* LL.M. Candidate, Harvard Law School. Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1995; J.D., University of Miami School of Law, 2000. I am grateful to Professors David Abraham and Carl McKenry of the University of Miami School of Law for their guidance and encouragement.
1 See Yutiy Borko, Possible Scenarios for Geopolitical Shifts in Russian-European Relations, in Geopolitics in Post-Wall Europe 196, 197 (Ola Tunander et al. eds., 1997).
2 R. J. Barry Jones, The Economic Agenda, in International Politics in Europe: The New Agenda 87, 108 (G. Wyn Rees ed., 1993).
3 Christopher Bennett, Yugoslavia’s Bloody Collapse 1 (1995).
4 See W.F. van Eekelen, Debating European Security, 1948–1998, at 142 (1998).
5 Barbara Conry, Cato Institute, Policy Analysis No. 239, The Western European Union as NATO’s Successor 8 (1995).
6 Gazmen Xhudo, Diplomacy and Crisis Management in the Balkans: A U.S. Foreign Policy Perspective 120 (1996).
7 John Newhouse, Europe Adrift 84 (1997).
8 See Barry Buzan, The Future of Western European Security, in European Polyphony: Perspectives Beyond East-West Confrontation 16, 19 (Ole Waever et al., eds. 1989).
9 Id.
10 Ole Waever, Identity, Integration and Security: Solving the Sovereignty Puzzle in E.U. Studies, 48 J. Int’l Aff. 389, 426 (Winter 1995).
11 See Buzan, supra note 8, at 33.
12 Walter Goldstein, Europe Beyond the Turn of the Century: The Limits of Economic And Security Choices, in The Cold War Legacy in Europe 121, 136 (Otto Pick ed., 1992).
13 Christopher Layne, Minding Our Own Business: The Case for American Non-participation in International Peacekeeping/Peacemaking Operation, in Beyond Traditional Peacekeeping 85, 90 (Donald C.F. Daniel & Bradd C. Hayes eds., 1995).
14 See Richard M. Connaughton, European Organizations and Intervention, in Peace Support Operations and the U.S. Military 185, 193 (Dennis J. Quinn ed., 1994).
15 Justin Raimondo, Into the Bosnian Quagmire: The Case Against U.S. Intervention in the Balkans 27 (1996).
16 See David F. Walsh, The International System in Transition: The New Environment of Foreign Policy, in America in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities in Foreign Policy 11, 30 (Kul B. Rai et al. eds., 1997).
17 See Barbara Crutchfield George, et al., The Dilemma of the European Union: Balancing the Power of the Supranational EU Entity Against the Sovereignty of Its Independent Member Nations, 9 Pace Int’l L. Rev. 111, 117 (1997).
18 See Timothy J. Birch, Defense Cooperation in Western Europe: The Post-Maastricht Era and Beyond 2 (1997).
19 Newhouse, supra note 7, at 15.
20 See David P. Calleo, Rebalancing the U.S.-European-Soviet Triangle, in Europe and America Beyond 2000, at 36, 39 (Gregory F. Treverton ed., 1990).
21 Alexander Moens & Christopher Anstis, Preface Alexnder Moens et al., Disconcerted Europe: The Search for a New Security Architecture i, ix (Alexnder Moens & Christopher Anstis eds., 1994).
22 Pierre Hassner, The Priority of Constructing Western Europe, in Europe and America Beyond 2000, supra note 20, at 18, 23.
23 Gregory F. Treverton, Introduction: Looking Beyond 2000, in Europe and America Beyond 2000, supra note 20, at 1, 9.
24 Hassner, supra note 22, at 31.
25 See Dennis L. Bark, The American-European Relationship: Reflections on Half a Century, in Reflections on Europe 1, 7 (Dennis L. Bark ed., 1997).
26 See Calleo, supra note 20, at 44.
27 Charles Krupnick, European Security and Defense Cooperation During the Cold War, in Disconcerted Europe: The Search for a New Security Architecture, supra note 21, at 3, 20.
