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ARTICLE CONTENTS

[Pages 719-755]
TOP OF ARTICLE

Introduction
I.  Vested Rights
    A.  The Last Discretionary Approval Rule
    B.  The Building Permit Rule
II.  Development Agreements
III.  Development Agreement Legislation as Valid
Contract Zoning

    A.  Contract Zoning
    B.  Common Development Agreement Statutory Provisions
IV.  Legal Issues Affecting the Enforceability of
Development Agreements

    A.  Express Enabling Authority
    B.  The Reserved Powers Doctrine and the Contracts Clause
        1.  The Reserved Powers Doctrine
        2.  The Contracts Clause
              a.  Impairment of Contract Compared with Breach of Contract
              b.  Justification of an Impairment of Contract
    C.  Adjudicative Takings: “Unconstitutional Conditions”
        1.  Exactions Generally
              a.  Nollan v. California Coastal Commission
              b.  Dolan v. City of Tigard
        2.  Should Nollan and Dolan Apply to Exactions Imposed Pursuant to Development Agreements?
    D.  Legislative Act or Administrative Act?
    E.  Remedies for Noncompliance
        1.  Developer Noncompliance with Exactions and Conditions
        2.  Municipal Noncompliance with Regulatory Freeze Provisions
              a.  Legislative Takings
              b.  Breach of Contract
              c.  Impairment of Contract
V.  Analysis
    A.  Applying the Legal Issues to Development Agreements
        1.  The Reserved Powers Doctrine
        2.  The Contracts Clause
        3.  Adjudicative Takings: “Unconstitutional Conditions”
        4.  Legislative Act or Administrative Act?
        5.  Remedies for Noncompliance
    B.  Development Agreements Useful in Early Vesting States
Conclusion