Journal Contents

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ARTICLE CONTENTS

[Pages 399-431]
TOP OF ARTICLE

Introduction
I.  Purpose of the Endangered Species Act
    A.  Enactment of the Endangered Species Act
    B.  Listing an Endangered or Threatened Species
    C.  The Takings Prohibition
    D.  Habitat Protection
    E.  The History of the Definition of “Critical Habitat” and the Duty of the FWS
        1.  The Definition of “Critical Habitat”
        2.  The “Not Prudent” Exception
        3.  The “Not Determinable” Exception
II.  The Consultation Process
    A.  Review of the Consultation Process of Section 7
    B.  Overlapping Standards: Jeopardy to the Species and
Destruction of Critical Habitat

III.  Citizen Enforcement Actions
    A.  FWS Practice and Policy
    B.  Federal Courts’ Standard of Review
    C.  Courts’ Review of the “Not Prudent” Exception
        1.  Courts Uphold the “Not Prudent” Exception
        2.  Courts Reject the “Not Prudent” Exception
    D.  Courts’ Review of the “Not Determinable” Exception
IV.  Analysis
    A.  Congressional Intent
    B.  Congressional Intent Is Achieved Through the Jeopardy
Provision and the Consultation Process

    C.  Courts Abuse the APA Standard
    D.  Adequate Protection for Both Species and Their Ecosystems
Conclusion