28 Alfred Cahen, The Western European Union and NATO: Building a European Identity Within the Context of Atlantic Solidarity 22 (1990).
29 Layne, supra note 13, at 95.
30 Susan L. Woodward, Redrawing Borders in a Period of Systemic Transition, in International Organizations and Ethnic Conflict 198, 209 (Milton J. Esman & Shibley Telhani eds., 1995).
31 See Susan L. Woodward, International Aspects of the Wars in Former Yugoslavia, in Burn This House: The Making and Unmaking of Yugoslavia 215, 216 (Jasminka Udovicki & James Ridgeway eds., 1997).
32 Kenneth Christie, Problems in European Politics 223 (1995).
33 Desmond Dinan, Encyclopedia of the European Union 218 (1998).
34 G. Wynn Rees, The Western European Union at the Crossroads: Between Trans-Atlantic Solidarity and European Integration ix (1998).
35 See Cahen, supra note 28, at 25.
36 Connaughton, supra note 14, at 189.
37 Michael Brenner, America’s European Role, in The Cold War Legacy in Europe, supra note 12, at 44, 57.
38 Alexender Moens, The Formative Years of the New NATO: Diplomacy from London to Rome, in Disconcerted Europe: The Search for a New Security Architecture, supra note 21, at 24, 33.
39 Christie, supra note 32, at 224.
40 Bark, supra note 25, at 138.
41 Christie, supra note 32, at 224.
42 Peter Duignan & L.H. Gann, The USA and the New Europe, 1945–1993, at 248 (1994).
43 Goldstein, supra note 12, at 121–22.
44 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 60.
45 Robert D. Hormats, A New Europe: A Renewed Atlantic Link, in Europe and America Beyond 2000, supra note 20, at 63, 64.
46 Single European Act (1987).
47 Christie, supra note 32, at 208.
48 Moens, supra note 38, at 37.
49 Id.
50 Id. at 63.
51 See id. at 61.
52 Id. at 60.
53 Alexis Heraclides, Helsinki-II and its Aftermath: The Making of the CSCE into an International Organization 185–86 (1993).
54 Hormats, supra note 45, at 63.
55 Bennett, supra note 3, at 33.
56 Aleksandar Pavkovich, The Fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism in a Multinational State 3–4 (1997).
57 Christie, supra note 32, at 239.
58 Julie Mertus, Lessons From History: The Inter-War Minorities Schemes and the “Yugoslav Nations,” 23 Brook. J. Int’l L. 793, 799 (1998).
59 Bennett, supra note 3, at 10–11.
60 Richard N. Haass, Intervention: The Use of American Military Force in the Post-Cold War World 37 (1994).
61 Woodward, supra note 31, at 217.
62 See Bennett, supra note 3, at 6.
63 See Roumen I. Kondev, The United States-Russian Military Cooperation in Implementation Force Operations in Bosnia 6 (1997).
64 Pavkovich, supra note 56, at ix.
65 Bennett, supra note 3, at 238.
66 Kondev, supra note 63, at ix.
67 Victoria I. Einagel, Lasting Peace in Bosnia? Polictics of Territory & Identity, in Geopolitics in Post-Wall Europe, supra note 1, at 235, 247.
68 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 172.
69 Woodward, supra note 30, at 208.
70 Conry, supra note 5, at 5.
71 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 93.
72 Christopher Coker, East of Suez Revisitied: The Strategic Recoupling of Western Europe and the Third World, in The United States, Western Europe, and Military Intervention Overseas 1, 22 (Christopher Coker ed., 1988).
73 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 140–141.
74 Susan Woodward, The US Perspective: Transition Period, in The Issues Raised by Bosnia and the Transatlantic Debate 44, 45 (Sophia Clement ed., 1998).
