Journal Contents

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ARTICLE CONTENTS

[Pages 641-688]
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Introduction
I.  The Problem of Sprawl
    A.  A Pattern of Outward Growth
    B.  The Impacts of Sprawl
        1.  Direct Costs of Services and Capital Improvements
              2.  Costs of Hard to Quantify and Non-Exclusive Amenities
        3.  Costs of Secondary and Associated Impacts
    C.  Addressing Sprawl: Fees as a Smart Growth Tool
II.  Impact Fees Defined and Challenged
    A.  Scope and Applicability of Impact Fees
        1.  Fees Versus Taxes
        2.  Authority and Due Process
        3.  Regulatory Takings
    B.  The Nexus Requirements Applied in State Impact Fee Cases
        1.  The Strict Taxation Test in Massachusetts: “Particularized Benefit”
        2.  Florida Reaffirms a Strict Standard: Volusia County v. Aberdeen at Ormond Beach, L.P.
              3.  More Liberal Readings of the Nexus Requirements
III.  The Utility of Impact Fees for Growth Management
    A.  What Can Fees Internalize? State Tests Generally
        1.  The Nollan or “Needs” Prong
        2.  The Dolan or “Benefits” Prong
    B.  Specific Costs
        1.  Direct Infrastructure Costs: Sewers and Roads
        2.  Non-Exclusive Costs: Parks, Water Supply, and Schools
        3.  Indirect Costs: Community Development, Environmental Quality, and Social Services
Conclusion