* Managing Editor, Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, 2001–02.
1 See Abram Chayes et al., Managing Compliance: A Comparative Perspective, in Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords 39, 41 (Edith Brown Weiss & Harold K. Jacobson eds., 1998); see also Steve Charnovitz, Environmental Trade Sanctions and the GATT: An Analysis of the Pelly Amendment on Foreign Environmental Practices, 9 Am. U. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y 751, 805–07 (1994).
2 See generally Joel B. Eisen, From Stockholm to Kyoto and Back to the United States: International Environmental Law’s Effect on Domestic Law, 32 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1435, 1456 (1999); Mark J. Spaulding, Transparency of Environmental Regulation and Public Participation in the Resolution of International Environmental Disputes, 35 Santa Clara L. Rev. 1127, 1132–40 (1995).
3 The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development stated:
Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level. At the national level, each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the environment, that is held by public authorities . . . and the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes. States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely available. Effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be provided.
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development Doc. A/CONF.151/PC/ WG.III/L.33/Rev.1, Principle 10, June 13, 1992, 31 I.L.M. 874, 878.
4 Harold K. Jacobson & Edith Brown Weiss, A Framework for Analysis, in Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords 1, 1 (Edith Brown Weiss & Harold K. Jacobson eds., 1998) [hereinafter Jacobson & Weiss, A Framework for Analysis].
5 North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, Sept. 14, 1993, Can-Mex.-U.S., 32 I.L.M. 1480 [hereinafter NAAEC], available at http://www.cec.org [hereinafter CEC Website]. The NAAEC and documents published by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), including citizen submissions and factual records, are available at the CEC’s Website (www.cec.org).
6 See Beatriz Bugeda, Is NAFTA Up to Its Green Expectations? Effective Law Enforcement Under the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, 32 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1591, 1591 (1999).
7 See NAAEC, supra note 5, pmbl., at 1482; see Spaulding, supra note 2, at 1136–37.
8 See NAAEC, supra note 5, arts. 14, 15, at 1488–89.
9 Id. art. 15, at 1489.
10 See generally Secretariat of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), Final Factual Record of the Cruise Ship Pier Project in Cozumel, Quintana Roo, Factual Record No. 1 (1997) [hereinafter Cozumel Factual Record], available at CEC Website, supra note 5; Secretariat of the CEC, Final Factual Record for Submission SEM-97-001 (BC Aboriginal Fisheries Commission et al.), Factual Record No. 2 (2000) [hereinafter BC Hydro Factual Record], available at CEC Website, supra note 5.
11 Jacobson & Weiss, A Framework for Analysis, supra note 4, at 2.
12 Id.
13 See id.
14 See id.
15 Id. at 4.
16 Id.
17 Jacobson & Weiss, A Framework for Analysis, supra note 4, at 4.
18 David G. Victor, Lessons from Research on the Implementation of International Environmental Law, in Indicators of Effective Environmental Enforcement: Proceedings of a North American Dialogue, Commission for Environmental Cooperation 51 (1999), available at CEC Website, supra note 5.
19 Oran R. Young & Marc A. Levy, The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes, in The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes: Causal Connections and Behavioral Mechanisms 1, 1, 3 (Oran R. Young ed., 1999) (defining effectiveness as “the matter of the contributions that institutions make to solving problems that motivate actors to invest the time and energy needed to create them”).
20 See id. at 4.
21 Jacobson & Weiss, A Framework for Analysis, supra note 4, at 1–2, 5 (stating that compliance with a treaty may result in the cessation of an activity that contributed to pollution, but it may also lead to an overall increase of pollution by encouraging other activities as substitutes whose consequences are even worse).
22 Id.
23 See Victor, supra note 18, at 53.
24 Id.
25 Id.
26 Harold K. Jacobson & Edith Brown Weiss, Assessing the Record and Designing Strategies to Engage Countries, in Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords 533 (Edith Brown Weiss & Harold K. Jacobson eds., 1998) [hereinafter Jacobson & Weiss, Assessing the Record].