75 Woodward, supra note 30, at 227.
76 Dinan, supra note 33, at 496.
77 John J. Kavanagh, Note, Attempting to Run Before Learning to Walk: Problems of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy 20 B.C. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 353, 353 (1997).
78 See van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 97.
79 Anthony Forster, The European Community and Western European Union, in Disconcerted Europe: The Search for a New Security Architecture, supra note 21, at 48, 60.
80 Oliver Ramsbotham & Tom Woodhouse, Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary Conflict 171 (1996).
81 Woodward, supra note 30, at 210.
82 Bennett, supra note 3, at 160.
83 Charles Lane, Call to Arms, The New Republic, July 17 & 24, 1995, reprinted in Nader Mousavizadeh, The Black Book of Bosnia: The Consequences of Appeasement 143 (1996).
84 F. Brandon Baer, The World and Yugoslavia’s Wars 38, Harv. Int’l L.J. 311, 313 (1997).
85 Christopher Anstis, The Conference on Secutiy and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), in Disconcerted Europe: The Search for a New Security Architecture, supra note 21, at 76, 88.
86 Baer, supra note 84, at 312.
87 Sophia Clement, Introduction, in The Issues Raised by Bosnia and the Transatlantic Debate, supra note 74, at 1, 3.
88 James Gow, Triumph of the Lack of Will: International Diplomacy and the Yugoslav War 175–78 (1997).
89 Michael Mandelbaum, The Dawn of Peace in Europe 31 (1996).
90 Forster, supra note 79, at 62.
91 Mandelbaum, supra note 89, at 30.
92 Gow, supra note 88, at 158.
93 Mandelbaum, supra note 89, at 30.
94 Gow, supra note 88, at 168.
95 Newhouse, supra note 7, at 82.
96 Marc Weller, Current Development: The International Response to the Dissolution of Yugoslavia, 86 Am. J. Int’l L. 569, 575 (1992).
97 Moens & Anstis, Failures of the First Round and a Proposal for a New Strategy, in Disconcerted Europe: The Search for a New Security Architecture, supra note 21, at 227, 236.
98 Forster, supra note 79, at 62.
99 Roy Rempel, German Security Policy in The European Order, in Disconcerted Europe: The Search for a New Security Architecture, supra note 21, at 159, 184.
100 James Gow & Lawrence Freedman, Intervention in a Fragmenting State: The Case of Yugoslavia, in To Loose the Bands of Wickedness: International Intervention in the Defence of Human Rights 93, 113 (Nigel S. Rodley ed., 1992).
101 Weller, supra note 96, at 575.
102 Simon Duke, The Second Death (or the Second Coming?) of the WEU, 34 J Common Mkt. Studies 167, 180 (1996).
103 Nicholas Wheeler, The Human Rights and Security Agenda, in International Politics in Europe: The New Agenda, supra note 2, at 133, 155.
104 Gow & Freedman, supra note 100, at 130.
105 Christie, supra note 32, at 242.
106 Filippo Andreatta, The Bosnian War and the New World Order: Failure and Success of International Intervention 3 (1997).
107 See Woodward, supra note 30, at 222–23.
108 Andreatta, supra note 106, at 3.
109 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 148.
110 See Moens, supra note 38, at 26.
111 See Trevor C. Salmon, European Political Cooperation and Yugoslavia, 1990–1992, 68 Int’l Affs. 233, 248 (1992).
112 Id. at 252.
113 See Anstis, supra note 85, at 108–09.
114 Id. at 88.
115 Id. at 105.
116 Moens & Anstis, supra note 97, at 231.
117 Gow, supra note 88, at 69–70.
118 See id. at 74–75.
119 Newhouse, supra note 7, at 20–21.
120 Nimet Beriker Atiyas, Mediating Regional Conflicts and Negotiating Flexibility: Peace Efforts in Bosnia-Herzegovinia, 542 Annals Am. Acad. Pol. & Soc. Sci. 185, 190 (1995).
