* Executive Director, Great Lakes Research Consortium; Adjunct Associate Professor in Environmental Studies, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, NY. 1David M. Driesen, The Economic Dynamics of Environmental Law 11, 13 (2003). 2See Wayne A. Morrissey, Science Policy and Federal Ecosystem-Based Management, 6 Ecological Applications 717, 717 (1996). 3 Carl J. Walters & C. S. Holling, Large-Scale Management Experiments and Learning by Doing, 71 Ecology 2060, 2066 (1990). 4See Kristin S. Shrader-Frechette, What Risk Management Teaches Us About Ecosystem Management, 40 Landscape & Urb. Plan. 141, 143 (1998). 5See Andy Stirling & David Gee, Science, Precaution, and Practice, 117 Pub. Health Rep. 521, 52628 (2002). 6See, e.g., Brian Mayer et al., Moving Further Upstream: From Toxics Reduction to the Precautionary Principle, 117 Pub. Health Rep. 574, 57486 (2002). 7 David Kriebel et al., The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Science, 109 Envtl. Health Persp. 871, 871 (2001). 8 David Kriebel & Joel A. Tickner, Testimony at Congressional Briefing on Science and Precaution in Environmental and Public Health Policy (July 24, 2003) (on file with author). 9Id. 10See generally Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management (C.S. Holling ed., 1978); Carl Walters, Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources (1986). Both sources offer in depth descriptions of how adaptive management has taken account of our incomplete understanding of scientific complexity. 11See Kai N. Lee, Appraising Adaptive Management, 3 Conservation Ecology 3 (Sept. 8, 1999), at http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss2/art3. 12Id. 13Id. 14 Ravi Prabhu et al., Between Voodoo Science and Adaptive Management: The Role and Research Needs for Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management, inCriteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management 40, 41 (R. John Raison ed., 2001). 15Hanna J. Cortner & Margaret A. Moote, The Politics of Ecosystem Management 41 (1999) (citing Christensen et al., The Report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem Management, 6 Ecological Applications 665, 682 (1996)).