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ARTICLE CONTENTS

[Pages 497-532]
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Introduction
I.  The Evolution of the American Environmental Movement
    A.  The First Era: Conservation and Preservation
    B.  The Second Era: The Rise of Modern Environmentalism in the 1960s
    C.  The Third Era: Mainstream Environmentalism
    D.  The Fourth Era: Grassroots Environmentalism
        1.  Splinter Groups
        2.  The New Conservation Movement
        3.  Environmental Justice and NIMBY Groups
              a.  Environmental Justice Groups
              b.  Antitoxics Groups
II.  The Environmental Movement as a Social Movement: Surviving Through Diversity
    A.  The Structure of a Social Movement: The Endurance of the  American Environmental Movement
    B.  Locating the Environmental Movement in Social Movement Theory
III.  The Strategies and Tactics of Environmental
Grassroots Groups

    A.  Direct Action
    B.  Litigation
    C.  Utilizing Collective Action Framing of Legal Symbolism in Grassroots Protest
Conclusion