121 Id. at 190.
122 Mats Berdal, United Nations Peacekeeping in the Former Yugoslavia, in Beyond Traditional Peacekeeping, supra note 13, at 228, 229–30.
123 Dinan, supra note 33, at 494.
124 See id. at 275–76.
125 See id.
126 Id. at 1.
127 See Salmon, supra note 111, at 223.
128 See WEU Secretariat-General, WEU Today 13–14 (1997).
129 See Simon Lunn, The Future of NATO, in The Cold War Legacy in Europe, supra note 12, at 7, 20.
130 Simon Duke, The New European Security Disorder 131 (1994).
131 See Duignan & Gann, supra note 42, at 53–54.
132 Bark, supra note 25, at 28.
133 Treaty on European Union, art. J.5.
134 Id. art. J.3.1–2.
135 Id.
136 G. Porter Elliot, Neutrality, the Acquis Communautaire and the European Union’s Search for a Common Foreign and Security Policy under Title V of the Maastricht Treaty: The Accession of Austria, Finland and Sweden, 25 Ga. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 601, 615 (1996).
137 Phillippe Manin, The Treaty of Amsterdam, 4 Colum. J. Eur. L. 1, 17 (1998).
138 See Salmon, supra note 111, at 248.
139 See Rees, supra note 34, at 53.
140 Birch, supra note 18, at 10.
141 Dinan, supra note 33, at 486.
142 Rees, supra note 34, at 52.
143 Dinan, supra note 33, at 486.
144 Forster, supra note 79, at 70.
145 See id. at 64.
146 Heraclides, supra note 53, at 43.
147 Id.
148 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 142–43.
149 Heraclides, supra note 53, at 84.
150 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 151.
151 Steven L. Burg, The International Community & the Yugoslav Crisis, in International Orginizations and Ethnic Conflict, supra note 30, at 235, 270–71.
152 Christie, supra note 32, at 229.
153 WEU Secretariat-General, supra note 128, at 10–11.
154 See Dinan, supra note 33, at 487.
155 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 127.
156 WEU Secretariat-General, supra note 128, at 9.
157 Forster, supra note 79, at 68.
158 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 130.
159 Id.
160 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 152.
161 Inst. for Nat’l Strategic Stud., A New Trans-Atlantic Relationship? The U.S., NATO, and the EU 3 (1994).
162 See van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 142.
163 Bennett, supra note 3, at 153.
164 See Berdal, supra note 122, at 229.
165 See Amos Jordan et al., American National Security: Policy and Process 482 (1993).
166 See Noel Malcolm, Bosnia: A Short History 245–46 (1994).
167 See Christopher A. Riley, Neither Free Nor Fair: The 1996 Bosnian Elections and the Failure of the U.N. Election-Monitoring System, 30 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 1173, 1180 (1997).
168 Malcolm, supra note 166, at 246.
169 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 160–61.
170 Bennett, supra note 3, at 193.
171 Malcolm, supra note 166, at 246.
172 See id. at 247.
173 Michael A. Sells, The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia 134 (1996).
174 See John C. Hulsman, A Paradigm for the New World Order: A Schools-of-Thought Analysis of American Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era 62 (1997).
175 Atiyas, supra note 120, at 193.
176 Malcolm, supra note 166, at 250.
177 See Arie Bloed, The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe: Analysis and Basic Documents, 1972–1993, at 269–70 (1993).
178 See Bennett, supra note 3, at 203.
179 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 291.
180 Hulsman, supra note 174, at 58.
181 Xhudo, supra note 6, at 1–2.
182 See Hulsman, supra note 174, at 118–19.
183 Pertti Joenniemi, Finland & European Security: Traditions & Responses to Current Challenges, in European Polyphony: Perspectives Beyond East-West Confrontation, supra note 8, at 233, 248.
