* Robin Kundis Craig is an Associate Professor of Law at the Western New England College School of Law, Springfield, MA. She received her J.D. in 1996 from the Lewis & Clark School of Law; her Ph.D. in 1993 from the University of California; and her M.A. in 1986 from The Johns Hopkins University. Professor Craig may be contacted by e-mail at rcraig@law.wnec.edu or through her website at http://wneclaw.wnec.edu/faculty/craig/ default.html. The authors would like to thank Tim Eichenberg, Center for Marine Conservation, for his suggestion for the topic and Associate Dean Art Leavens, Western New England College School of Law, for his willingness to support independent study projects such as the one that led to this paper.
** Sarah Miller received her B.A. in 1998 from Western New England College and her J.D. in 2001 from the Western New England College School of Law. She may be contacted by e-mail at MedLawBike@aol.com.
1 Ocean Voice International at http://www.ovi.ca (last visited Sept. 28, 2001).
2 Id.
3 Ocean Voice International, Ocean Facts, at http://www.ovi.ca/fact_main.htm (last visited Sept. 28, 2001) [hereinafter Ocean Facts].
4 Environmental Protection Agency, Ocean Discharge Criteria: Revisions to the Ocean Discharge Criteria Regulations 36 (2001), available at http://www. epa.gov/owow/oceans/protecting_oceans/cwa403rule.pdf [hereinafter EPA Ocean Discharge Criteria Revisions].
5 Id. at 5.
6 Id. at 6.
7 Ocean Facts, supra note 3.
8 OFFICE OF WATER, Environmental Protection Agency, Water Quality Conditions in the United States: A Profile from the 1998 National Water Quality Inventory Report to Congress available at http://www.epa.gov/305b/98report/98sum-mary.html (last visited Sept. 28, 2001).
9 Id.
10 Id.
11 Id.
12 Id.
13 Exec. Order No. 13,158, 65 Fed. Reg. 34,909 (May 26, 2000).
14 Id. at 34,909,  2(a).
15 See id. at 34,909,  1.
16 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Sanctuaries available at http://www.sanctuaries.nos.noaa.gov/natprogram/natprogram.html (last visited Sept. 28, 2001).
17 Id.
18 See Exec. Order No. 13,158, 65 Fed. Reg. 34,909.
19 Id.
20 Id.
21 Id.
22 See id.
23 See id. at 34,911.
24 Exec. Order No. 13,158, 65 Fed. Reg. at 34,911.
25 Id. at 34,909.
26 Ocean Discharge Criteria: Revision to Ocean Discharge Criteria Regulations: Notice of Public Meetings, 65 Fed. Reg. 42,936, 42,936–37 (July 12, 2000).
27 See 33 U.S.C.  1343 (1994).
28 Id.  1343(c)(1).
29 Id.  1343(a).
30 Ocean Discharge Criteria: Revision to Ocean Discharge Criteria Regulations: Notice of Public Meetings, 65 Fed. Reg. at 42,937.
31 Id.
32 See generally EPA Ocean Discharge Criteria Revisions, supra note 4.
33 Id. at 1.
34 Id. at 12.
35 See 33 U.S.C.  1313(a), 1362(7)–(8) (1994) (requiring states to set water quality standards for the waters under their control, and defining “navigable waters” and “territorial seas” respectively).
36 Id.  1341(a).
37 Id.  1312(a).
38 Id.  1313(d).
39 Id.  1343.
40 See id.
41 Regulatory Review Plan, 60 Fed. Reg. 7701 (Jan. 24, 2001); see also EPA Ocean Discharge Criteria Revisions, supra note 4, at 1.
42 Press Release, Donald. L. Evans, Secretary of Commerce, Supplement To Executive Order 13,158 (June 4, 2001), available at http://mpa.gov/frontmatter/sup2_evensstate-ment.html (last visited Oct. 26, 2001).
43 See generally Marine Protected Areas of the United States, available at http://mpa.gov (last visited Oct. 26, 2001).
44 66 Fed. Reg. 62, 368, 62,370 (May 14, 2001).
45 Ocean Discharge Criteria: Revision to Ocean Discharge Regulations: Notice of Public Meetings, 65 Fed. Reg. 42,936, 42, 937 (July 12, 2000).
