euhci.htm (Apr. 28, 1995).
56 See generally id.
57 Doare, supra note 3.
58 CardLink 2: A Patient Held Portable Record for Use in Cases of Medical Emergency, at http://www.ehto.org/ht_projects/html/dynamic/19.html (last modified Aug. 26, 1998) [hereinafter CardLink 2].
59 Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, supra note 6.
60 Maloney, Healthcare Applications, supra note 6; Schaefer, supra note 6.
61 Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, supra note 6.
62 Id.
63 CardLink 2, supra note 58.
64 Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, supra note 6.
65 DiabCard-3: Improved Communication in Diabetes Care Based on Chip Card Technology, at http://www.ehto.org/ht_projects/html/dynamic/26.html (last modified Aug. 26, 1998) [hereinafter DiabCard-3].
66 Id.
67 Telematics for Healthcare: DiabCard 3 Project Fact Sheet, at http://www.echo.lu/ (last visited Oct. 2, 1999).
68 DiabCard-3, supra note 65.
69 Schaefer, supra note 6.
70 DiabCard-3, supra note 65.
71 The Clinical Information Consultancy, supra note 2.
72 Id.
73 EHTO, NetLink: Validation and Co-ordination of Implementation of Interoperable Data Card Systems and Intranet Solutions Before Nation Wide Implementation, http://www.ehto.org/ht_ projects/html/dynamic/89.htm (last modified Dec. 29, 1999) [hereinafter NetLink].
74 GIE Sesam-Vitale, International Projects, at http://www.sesam-vitale.fr/ (last modified Aug. 31, 1999).
75 NetLink, supra note 73.
76 EHTO, TrustHealth: Trustworthy health telematics, at http://www.ehto.org/ht_ projects/html/dynamic/130.html (last modified Aug. 26, 1998).
77 Id.
78 The G-8 countries are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Russia. Maloney, Healthcare Applications, supra note 6.
79 For information on the G-8 Global Healthcare Applications Project, see, e.g., The G-8 Groups, at http://www.sesam-vitale.fr/ (last visited Oct. 19, 1999); Telematics for Healthcare: G7-Healthcards Project Fact Sheet at http://www.echo.lu/ (last visited Oct. 2, 1999); G-7 Global Healthcare Applications Project: 6th Project Report, at http://www.ipso.cec.org/g7/projects/ g7heal6.html (Dec. 1996); G-7 Global Healthcare Applications Project: 5th Project Report, supra note 29.
80 Maloney, Healthcare Applications, supra note 6.
81 Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, supra note 6.
82 Id.
83 Id.
84 Id.
85 Id.
86 Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, supra note 6.
87 Id.
88 Id.
89 Schaefer, supra note 6.
90 Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, supra note 6.
91 Schaefer, supra note 6. The cards contain only the name and identification number of the insurance, the name, title, address, and birthday of the holder, the insurance status and identification number of the holder, and the expiration date of the card. See id.
92 Id.
93 Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, supra note 6.
94 Id.
95 Schaefer, supra note 6.
96 Id.
97 Id.
98 Id.
99 Schaefer, supra note 6.
100 Id.
101 Id.
102 Id.
103 See, e.g., AIM DG XIII “Eurocards” Concerted Action, Final Report, supra note 55.
104 See, e.g., id.
105 Id.
106 David Markwell, Interoperability of Healthcard Systems: Part 2, Achieving Interoperability, at http://www.cix.co.uk/~cic/euhci.htm (Aug. 26, 1996).
107 Maloney, Cards Technology in Healthcare, supra note 6; Schaefer, supra note 6.
108 See generally Hervé Doare, International Harmonization of Health Cards—EU and G7 Initiatives, at http://concord.cscdc.be/conference/abstract/3_1030_5_4.htm (last visited Oct. 20, 1999) [hereinafter Doare, International Harmonization of Health Cards].
109 See, e.g., Smartcards: Motorola Wins Two European Smartcard Contracts; More Than 40 Million Cards to be Issued Eventually in Spanish Social Security & Czech Trial Healthcard Projects, Edge: Work-Group Computing Report, Feb. 26, 1996, available at 1996 WL 7977311.
110 See, e.g., Doare, International Harmonization of Health Cards, supra note 108. At least 100 million cards have already been distributed. See id.
111 See Schaefer, supra note 6.
112 See Doare, supra note 3.
113 Id.
114 Id.
115 AIM DG XIII “Eurocards” Concerted Action, Final Report, supra note 55, at 21.
116 Doare, supra note 3.
117 Health Card Technologies, Inc., Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About Medical Smart Cards, at http://www.hct.com/faq.htm (1999).
118 Id.
119 Id.
120 Doare, supra note 3.
121 Id.; AIM DG XIII “Eurocards” Concerted Action, Final Report, supra note 55, at 15.
122 Doare, supra note 3.
123 Id.
124 Id.
125 Id.
126 Id.
127 1995 O.J. (L 281) 31.
128 Id. at 40, 42, 43.
129 Id. at 45.
130 See, e.g., 1996 Parliament Resolution, supra note 1; 1986 Council Resolution, supra note 1; 1984 Draft Council Recommendation, supra note 1; 1981 Parliament Resolution, supra note 1.
131 Schaefer, supra note 6.
132 Id.