27 Id.
28 Id.
29 Id.
30 Id.
31 Chayes et al., supra note 1, at 41.
32 Id.
33 Id.
34 Id.; see also Charnovitz, supra note 1, at 775; Jacobson & Weiss, Assessing the Record, supra note 26, at 547.
35 See also Charnovitz, supra note 1, at 775; Jacobson & Weiss, Assessing the Record, supra note 26, at 547.
36 See Chayes et al., supra note 1, at 41.
37 Id.
38 Id.
39 Id. at 43.
40 Jacobson & Weiss, A Framework for Analysis, supra note 4, at 11.
41 See Chayes et al., supra note 1, at 41.
42 Id. at 44.
43 Id. at 43.
44 Id.
45 Id.
46 Id.
47 Chayes et al., supra note 1, at 43.
48 Id. at 43.
49 Id. at 44.
50 Id.
51 Jacobson & Weiss, A Framework for Analysis, supra note 4, at 10.
52 Id.
53 See generally Edith Brown Weiss, The Five International Treaties: A Living History, in Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords 89, 150–172 (Edith Brown Weiss and Harold K. Jacobson eds., 1998).
54 Jacobson & Weiss, A Framework for Analysis, supra note 4, at 8.
55 See id.
56 Id. at 3.
57 Id.
58 Id. at 9.
59 David Vogal & Timothy Kessler, How Compliance Happens and Doesn’t Happen Domestically, in Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords 19, 32 (Edith Brown Weiss & Harold K. Jacobson eds., 1998).
60 Id.; see also International Environmental Law Anthology 471 (Anthony D’Amato & Kirsten Engel eds., 1996).
61 Vogal & Kessler, supra note 59, at 32.
62 Id.. See generally Cass R. Sunstein, Informational Regulation and Informational Standing: Akins and Beyond, 147 U. Pa. L. Rev. 613, 614 (1999) (discussing informational regulation in the United States).
63 Vogal & Kessler, supra note 59, at 33.
64 Jacobson & Weiss, Assessing the Record, supra note 26, at 542.
65 Id.
66 Id.
67 Id. at 543.
68 Id. at 546.
69 Id.
70 Jacobson & Weiss, Assessing the Record, supra note 26, at 546.
71 Id. at 545.
72 Id.
73 Id. at 546.
74 Id.
75 Id.
76 Jacobson & Weiss, Assessing the Record, supra note 26, at 546.
77 Id. at 547.
78 Id.
79 Id. at 548.
80 Id. at 547.
81 Id. at 547.
82 See Jacobson & Weiss, Assessing the Record, supra note 26, at 547.
83 Id. at 549.
84 Id.
85 See id. However, to prevent countries from lapsing or regressing once they have undertaken to comply with an agreement, formal or direct sanctions need to be available. Id. In fact, the threat of sanctions can make sunshine methods even more effective. Id.
86 See id.
87 See id.
88 Pierre Marc Johnson & André Beaulieu, The Environment and NAFTA Understanding and Implementing the New Continental Law 121 (1996).
89 See id.
90 Bugeda, supra note 6, at 1591.
91 See id.
92 See id. at 1592.
93 Id.; see also Kal Raustiala, International “Enforcement of Enforcement” Under the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, 36 Va. J. Int’l L. 721, 723 (1996).
94 Bugeda, supra note 6, at 1591; see also Raustiala, supra note 93, at 723.
95 Johnson & Beaulieu, supra note 88, at 122.
96 Id. at 122–23.
97 See Bill Clinton, Remarks by Governor Bill Clinton at The Student Center at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. (Oct. 4, 1992), reprinted in NAFTA & The Environment: Substance and Process 263–64 (Daniel Magraw ed., 1995).
98 Johnson & Beaulieu, supra note 88, at 123.
99 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 1(a), (g), at 1483.
100 Id. pmbl., at 1482.
101 Id.
102 See id.
103 Id. pmbl., at 1482.
104 Id. arts. 1, 4 at 1483.
105 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 1, at 1483.