46 See Shively v. Bowlby, 152 U.S. 1, 57 (1894).
47 Id.
48 See Pollard’s Lessee v. Hagan, 44 U.S. 212, 223 (1845).
49 Shively, 152 U.S. at 57; see Pollard’s Lessee, 44 U.S. at 224.
50 See United States v. Appalachian Power Co., 311 U.S. 377, 407–09 (1940).
51 See Phillips Petroleum Co. v. Mississippi, 484 U.S. 469, 478–81 (1988).
52 See id.; Appalachian Power Co., 311 U.S. at 407–09.
53 United States v. California, 332 U.S. 19, 46 (1947).
54 Id. at 30.
55 Id. at 23; see also Pollard’s Lessee, 44 U.S. at 223.
56 California, 332 U.S. at 32.
57 Id. at 34.
58 Id. at 38–39.
59 43 U.S.C.  1301–1303, 1311–1315 (1994).
60 Id. 1311(a).
61 Id.  1301(a)(2).
62 See id.
63 Id.  1313(a).
64 See id.  1301(a)(2).
65 43 U.S.C.  1314(a).
66 See 33 U.S.C.  401, 403 (1994).
67 16 U.S.C.  1451 (1994).
68 Id.  1453(1).
69 See 43 U.S.C.  1301(a)(2).
70 See, e.g., United States v. Alaska, 503 U.S. 569 (1992).
71 Id. at 572–73.
72 Id. at 585–86.
73 United States v. Locke, 529 U.S. 89, 99 (1999). The Court found that the State of Washington’s regulations concerning “general navigation watch procedures, English language skills, training, and casualty reporting [were] pre-empted.” Id. at 116.
74 See Joseph J. Kalo et al., Coastal and Ocean Law: Cases and Materials 322 (1999).
75 Id.
76 Id. at 318.
77 Id. at 324.
78 Id. at 328.
79 Id.
80 Kalo et al., supra note 74, at 329.
81 Id. at 333, 337.
82 See id. at 341 fig.4–3.
83 See id. at 333, 336–37, 341; see also Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, Pub. L. No. 94–265,  3(11), 101, 90 Stat. 331 (1976) (amended 1996) (current version at 16 U.S.C.  1801 (2000)).
84 Kalo et al., supra note 74, at 336; see also Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act,  3(11), 101.
85 Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States of America, Proclamation No. 5030, 48 Fed. Reg. 10,605 (March 14, 1983).
86 Territorial Sea of the United States of America, Proclamation No. 5928, 54 Fed. Reg. 777 (Jan. 9, 1989).
87 Contiguous Zone of the United States, Proclamation No. 7219, 64 Fed. Reg. 48,701 (Sept. 8, 1999).
88 See supra notes 66–69, 71–74 and accompanying text.
89 See 33 U.S.C.  1251 (1994).
90 Id.
91 Id.  1251(a).
92 Id.  1311(a).
93 Id.  1362(12).
94 Id.  1362(14).
95 33 U.S.C.  1362(6).
96 See id.  1362.
97 See id.  1362(7), 1362(9)--(10).
98 Id.  1362(9).
99 Although both international and U.S. laws have expanded the area of allowable national contiguous zones, Congress has not amended the CWA to incorporate these broader definitions.
100 33 U.S.C.  1362(10).
101 See Kalo et al., supra note 74, at 341.
102 See 33 U.S.C.  1362(12).
103 Id.  1362(7).
104 Id.  1362(8).
105 See id.; United States v. California, 332 U.S. 19, 57 (1947).
106 See 33 U.S.C.  1362.
107 See Guidelines for Specification of Disposal Sites for Dredged or Fill Material, 40 C.F.R.  230.3(s) (1999); Definitions of Waters of the United States, 33 C.F.R.  328.3(a) (1999). The Supreme Court recently called the full scope of these regulations into question, indicating that the scope of federal regulatory authority under the CWA for internal waters is limited to the federal government’s “traditional jurisdiction over waters that were or had been navigable in fact or which could reasonably be so made” and the wetlands adjacent to such waters. See Solid Waste Agency of N. Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Eng’rs, 531 U.S. 159, 172, 175–76 (2001).
