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[Pages 617-648]
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Introduction
I.  The Section 404 Program and Its History
    \\0621\\A.  An Expansion in Geographic Jurisdiction
B.  The 1977 Amendments
    \\0623\\C.  The Operation of the Section 404 Program
II.  A History of Fill Material
    \\0625\\A.  The Corps Adopts a Primary Purpose Test
    B.  EPA Rejects the Primary Purpose Definition
    \\0628\\C.  1986 Memorandum Reconciles the Agencies’ Understanding
    D.  The Courts Develop Two Perspectives
E.  The Corps and EPA Propose an Effects-Based Test
    F.  The Corps and EPA Adopt a Different Effects-Based Test
III.  An Illustration of the Moving Boundary: Strip Mining, Overburden, and Spoil
    A.  Excess Spoil as Waste
    B.  The Bragg Case
    C.  Mountaintop Mining EIS
    D.  The Kentuckians Case
IV.  Analysis: Implications of the New Effects-Based Definition of Fill Material
Conclusion