106 Id. art. 4, at 1483.
107 Id. art. 6, at 1484.
108 Id. art. 7, at 1484.
109 Id. art. 8, at 1485; Johnson & Beaulieu, supra note 88, at 144.
110 NAAEC, supra note 5, arts. 8–19, at 1485–89; Bugeda, supra note 6, at 1592.
111 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 10(6)(a), at 1485. The CEC also administers a grant program that provides funding for community-based environmental projects in Canada, Mexico, and the United States called the North American Fund for Environmental Cooperation (NAFEC). See David Markell, The Commission for Environmental Cooperation’s Citizen Submission Process, 12 Geo. Int’l Envtl. L. Rev. 545, 549 (2000).
112 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 8, at 1485.
113 Id. art. 9(1), at 1485. The United States’ representative to the Council is the Administrator of the EPA. Johnson & Beaulieu, supra note 88, at 122–23.
114 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 10(1), at 1485.
115 Id.
116 Id.
117 Id. art. 9(6)–(7), at 1485. Further, Article 2(2) states that “each Party shall consider implementing in its law any recommendation developed by the Council under Article 10(5)(b).” Id. art. 2, at 1483.
118 Id. art. 10(2), at 1485–86.
119 Id. art. 10(4), at 1486.
120 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 11(5), at 1487.
121 Id. art. 12(1), at 1487.
122 Id. art. 13(1), at 1487–88.
123 Id. art. 13(2), at 1488.
124 NGOs are defined as “any scientific, professional, business, non-profit, or public interest organization or association which is neither affiliated with, nor under the direction of, a government.” Id. art. 45(1), at 1495.
125 Id. art. 14(1), at 1488.
126 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 11(1), at 1487.
127 Id.
128 Id. art. 11(2), (4), at 1487.
129 Id. art. 16(1), at 1489.
130 Id. art. 16(4), at 1489.
131 Id. art. 16(5), at 1489.
132 Bugeda, supra note 6, at 1593.
133 See discussion supra Part II.B.
134 NAAEC, supra note 5, arts. 14–15, at 1488–89, arts. 22–36, at 1490–93.
135 Id. arts. 22–36, at 1490–93.
136 Id. arts. 14–15, at 1488–89. The party-to-party dispute resolution is beyond the scope of this Note.
137 Johnson & Beaulieu, supra note 88, at 152. The citizen submission process in regard to North America is similar in some ways to the domestic environmental law development in regard to the United States. See Eisen, supra note 2, at 1456; Ignacia S. Moreno et al., Free Trade and the Environment: The NAFTA, the NAAEC, and Implications for the Future, 12 Tul. Envtl. L.J. 405, 444 (1999); see also Sunstein, supra note 62, at 614.
138 Bugeda, supra note 6, at 1596–97.
139 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 14(1), at 1488. See David Markell’s article, The Commission for Environmental Cooperation’s Citizen Submission Process, supra note 111, at 551–64, for a detailed analysis of the citizen submission process under Articles 14 and 15.
140 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 14(1)(a)–(b), at 1488.
141 Id. art. 14(1)(c), at 1488.
142 Id. art. 14(1)(d)–(e), at 1488.
143 Id. art. 14(2), at 1488.
144 Id. art. 14(2)(a)–(d), at 1488.
145 Id. art. 14(2), at 1488.
146 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 14(3)(a)–(b), at 1488.
147 Id. art. 14(3)(a), at 1488.
148 Id. art. 14(3)(b), at 1488.
149 Id. art. 15(1), at 1488.
150 Id.
151 Id. art. 15(2), at 1488.
152 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 15(4)(a)–(d), at 1489. Guideline 11.1 requires the Secretariat to consider information furnished by a Party, and it authorizes the Secretariat to consider information from other sources and to develop its own information. BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at 4.
153 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 15(4), at 1489.
154 Id. art. 15(4)(a)–(d), at 1489. Guideline 12.1 also states that a factual record will contain four types of information: (a) a summary of the submission that initiated the process; (b) a summary of the response, if any, provided by the Party concerned; (c) a summary of any other relevant information of a factual nature; and (d) the facts presented by the Secretariat with respect to the matters raised in the submission. BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at 4; Johnson & Beaulieu, supra note 88, at 158.
155 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 15(5), at 1489.
156 Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10, at 13.
157 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 15(6), at 1489.
158 Id.
159 The information pertaining to citizen submissions and other CEC documents in Part III was primarily obtained from the CEC’s Website. See generally Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, at CEC Website, supra note 5.