108 33 U.S.C.  1342.
109 Id.  1311(a).
110 Id.  1319(b), (d).
111 Id.  1342(a)(1).
112 See id.  1362(12) (applying “discharge of a pollutant” to navigable waters, the contiguous zone, and the ocean).
113 Id.  1342(b).
114 33 U.S.C.  1342(b).
115 See Natural Res. Def. Council v. EPA, 863 F.2d 1420, 1435 (9th Cir. 1988) (holding that state jurisdiction and “navigable waters include[] only those waters landward from the outer boundary of the territorial seas.”); Pac. Legal Found. v. Costle, 586 F.2d 650, 655–56 (9th Cir. 1978) (relying on the CWA’s definitions to determine that state NPDES permitting authority extends only to the seaward limit of the territorial sea).
116 Costle, 586 F.2d at 655–56.
117 See 33 U.S.C.  1342.
118 Id.  1342(d)(1)–(2).
119 Id.  1342(i).
120 Id.  1342(c)(3).
121 Id.
122 Id.  1342(b)
123 33 U.S.C.  1342(b).
124 Id.  1319(a).
125 See id.  1342.
126 Id.  1362(11).
127 Id.  1311(b)(1). Initially, Congress required effluent limitations based on “the best practicable control technology currently available.” Id.  1311(b)(1)(A). Congress followed this provision with an interim standard of “best conventional pollution control technology.” Id.  1311(b)(2)(E). Eventually, discharges of pollutants should be subject to effluent limitations based on “the best available technology economically achievable” for each category or class of point source. Id.  1311(b)(2)(A).
128 33 U.S.C.  1362(11).
129 Id.
130 See id.  1342.
131 Id.  1312.
132 Id.  1313(a)(3)(C).
133 Water Quality Standards, 40 C.F.R.  131.3(b)(i) (2000).
134 Id.  130.3.
135 See 33 U.S.C.  1313(a) (discussing the various ways in which state-set water quality standards could remain or come into effect, and requiring states that had not set water quality standards by the Act’s effective date to do so).
136 Id.  1313(a)(3)(C).
137 Id.  1313(c).
138 See id.  1313(d).
139 See id.
140 511 U.S. 700, 723 (1994).
141 33 U.S.C.  1313(d)(1)(A).
142 See id.
143 Id.  1313(d)(4)(B).
144 See, e.g., id.  1313(a)(1)--(2).
145 Id.  1313(a)(1) (emphasis added).
146 Id.  1313(a)(2) (emphasis added).
147 33 U.S.C.  1313(a)(3)(A) (emphasis added).
148 Id.  1313(a)(3)(C)–(b) (emphasis added).
149 Id.  1343(a).
150 Id.  1343(c).
151 Id.
152 Id.  1343(a).
153 1972 U.S.C.C.A.N. 3818 (emphasis added)
154 33 U.S.C.  1343(c).
155 Id.
156 Id.  1343(a), 1362(7).
157 Compare id.  1343(b) (disallowing EPA to waive its review of state-issued permits when ocean discharge criteria apply) with id.  1342(d)–(e) (allowing EPA to waive notification and review requirements for state-issued NPDES permits in general).
