Journal Contents

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[Pages 85-144]

I.  Framework for Evaluating Antitrust Restraints in the E.U. and the U.S.
    A.  The Restrictive Approach Adopted by Commission Towards Restraints of Conduct
        1.  The E.U. Block Exemption System
        2.  The Relationship Between Article 81(3) of the EC Treaty and the Rule of Reason
        3.  The U.S. Approach: the Creation of the Rule of Reason to Limit the Prohibition of Section 1 of the Sherman Act
    B.  The Application of the Rule of Reason Analysis to Vertical Restraints: The Conflicting Approaches of the Commission and the U.S. Agencies Regarding the Characterization of License Agreements as Horizontal or Vertical
        1.  The Economics of Vertical Restraints
              a.  The Chicago School Approach
              b.  Market Integration
        2.  The U.S. Agencies’ Application of the Rule of Reason to License Agreements
        3.  The E.C.J.’s Attempts to Develop a Rule of Reason-Oriented Approach: Conflict Between the E.C.J. and the Commission
II. Regulation of Exclusive Licenses in the E.U. Technology Transfer Regulation and the U.S. Intellectual Property Guidelines
    A.  Regulation of Exclusive Licenses in the Technology Transfer Regulation
        1.  Agreements Covered by the Regulation
        2.  Only Agreements With Two Parties Are Covered
        3.  Extraterritorial Application
        4.  Territorial Restrictions
              a.  Open Exclusive Licenses
                            i.  Exempted Provisions
                            ii.  Duration of the Exemption
    a.  basic provisions
    b.  different levels of territorial protection granted to licensors and licensees
    c.  technology transfer regulation and regulation 2790/99 distinguished
                            iii.  The Application of Regulation to Less Restrictive Clauses: Obligations Promised by the Licensor
              b.  Closed Exclusive Licenses
              c.  The Loopholes in the Territorial Protection Allowed Under the Regulation
              d.  Time Limits Set Forth in the Technology Transfer Regulation: A Critical View
                            i.  The Ten Years in Know-how Limitation and Mixed Agreements
                            ii.  The Passive Sales Time Limit
                            iii.  Conclusion: Proposal for Reform
    B.The U.S. Agencies and Courts’ Approach Towards Exclusive Licenses
        1.  The Application of the Rule of Reason to Territorial Restraints
        2.  The U.S. Agencies’ Intellectual Property Guidelines