184 Elliot, supra note 136, at 631.
185 Dinan, supra note 33, at 84.
186 See Gow, supra note 88, at 306.
187 Hulsman, supra note 174, at 106.
188 Edward C. Luck, The Case for Engagement: American Interests in UN Peace Operations, in Beyond Traditional Peacekeeping, supra note 13, at 67, 74.
189 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 163.
190 Gow, supra note 88, at 307.
191 The Abdication, The New Republic, Feb. 28, 1994.
192 Hulsman, supra note 174, at 124–27.
193 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 168.
194 Id. at 152.
195 See Hulsman, supra note 174, at 122–23.
196 Atiyas, supra note 120, at 193.
197 Malcolm, supra note 166, at 250.
198 Id. at 251.
199 Haass, supra note 60, at 40.
200 See Moens & Anstis, supra note 21, at ix.
201 Moens & Anstis, supra note 97, at 235.
202 Paul Cornish, European Security, 72 Int’l Aff. 751, 762 (1997).
203 Xhudo, supra note 6, at 114.
204 Duignan & Gann, supra note 42, at 177.
205 Gow, supra note 88, at 220.
206 Krupnick, supra note 27, at 14–15.
207 Duke, supra note 130, at 354.
208 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 166.
209 Forster, supra note 79, at 63.
210 Hulsman, supra note 174, at 118.
211 Cornish, supra note 202, at 763.
212 Laura Silber & Alan Little, Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation 309 (1995).
213 Atiyas, supra note 120, at 197–98.
214 See Dinan, supra note 33, at 495.
215 Gow, supra note 88, at 156.
216 See Dinan, supra note 33, at 487.
217 Jean-Marie Caro, Towards Association of the Countries of Centeral Europe with the Western European Union, in Western European Union’s View on the Security of Central and Eastern European Countries 27, 35 (Regina Wasowicz ed., 1994).
218 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 206.
219 Stephen J. Blank, U.S. Policy in the Balkans: A Hobson’s Choice 4 (1995).
220 See Duke, supra note 102, at 175–80.
221 Gow, supra note 88, at 220–22.
222 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 176.
223 Inst. for Nat’l Strategic Stud., supra note 161, at 3.
224 Newhouse, supra note 7, at 219.
225 Dinan, supra note 33, at 496.
226 Conry, supra note 5, at 9–10.
227 See Dinan, supra note 33, at 495.
228 Hulsman, supra note 174, at 169.
229 Ludger Kuhnhardt, On Germany, Turkey, and the United States, in Reflections on Europe, supra note 25, at 93, 114.
230 Jonathan Eyal, “Ten Commandments” to Cleanse the Guilt of Bosnia, World Today, Nov. 1996, at 300.
231 Mandelbaum, supra note 89, at 35.
232 Silber & Little, supra note 212, at 317.
233 Eyal, supra note 230, at 302.
234 John Norton Moore, Toward a New Paradigm: Enhanced Effectiveness in United Nations Peacekeeping, Collective Security, and War Avoidance, 37 Va. J. Int’l L. 811, 868 (Summer 1997).
235 Dinan, supra note 33, at 84.
236 Gow, supra note 88, at 320.
237 Hulsman, supra note 174, at 177.
238 WEU Secretariat-General, supra note 128, at 24.
239 Cornish, supra note 202, at 760.
240 WEU Secretariat-General, supra note 128, at 11.
241 Id. at 11–12.
242 Christian Franck, Belgium: The Importance of Foreign Policy to European Political Union, in The Actors in Europe’s Foreign Policy 151, 163 (Christopher Hill ed., 1996).
243 Warren Christopher, U.S. Dep’t of State, Dispatch vol. 6, NATO Alliance Advances the Goal of European Integration 912 (1995).