158 Ocean Discharge Criteria, 45 Fed. Reg. 65,942, 65,942 (proposed Oct. 3, 1980) (codified at 40 C.F.R. part 125).
159 Id.
160 Id.; see Legal Found v. Costle, 586 F.2d 650, 655–56 (9th Cir. 1978).
161 Ocean Discharge Criteria, 40 C.F.R.  125.120--.124 (2001).
162 Id.  125.120.
163 See id.  125.124.
164 Id.
165 Id.  125.123(a), (b), (c).
166 Id.  125.121(e).
167 Ocean Discharge Criteria, 40 C.F.R.  125.122(a). Specifically, the ten factors are:
(1)The quantities, composition and potential for bioaccumulation or persistence of the pollutants to be discharged;
(2)The potential transport of such pollutants by biological, physical, or chemical processes;
(3)The composition and vulnerability of the biological communities which may be exposed to such pollutants, including the presence of unique species or communities of species, the presence of species identified as endangered or threatened pursuant to the Endangered Species Act, or the presence of those species critical to the structure or function of the ecosystem, such as those important for the food chain;
(4)The importance of the receiving water area to the surrounding biological community, including the presence of spawning sites, nursery/forage areas, migratory pathways, or areas necessary for other functions or critical stages in the life cycle of an organism;
(5)The existence of special aquatic sites including, but not limited to marine sanctuaries and refuges, parks, national and historic monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas and coral reefs;
(6)The potential impacts on human health through direct and indirect pathways;
(7)Existing or potential recreational and commercial fishing, including finfishing and shellfishing;
(8)Any applicable requirements of an approved Coastal Zone Management plan;
(9)Such other factors relating to the discharge as may be appropriate;
(10)Marine water quality criteria developed pursuant to section 304(a)(1).
Id.
168 Id.  125.122(a)(10).
169 Id.  125.122(b).
170 Id.  125.123(a).
171 Id.  125.123(b).
172 Id.  125.123(c). The regulations define “irreparable harm” to be “significant undesirable effects occurring after the date of permit issuance which will not be reversed after cessation or modification of the discharge.” Id.  125.121(a).
173 See id.
174 See supra section II.B.
175 See supra section II.B.
176 See supra section II.B.
177 33 U.S.C.  1343(c)(1) (1994).
178 Ocean Discharge Criteria, 40 C.F.R.  131.3(i).
179 Id.  125.122(b).
180 Ocean Discharge Criteria, 45 Fed. Reg. 65,943 (proposed Oct. 3, 1980) (codified at 40 C.F.R. part 125).
181 40 C.F.R.  125.122(a)(10).
182 65 Fed. Reg. 74,478, 74,608, 74,612 (proposed Nov. 30, 2000).
183 Id. at 74,612.
184 45 Fed. Reg. at 65,944.
185 Id.
186 EPA Ocean Discharge Criteria Revisions, supra note 4, at 10.
187 Id. at 11.
188 Id.
189 Id. at 17 (emphasis added).
190 Id. at 119 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.121(e)).
191 Id. at 122 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.123(b)(1)).
192 EPA Ocean Discharge Criteria Revisions, supra note 4, at 122–23 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.123(b)(2)).
193 Id. at 124 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.123(b)(5)).
194 Id. at 10.
195 Id. at 11.
196 Id.; see also id. at 125–27 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.124(a))(listing the information that must be provided); 128–29 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.124(c)(1) and (3))(prohibiting NPDES permits if the information provided is insufficient or if an “environmentally preferable alternative” exists).
197 EPA Ocean Discharge Criteria Revisions, supra note 4, at 123 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.123(b)(3)).
198 Id. at 20.
199 Id. at 37–38.
200 Id. at 12; see also id. at 128 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.124(c)(2)) (prohibiting a NPDES permit if “[t]he proposed discharge would be a new or significantly expanded discharge to waters of a Special Ocean Site”), 129 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.124(d)(2)) (allowing for a presidential waiver).
201 Id. at 12.
202 Id.
203 Id. at 21–22.
204 33 U.S.C.  1343 (1994).
205 Id.
206 Id.
207 45 Fed. Reg. at 65,944 (Oct. 3, 1980).
208 EPA Ocean Discharge Criteria Revisions, supra note 4, at 118 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.121(a)).
209 Id. at 119 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.121(b)).
210 Id.
211 Id.
212 EPA Ocean Discharge Criteria Revisions, supra note 4, at 19–20; see also id. at 120–21 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.122) (distinguishing the requirements for dischargers discharging into “State ocean waters (baseline to 3 miles) where applicable CWA water quality standards are in place” from those for discharges into “State ocean waters (baseline to 3 miles) where applicable CWA water quality standards are NOT in place” and into “Federal ocean waters (beyond 3 miles from the baseline)”); see id. at 121 (proposed 40 C.F.R.  125.123(a)) (stating that “[f]or State ocean waters where applicable State, Territorial, authorized Tribal, or Federal CWA water quality standards are in place, those water quality standards apply.”).