160 Id.
161 Id.
162 See id.
163 Id.
164 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 14(1), at 1488.
165 Id.
166 Id. art. 14(1)(a)–(3), at 1488.
167 See Markell, supra note 111, at 551.
168 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 45(2), at 1495.
169 See Secretariat of the CEC, Recommendation of the Secretariat to the Council for the Development of a Factual Record in Accordance with Articles 14 and 15 of the NAAEC, SEM-97-001 (Apr. 27, 1998), at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter BC Hydro Recommendation].
170 See id.
171 See id.
172 Id.
173 See id.
174 See Secretariat of the CEC, Article 15(1) Notification to the Council that Development of a Factual Record is Warranted, SEM-98-007 (Mar. 6, 2000) 5, available at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Metales y Derivados Notification].
175 Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, SEM-98-007, at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Metales y Derivados Status].
176 Metales y Derivados Notification, supra note 174, at 5.
177 Id. at 6.
178 See id.
179 See id.
180 See Secretariat of the CEC, Determination Pursuant to Article 14(1) of the NAAEC, SEM-97-005 (May 26, 1998), at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Biodiversity Determination].
181 See id.
182 See id.
183 See id.
184 See id.
185 Id.
186 Secretariat of the CEC, Determination in Accordance with Article 14(1) of the NAAEC, SEM-98-002 (Oct. 14, 1997), at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Ortiz Martinez Determination].
187 See id.
188 Id.
189 Id.
190 See Markell, supra note 111, at 553–54.
191 Secretariat of the CEC, Secretariat’s Determination Under Article 14(2), SEM-95-001 (Sept. 21, 1995), at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Spotted Owl Determination].
192 See id.
193 See id.
194 Id.
195 Secretariat of the CEC, Determination Pursuant to Article 14(1) of NAAEC, SEM-98-003 (Dec. 14, 1998), at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Great Lakes Determination].
196 See id.
197 Id.
198 Id.
199 Id.
200 Secretariat of the CEC, Secretariat’s Determination Under Article 14(1), SEM-97-004 (Aug. 25, 1997), at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Canadian Defence Fund Determination].
201 See id.
202 Id.
203 See id.
204 Secretariat of the CEC, Determination in Accordance with Article 14(1) of the NAAEC, SEM-00-003 (Apr. 12, 2000), at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Jamaica Bay Determination].
205 See id.
206 Id.
207 Id.
208 See id.
209 Id.
210 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 14(2), at 1488.
211 Id.
212 Id. art. 14(2), at 1488.
213 See id.
214 Secretariat of the CEC, Recommendation of the Secretariat to Council for the Development of a Factual Record under Articles 14 and 15 of the NAAEC, SEM-96-001 (June 7, 1996), at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Cozumel Recommendation]. Article III of the United States Constitution requires the plaintiff to establish particular and individualized injury in order to acquire “standing” to bring suit under a federal environmental statute in federal court. See Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555, 560-61 (1992).
215 Id.
216 Id.
217 See id.
218 See id.
219 See supra text accompanying notes 175–179; Metales y Derivados Notification, supra note 174.
220 Metales y Derivados Notification, supra note 174.
221 Id.
222 Id.
223 Id.
224 See id.
225 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 14(2), at 1488.
226 See Spotted Owl Determination, supra note 191.
227 See id.
228 Id.
229 See id.
230 Secretariat of the CEC, Determination Pursuant to Articles 14 & 15 of the NAAEC, SEM-95-002 (Dec. 8, 1995), at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Logging Rider Determination].
231 Id.
232 See id.
233 Secretariat of the CEC, Determination Pursuant to Articles 14 & 15 of the NAAEC, SEM-96-002 (May 28, 1996), at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Aage Tuttrop Determination].
234 See id.
235 Id.
236 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 14(3)(a), at 1488.
237 See id. art. 14(2)(c), 14(3)(a), at 1488.
238 Id. art. 14(3)(a), at 1488.
239 Id. art. 14(2)(a)-(d), at 1488.
240 Id.
241 Secretariat of the CEC, Determination Pursuant to Article 14(3) of the NAAEC, SEM-99-001 and SEM-00-002 (June 30, 2000), at CEC Website, supra note 5.
