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[Pages 689-728]
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Introduction
I.  A Short History of Equity Jurisprudence
    A.  The Greek Concept of Epieikeia
    B.  The Roman Concept of Aequitas and the Early Budding of the Injunction
        1.  The Jus Prętor
        2.  The Interdict
    C.  English Courts of Chancery and Equity
        1.  Roman Influence on the Court of Chancery’s Determination of Liability
        2.  Roman Influence on the Court of Chancery’s Remedies
    D.  American Courts of Chancery and Equity
        1.  Equity in the Colonies and the Early States
        2.  Equity in the Federal Courts
II.  Injunctions and the Balancing of the Utilities
    A.  Revival of Discretion, the Industrial Revolution,
and a Critical Extension of Dicta

        1.  St. Helen’s Smelting Co.
        2.  Reaction to Equity’s Formalism
III.  Balancing of the Utilities and Sunk Costs
    A.  Willful and Knowing Violations in Suits Involving
Private Parties and Private Law

    B.  Willful and Knowing Violations in Suits Involving
Private Parties and Public Law

IV.  Extending the Equitable Canon of Innocence and Diligence to Agencies and the Public Law:
A Guide for Judges and Environmental Litigants

    A.  Extension to an Agency’s Willful and Knowing Violation of a Public Law
    B.  The Trigger: When Is an Agency Violation of the Public Law Willful and Knowing?
Conclusion