213 EPA Ocean Discharge Criteria Revisions, supra note 4, at 14 (emphasis added).
214 Id.
215 See discussion, supra Section II.C.
216 See discussion, supra Section III.A.1.
217 United States v. California, 332 U.S. 19, 46 (1947).
218 See 33 U.S.C.  1313(a)(3)(C), (b)(1) (1994).
219 See id.  1313(a).
220 See id.
221 See id.
222 Id.  1313(c)(2)(A) (emphasis added).
223 Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000, Pub. L. No. 106-284,  2, 114 Stat. 870 (2000).
224 Id.
225 33 U.S.C.  1362(21)(A)(ii).
226 See Ocean Discharge Criteria, 45 Fed. Reg. 65,492, 65,943 (proposed Oct. 3, 1980) (codified at 40 C.F.R. part 125). “State water quality standards established pursuant to section 303 of the Act are designed to preserve the quality of waters under State jurisdiction, including the territorial seas.” Id. “State water quality standards do not generally apply beyond the limits of the territorial seas.” Id. at 65,951.
227 33 U.S.C.  1314(a)(1) (emphasis added).
228 Office of Water, Environmental Protection Agency, National Recommended Water Quality Criteria—Correction 1 (April 1999).
229 See id. at 7–19.
230 See generally id. at 1–3 (explaining how water quality criteria are to be used by states and tribes).
231 33 U.S.C.  1314(a)(2) (1994) (emphasis added).
232 See id.  1362.
233 45 Fed. Reg. 65, 942, 65,951 (Oct. 3, 1980) (emphasis added).
234 Id.
235 33 U.S.C.  1361(a) (emphasis added).
236 Id.  1251(d).
237 Id.  1251(a)(6).
238 Id.  1254(a)(5).
239 Id.  1254(b)(7).
240 S. Rep. No. 92–414, at 1, 7, 8 (1971), reprinted in 1972 U.S.C.C.A.N. 3668--69, 3674--75.
241 Supra notes 76–88 and accompanying text.
242 Supra note 79–82 and accompanying text.
243 Supra note 86 and accompanying text.
244 Supra note 87 and accompanying text.
245 33 U.S.C.  1312(a) (1994).
246 See 33 U.S.C.  1288 (b).
247 See Robert V. Percival et al., Environmental Regulation: Law, Science and Policy 968–69 (2d. ed., Little, Brown & Co. 2000).
248 See id. at 968.
249 33 U.S.C.  1251(a)(7).
250 See id.  1288.
251 Id.  1288(b)(1)(A).
252 Id.
253 See Id.  1288(b)(1)(A).
254 Id.  1329(a)(1)(A).
255 33 U.S.C.  1329 (a)(1)(B), (C), (D).
256 EPA Ocean Discharge Criteria Revisions, supra note 4, at 6--8.
257 See Percival et al., supra note 247, at 943–45.
258 33 U.S.C.  1313(d)(1)(C).
259 See id.  1313(d)(2).
260 American Wildlands v. Browner, 260 F.3d 1192, 1198 (10th Cir. 2001).
261 See Alaska Ctr. for the Env’t v. Browner, 20 F.3d 981, 984--85 (9th Cir. 1994) (noting that TMDLs are an effective tool for achieving water quality standards in waters impacted by nonpoint source pollution).
262 33 U.S.C.  1313(d)(2); see also Browner, 20 F.3d at 986--87 (affirming a district court order that EPA set TMDLs for Alaska).
263 Water Quality Planning and Management, 40 C.F.R.  130.2(h) (2000).
264 33 U.S.C.  1341(a)(2).
265 Id.
266 Id.
267 Id.
268 Id.
269 Id.
270 33 U.S.C.  1342(b)(5).
271 See id.  1342(d)(2), (4).
272 Natural Res. Defense Council, Inc. v. EPA, 863 F.2d 1420, 1435 (9th Cir. 1988).
273 See 33 U.S.C.  1362(3) (defining “State” for purposes of the CWA).
274 Id.  1342(d)(2).
275 Id.  1251(a).
276 EPA Ocean Discharge Criteria Revisions, supra note 4, at 22.
277 Id.
278 Id. at 24–32.