Journal Contents

Student Publications Homepage


[Pages 343-398]

I.  The Role of Transparency in International
Environmental Agreements

    A.  Compliance Versus Effectiveness
    B.  Non-government Organizations and Compliance
    C.  The Role of Public Participation in Monitoring and Sanctioning Non-compliance With Environmental Treaties:  The
Enforcement and Management Model

    D.  The Need for Transparency and Public Participation
    E.  A Changing “Environment”
    F.  Three Broad Strategies for Compliance
    G.  Benefits of Sunshine Strategy:  The Need for Public
Participation and Transparency

II.  Origins of the NAAEC and Description of the Citizen Submission Process
    A.  Reasons for Adopting the NAAEC
    B.  Transparency and Public Participation Objectives of the NAAEC
    C.  Role of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation
        1.  The Council
        2.  The Secretariat
        3.  The Joint Public Advisory Committee
    D.  Citizens Raising Environmental Claims Against Member Parties
III.  Summary of the Citizen Submissions to Date and the First Two Factual Records
    A.  Summary of Submissions to Date
    B.  An Assessment of Successful Citizen Submissions
        1.  Article 14(1)
              a.  “Environmental Law”
              b.  “Effective Enforcement”
              c.  The “Is Failing” to Effectively Enforce Requirement
        2.  Article 14(2)
        3.  Article 14(3)
        4.  Article 15
    C.  Published Factual Records
        1.  The Cozumel Factual Record (SEM-96-001)
              a.  Procedural Challenges Under Articles 14 and 15
              b.  Issues Raised in the Factual Record
              c.  Assessment of the Facts Presented by the Secretariat in the Factual Record
        2.  The BC Hydro Factual Record (SEM-97-001)
              a.  Issues Raised in the Factual Record
              b.  Assessment of the Facts Presented by the Secretariat in the Factual Record
        3.  The Metales y Derivados Factual Record (SEM-98-007)
    D.  Pending and Potential Factual Records
IV.  The NAAEC Citizen Submission Process as a Mechanism of Transparency and Its Impact upon Domestic
Environmental Behavior

    A.  The Four Standards of Transparency and the NAAEC
    B.  The NAAEC’s Effectiveness in Altering Domestic Behavior
        1.  The NAAEC is Effective in Achieving the Stated Objective of Transparency
        2.  The NAAEC is Effective in Addressing the Problems That Led to the Treaty
    C.  Coercive Enforcement Measures Are Not and Should Not Be Available in the Citizen Submission Process