242 See id.
243 See id.
244 Id.
245 See BC Hydro Recommendation, supra note 169.
246 See id.
247 See id.
248 Id.
249 Id.
250 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 15(1), at 1488.
251 Id.
252 Id. art. 15(2), at 1488.
253 Id. art. 15(4)(a)–(d), at 1489.
254 Id. art. 15(5), at 1489.
255 Id. art. 15(6), at 1489.
256 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 15(7), at 1489.
257 See Cozumel Recommendation, supra note 214.
258 Id.
259 Id.
260 Metales y Derivados Notification, supra note 174, at 9.
261 Id. at 14.
262 Id. at 17.
263 See supra Part III.A.
264 Secretariat of the CEC, Secretariat Determination Pursuant to Articles 14 and 15 of the NAAEC, SEM-96-003 (Apr. 2, 1997), at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Oldman River I Article 15(1) Determination]; Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, SEM-98-005, at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Cytrar Status].
265 Metales y Derivados Notification, supra note 174, at 9.
266 Oldman River I Article 15(1) Determination, supra note 264.
267 Id.
268 Id.
269 Id.
270 Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, SEM-97-007, at CEC Website, supra note 5.
271 Id.
272 Id.
273 Cytrar Status, supra note 264.
274 Id.
275 Id.
276 Id.
277 Metales y Derivados Notification, supra note 174, at 9. The Secretariat did, however, conclude the allegation concerning the LGEEPA did warrant the development of a factual record. See supra text accompanying notes 261–63.
278 Id.
279 Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, SEM-97-003, at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Quebec Hog Farms Status].
280 Id.
281 Id.
282 See Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, at CEC Website, supra note 5.
283 Id.
284 See generally Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10. All information relating to the submission was derived from the English version of the Cozumel Factual Record. Id.
285 See Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10, at 1. For an in-depth analysis of the Cozumel Factual Record see Bugeda, supra note 6.
286 Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10, at 1.
287 Id.
288 See id.
289 Id. at 1, 7.
290 Id. at 17.
291 Id.
292 Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10, at 7.
293 Id.
294 Id.
295 Id.
296 Id.
297 Id. at 13.
298 Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10, at 13.
299 See id.
300 See id.
301 See id. at 3–4.
302 Id. at 6.
303 Id. The protected area was established by the Refuge Zone Decree (DZR). Id.
304 Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10, at 4 n.4 (citing LGEEPA, Article 28).
305 Id. at 4.
306 Id.
307 Id. at 7.
308 Id. at 8.
309 Id. at 10.
310 Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10, at 11.
311 Id. at 12.
312 Id. at 13–38.
313 See generally id. at 13–41.
314 Id. at 13.
315 Id.
316 Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10, at 13.
317 See id. at 14–17.
318 Id. at 16–17.
319 See Bugeda, supra note 6, at 1611.
320 BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at 1. Unlike the Cozumel submission, this submission was not challenged on procedural grounds by the Canadian government to the same extent as the Mexican government did in Cozumel. Id. See generally Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10. The initial submission, like the Cozumel submission, gained a fair degree of media attention, as did the decision by the CEC to investigate the submission and publish the factual record. See generally Canada’s Statement on the Release of a CEC Report on Fish and Fish Habitat and the Operation of Hydro-Electric Dams in British Columbia, M2 Presswire, June 13, 2000, available at 2000 WL 22276034 [hereinafter Canada’s Statement on the Release of a CEC Report]; Sierra Fund Charges Canada Ignores NAFTA Hydroelectric Environmental Rules, Util. Env’t Report, Mar. 12, 1999, available at 1999 WL 11490824 [hereinafter Canada Ignores NAFTA Hydroelectric Environmental Rules]; Heather Scoffield, Ottawa Stifling Hearings, Groups Say Environmentalists Claims NAFTA Side Agreement Undermined by Secrecy in BC Hydro Case, The Globe and Mail, Ottawa, Ontario, Mar. 8, 1999, B3.
321 BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at 7.
322 See id. at 2.
323 Id. Section 35(1) of the Act provides that “no person shall carry on any work or undertaking that results in the harmful alteration, disruption or destruction of fish habitat.” Id. at 4.