244 See Philip H. Gordon, Does the WEU Have a Role?, 20 Wash. U. L.Q. 125, 125–26 (1997).
245 See Woodward, supra note 74, at 50.
246 Kavanagh, supra note 77, at 353.
247 See Bark, supra note 25, at 25.
248 See id. at 40.
249 Id. at 20.
250 Newhouse, supra note 7, at 295.
251 Kuhnhart, supra note 229, at 114.
252 Newhouse, supra note 7, at 213.
253 Henry S. Rowen, The Uncertain Future of the Atlantic Alliance, in Reflections on Europe, supra note 25, at 125, 143.
254 Fred Chernoff, After Bipolarity: The Vanishing Threat, Theories of Cooperation, and the Future of the Atlantic Alliance 253 (1995).
255 Bark, supra note 25, at 41.
256 Conry, supra note 5, at 13.
257 Birch, supra note 18, at 3.
258 Dinan, supra note 33, at 487.
259 van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 61.
260 Id. at 275.
261 Id. at 273–74.
262 Id. at 327.
263 See Manin, supra note 137, at 17.
264 Giorgio Maganza, The Treaty of Amsterdam’s Changes to the Common Foreign and Security Policy Chapter and an Overview of the Opening Enlargement Process, 22 Fordham Int’l L.J. S174, S178 (1999).
265 Daniel T. Murphy, The European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy: It is Not Far from Maastricht to Amsterdam, 31 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 871, 912 (1998).
266 Id.
267 Mandelbaum, supra note 89, at viii.
268 Id. at 42.
269 See Robert Conquest, On Russia: Economics & Politics, Heritage & Tradition, in Reflections on Europe, supra note 25, at 45, 70–71.
270 Rees, supra note 34, at 137.
271 Duke, supra note 130, at 170.
272 See Ted Baggett, Human Rights Abuses in Yugoslavia: To Bring an End to Political Oppression, the International Community Should Assist in Establishing an Independent Kosovo, 27 Ga. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 457, 459 (1999).
273 Id.
274 Id. at 463.
275 Id.
276 See id. at 403.
277 See id. at 464.
278 Eyal, supra note 230, at 304.
279 See Ramsbotham & Woodhouse, supra note 80, at 28.
280 Human Rights Watch, A Week of Terror in Drenica: Humanitarian Law Violations in Kosovo 84 (1999).
281 Baggett, supra note 272, at 465.
282 See Jules Lobel & Michael Ratner, Bypassing the Security Council: Ambiguous Authorizations to Use Force, Cease-Fires and the Iraqi Inspection Regime, 93 Am. J. Int’l L. 124, 152 (1999).
283 Baggett, supra note 272, at 467–68.
284 Dino Kritsiotis, Reappraising Policy Objections to Humanitarian Intervention, 19 Mich. J. Int’l L. 1005, 1007 (1998).
285 Id. at 1030.
286 See Dent Ocaya-Lakidi, UN & the US Military Roles in Regional Organizations in Africa and the Middle East, in Peace Support Operations and the U.S. Military, supra note 14, at 151, 166.
287 Douglas Earle, Beyond Dayton: Finding a Solution in Bosnia 24 (1997).
288 Woodward, supra note 31, at 242.
289 Eyal, supra note 230, at 304.
290 Christian Tomuschat, Vereinte Nationen und Regionalorganisationen: Eine Untersuchung zu Kapitel VIII der Satzung der Vereintent Nationen, 92 Am. J. Int’l L. 155, 155 (1998).
291 See Jose Cutiliero, Old Soldiers Never Die, Fin. Times, Apr. 12, 1999, at 16.
292 President’s Address to the Nation on Airstrikes Against Serbian Targets in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 35 Weekly Comp. Pres. Doc. 516 (Mar. 29, 1999).
293 Id.
294 See Trevor Mason, Robertson Pledges No Let-Up in NATO Air Strikes, Press Ass’n Newsfile, May 19, 1999, LEXIS, News Library, Press Association News File.
295 See Roger Cohen, Crisis in the Balkans: The Europeans; Dependent on U.S. Now, Europe Vows Defense Push, N.Y. Times, May 12, 1999, at A12.
