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[Pages 1-44]
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Introduction
I.  Basic Federal and State Regulatory Jurisdiction
over the Oceans

II.  The Clean Water Act
    A.  Discharges of Pollutants, NPDES Permitting, and State
and Federal Regulatory Authority

    B.  Components of NPDES Permitting
        1.  Effluent Limitations
        2.  Water Quality Standards
        3.  Ocean Discharge Criteria
    C.  Ocean Discharge Criteria and Water Quality Standards Compared
III.  Water Quality Protection for MPAs
    A.  EPA’s Proposed MPA Regulation in General
        1.  Use of Ocean Water Quality Standards
        2.  Stronger Requirements for Discharges into Ocean and Coastal Waters
        3.  Special Ocean Sites
    B.  Ocean Discharge Criteria Under the Proposed Rules
        1.  Regulatory Status of the Hybrid Regulations
        2.  Violation #1:  The EPA Has Not Proposed to Set Ocean Discharge Criteria for All Ocean Waters
        3.  Violation #2:  The Proposed Ocean Discharge Criteria Are Not Separate, Additional Requirements Beyond Water Quality Standards
    C.  EPA’s Authority to Set Water Quality Standards for Waters
Beyond Three Miles Out to Sea

    D.  Implications of Ocean Water Quality Standards
        1.  Point Source Discharges and Water-Quality Based Effluent Limitations
        2.  Nonpoint Sources
        3.  TMDLs
        4.  Transboundary Water Pollution
Conclusion