324 BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at 5.
325 Id. at 6.
326 Id.
327 Id.
328 Id.
329 Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, SEM-97-001, at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter BC Hydro Status].
330 BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at 7.
331 Id.
332 Id.
333 Id. (quoting Canada’s July 1997 Response at page 2). Canada gauges effective enforcement of section 35(1) of the Act by the extent to which Canada achieves “No Net Loss” or an assessment of whether the fish and fish habitat situation regarding all the hydro facilities is improving or not. Id. at 39.
334 Id. at 2.
335 Compare id. app. 8 with Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10.
336 BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at v.
337 See generally Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10; BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at 2.
338 See BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at 54–56.
339 Id. app. 8 at para. 4.
340 Id. at 54.
341 See id. app. 8 at para. 10.
342 See id. app. 8 at para. 4–5.
343 See id. at 54.
344 BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at 54.
345 Id. at 55.
346 See generally id.
347 Secretariat of the CEC, Overall Plan to Develop a Factual Record, SEM-98-007 (May 30, 2002) 1, at CEC Website, supra note 5.
348 Metales y Derivados Status, supra note 175.
349 Id. The submitters allege that the owners of the smelter abandoned the site, leaving behind an estimated 6,000 tons of lead slag, waste piles of by-products, sulfuric acid, and heavy metals. Id.
350 Id.
351 Id. Pursuant to Article 13, the submitters have also requested that the Secretariat create a report on this subject matter. Id.
352 Id.
353 See Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, at CEC Website, supra note 5. Additionally, the Secretariat has recommended to the Council that two submissions, Molymex II (SEM-00-005) and Rio Magdalena (SEM-97-002), should be developed as factual records. See id.
354 Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, SEM-98-006, at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Aquanova Status].
355 Id.
356 Id.
357 Id.; NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 14(3)(b), at 1488.
358 Aquanova Status, supra note 354.
359 Id.
360 Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, SEM-98-004, at CEC Website, supra note 5 (last visited Nov. 3, 2001) [hereinafter BC Mining Status].
361 Id.
362 Id.
363 Secretariat of the CEC, Article 15(1) Notification to the Council that Development of a Factual Record is Warranted, SEM-98-004 (May 11, 2001) 4–5, at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter BC Mining Notification].
364 See id.
365 Id. at 18.
366 Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, at CEC Website, supra note 5.
367 Secretariat of the CEC, Article 15(1) Notification to the Council that Development of a Factual Record is Warranted, SEM-00-004 (July 27, 2001) 1–6, at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter BC Logging Notification].
368 Id.
369 Id. at 2, 9–18.
370 Id. at 18–19.
371 Secretariat of the CEC, Article 15(1) Notification to the Council that Development of a Factual Record is Warranted, SEM-99–002 (Dec. 15, 2000) 2–3, at CEC Website, supra note 5 [hereinafter Migratory Birds Notification].
372 Id.
373 Id. at 3.
374 Id. at 4.
375 Id.
376 See id. at 26.
377 Migratory Birds Notification, supra note 371, at 26.
378 Secretariat of the CEC, Article 15(1) Notification to Council that Development of a Factual Record is Warranted, SEM-97-006 (July 19, 1999) 4–6, at CEC Website, supra note 5.
379 Id.
380 Id. at 6–11.
381 Id.
382 Id. at 21–22; Council Resolution 01-08 (Nov. 16, 2001), at CEC Website, supra note 5.
383 See supra text accompanying notes 43–47; Chayes et al., supra note 1, at 43.
384 Chayes et al., supra note 1, at 43.
385 Id.
386 Id.
387 Id.
388 See discussion supra Part II.D.
389 BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at 4; see supra text accompanying note 152.
390 BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, at 4.
391 Id.
392 Id. The BC Hydro Factual Record lists the Expert Group members and their credentials. Id. app. 8 at 2–3.
393 Id. at 4; Johnson & Beaulieu, supra note 88, at 158; see also supra text accompanying notes 152–58.
394 See discussion supra note 154; see generally Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10; BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10.