296 See Christopher Cviic, The New Balance of Power in South-Eastern Europe: Notes Towards a Provisional Assessment, in Geopolitics in Post-Wall Europe, supra note 1, at 217, 217–18.
297 Cohen, supra note 295, at A12.
298 Dominque David, A French View of European Security, in European Polyphony: Perseptives Beyond East-West Confrontation, supra note 8, at 99, 107.
299 Cornish, supra note 202, at 765.
300 See Craig R. Whitney, Crisis in the Balkans: New Army; European Union Vows to Become Military Power, N.Y. Times, June 4, 1999, at A1.
301 See Peter Ford, Now U.S. Can Ring Up Mr. Europe, Christ. Sci. Mon., June 4, 1999, at 6.
302 See Dinan, supra note 33, at 85.
303 Deutsche-Presse Agentur, May 10, 1999, at 1.
304 Buzan, supra note 8, at 36.
305 See Gordon, supra note 244, at 131–32.
306 Press Release, United Nations Security Council, Security Council Welcoming Yugoslavia’s Acceptance of Peace Principles, Authorizes Civil, Security Presence in Kosovo, SC/6686 (June 10, 1999).
307 A. Sullivan, In Control—Kosovo Dispatch, The New Republic, Jul. 5, 1999, at 16.
308 Now, Bill for Rebuilding the Balkans, World Press Rev., Sept. 1999, at 14–15. The economic costs of intervention are as follows: repair of Nato bomb damage, $99 billion; peacekeeping forces, $4.2 billion per year; economic reconstruction, $29 billion for the first five years. Id. In short, the total cost for the reconstruction and democratization of the former Yugoslavia may well exceed $100 billion. Id.
309 Mousavizadeh, supra note 83, at 196.
310 See Christie, supra note 32, at 223.
311 Richard Perle, The Continuing Threat, in Europe and America Beyond 2000, supra note 20, at 117, 118.
312 See Rowen, supra note 253, at 125–26.
313 Luck, supra note 188, at 68.
314 Duke, supra note 130, at 354.
315 Bark supra note 25, at 4.
316 Id. at 35.
317 Rowen, supra note 253, at 137.
318 Christopher Hill & William Wallace, Introduction, The Actors in Europe’s Foreign Policy, supra note 242, at 1, 13.
319 See van Eekelen, supra note 4, at 309.
320 Elinor Sloan, Bosnia and the New Collective Security 83 (1998).
321 David Heathcoat-Amory, The Next Step for Western European Union: A British View, World Today, Vol. 50, No. 7, July 1994, at 135.
322 Cornish, supra note 202, at 753.
323 Chernoff, supra note 254, at 251.
324 Id.
325 Coker, supra note 72, at 24–25.
326 Robert W. Tucker, The Inequality of Nations 201 (1977).
327 Treverton, supra note 23, at 1.
328 NATO Fact Sheet, The European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI), available at http://www.nato.int/docu/facts/2000/esdi.htm (on file with author).
329 Id.
330 On February 17, 2000, CMX/CRISEX 2000, the first joint WEU/NATO crisis management exercise, was held to improve WEU crisis management procedures including collective consultation and management and to determine the practicalities of transferring NATO assets and capabilities to WEU. See NATO Fact Sheet, CMX/CRISEX 2000, available at http://www.nato.int/docu/facts/2000/ms-crisex.htm (last modified Aug. 9, 2000).
331 See “NATO’s New Agenda: More Progress than Meets the Eye,” Remarks by The Rt. Hon. Lord Robertson of Port Ellen, Secretary General of NATO, SACLANT Symposium, Reykjavik, Iceland, Sept. 6, 2000, available at http://www.nato.int/docu/speech/2000/ s000906a-htm (last modified Sept. 6, 2000) (noting the “growing cooperation between NATO and the EU in strengthening European defense” and the development of institutional procedures to share classified information).
332 Id.