395 See discussion supra Part I.D.
396 See Bugeda, supra note 6, at 1611.
397 Id.
398 See discussion supra Part I.D.
399 BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, app. 8; see supra text accompanying notes 340–47.
400 BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, app. 8.
401 See id.
402 Id. app. 8 at para. 102.
403 Id. app. 8 at para. 102–04.
404 Id. app. 8 at para. 104.
405 Id. app. 8 at para. 105.
406 BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, app. 8 at para. 105.
407 See id. app. 4, 8.
408 See discussion supra Part I.D.
409 See supra note 157.
410 See Citizen Submissions on Enforcement Matters, at CEC Website, supra note 5.
411 Id.
412 Id.
413 See generally BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10, app. 8; see also discussion supra Part I.D.
414 See, e.g., Part III.C.2.b.
415 See BC Hydro Status, supra note 330; see also supra Part I.D.
416 Id.
417 Jacobson & Weiss, A Framework for Analysis, supra note 4, at 5; see supra text accompanying note 21.
418 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 1, at 1483.
419 See, e.g., Metales y Derivados Status, supra note 175.
420 See generally Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10; BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10.
421 See Eisen, supra note 2, at 1456; Moreno et al., supra note 137, at 444.
422 See Sunstein, supra note 62, at 614.
423 Id.
424 See Eisen, supra note 2, at 1456.
425 See id.; NAAEC, supra note 5, pmbl., art. 14(1), at 1482.
426 See Eisen, supra note 2, at 1456.
427 See Cozumel Factual Record, supra note 10; BC Hydro Factual Record, supra note 10.
428 See supra Part III; see also Bugeda, supra note 6, at 1614.
429 See supra Part II.A.
430 See supra Part III.D.
431 See id.
432 See Metales y Derivados Notification, supra note 174.
433 See generally Eisen, supra note 2, at 1473–75.
434 See id.
435 See id.
436 See Moreno et al., supra note 137, at 444.
437 See Jacobson & Weiss, A Framework for Analysis, supra note 4, at 8.
438 See discussion supra Part I.B.
439 See Jacobson & Weiss, A Framework for Analysis, supra note 4, at 3.
440 Moreno et al., supra note 137, at 447–448.
441 See Bugeda, supra note 6, at 1615.
442 Id.
443 Id.
444 Id. at 1616.
445 Johnson & Beaulieu, supra note 88, at 138. Johnson and Beaulieu argue that there “is essential value in independent verification of information supplied by the member states and the national bureaucracies.” Id.
446 See generally Bugeda, supra note 6.
447 Id.
448 BC Hydro Status, supra note 329.
449 See, e.g., Scoffield, supra note 320; Canada Ignores NAFTA Hydroelectric Environmental Rules, supra note 320.
450 See, e.g., Canada’s Statement on the Release of a CEC Report, supra note 320.
451 See Scoffield, supra note 320.
452 See Canada’s Statement on the Release of a CEC Report, supra note 320.
453 Id.
454 Jacobson & Weiss, A Framework of Analysis, supra note 4, at 8, 9.
455 Vogal & Kessler, supra note 59, at 32.
456 Id.
457 Id.
458 Id. at 33.
459 See International Environmental Law Anthology, supra note 60, at 471.
460 See supra Part I.G.
461 See, e.g., Moreno et al., supra note 137, at 447–48; Eisen, supra note 2, at 1473–75; Victor, supra note 18, at 53; Canada Ignores NAFTA Hydroelectric Environmental Rules, supra note 320; supra Part I.
462 Johnson & Beaulieu, supra note 88, at 218.
463 Chayes et al., supra note 1, at 62.
464 NAAEC, supra note 5, art. 22, at 1490.
465 See id. Part V., art. 22–36, at 1490–94.
466 See supra text accompanying notes 68–73.
467 Chayes et al., supra note 1, at 44.
468 Eisen, supra note 2, at 1483.
469 Charnovitz, supra note 1, at 757–78.
470 Id. at 757.
471 See discussion supra Part I.C.
472 See discussion supra Part IV.A.
473 Chayes et al., supra note 1, at 62 (arguing that the invocation of unilateral sanctions for environmental violations are largely a waste of time); see also Johnson & Beaulieu, supra note 88, at 218.