* (c) Arnold W. Reitze, Jr. 2000. J.B. and Maurice C. Shapiro Professor of Environmental Law, George Washington University Law School; J.D. 1962, Rutgers University; M.P.H. 1985, Johns Hopkins University; B.A. 1960, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Special Consulting Counsel with the law firm of LeBoeuf, Lamb, Greene & MacRae, Washington, D.C.
** Randy Lowell was the Randolph C. Shaw Fellow while earning an LL.M. in Environmental Law at George Washington University. He received his J.D. and M.P.A. degrees from the University of South Carolina and a B.A. from the College of Charleston. He is an associate with the Columbia, South Carolina office of Willoughby & Hoefer, P.A.
1 See List of Regulated Substances and Thresholds for Accidental Release Prevention: Requirements for Petitions Under Section 112(r) of the CAA as Amended, 59 Fed. Reg. 4478, 4478 (Jan. 31, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
2 See id.
3 Pub. L. No. 101-549, 104 Stat. 2399 (1990) (codified in various parts of 42 U.S.C. 7401–-7671(q)).
4 Id.  301–330, 42 U.S.C.  11001–11050 (1994).
5 EPCRA 313(c).
6 Id.  313(c)-(e). See generally Fertilizer Inst. v. Browner, 163 F.3d 774 (3d Cir. 1998).
7 EPCRA  313(a).
8 Id. 313(f)(l)(B)(iii). See generally Arnold W. Reitze, Jr. & Steven D. Schell, Reporting Requirements for Non-Routine Hazardous Pollutant Releases Under Federal Environmental Laws, 5 Envtl. Law. 1 (1998).
9 Council on Environmental Quality, Environmental Quality the World Wide Web 308, tbl. 8.6 (1997).
10 Federal facilities were made subject to EPCRA’s TRI reporting requirements by Executive Order. See Exec. Order No. 12,856, 58 Fed. Reg. 41,981, 41,981 (Aug. 3, 1993).
11 See generally SUBCOMM. ON HEALTH AND THE ENV’T COMM. ON ENERGY AND COMMERCE, S. Rep. No. 101-228, THE NATIONAL TOXIC RELEASE INVENTORY, (1989); see generally Report of the Comm. on Env’t and Pub. Works, S. Rep. No. 101-228, CAA Amendments of 1989 to accompany S. 1630, 127–47 (1989).
12 See generally Arnold W. Reitze, Jr., Air Pollution Law (1995).
13 U.S. EPA, 1997 Toxics Release Inventory Public Data Release Report 2–11 (1997), available at http://www.epa.gov/triinter/tri97/pdr/index.htm (last visited Aug. 22, 2000) [hereinafter TRI].
14 EPCRA  313, 42 U.S.C.  11023(a), (g) (1994).
15 1995 TRI Data Show Waste Increase While Total Emission Figures Decline, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-11 (May 21, 1997).
16 TRI, supra note 13 , at 2–11.
17 Id. at 1–9. Since 1997, facilities that are required to file TRI reports but that have reportable amounts of less than five hundred pounds and who do not manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than one million pounds of a chemical need only file a Form A certification that does not require reporting of releases. Id.
18 Id. at 2–18, tbl. 2–4.
19 Id. at 2–27, tbl. 2–9.
20 Id.
21 Id. at 2–27.
22 TRI, supra note 13, at 2–27.
23 John C. Dernbach, The Unfocused Regulation of Toxic and Hazardous Pollutants, 21 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 1, 2 n.5 (1997).
24 See id. at 28–29, 52–55; see generally U.S. Dep’t of Health & Hum. Servs., Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Control, Minimum Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances, available at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html (last visited Aug. 22, 2000).
25 Arnold W. Reitze, Jr., Air Pollution Law 286 (1995) (citing U.S. EPA, Special Projects Office, Office of Toxic Substances, Forging an Aliance for Pollution Prevention (1991) [TS–792A]).
26 CAA 112(i)(5)(A), 42 U.S.C. 7412(i)(5)(A) (1994).
27 U.S. Gen. Acct. Office: Toxic Substances, Pub. No. GAO/RCED–94–207, Status of EPA’s Efforts to Reduce Toxic Releases 1 (1994).
28 Id. at 3.
29 See id.
30 Id.
31 Id.
32 TRI, supra note 13, at 2-12, tbl. 2-2.
33 See, e.g., U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA/451/K-98-001, Taking Toxics Out of Air 1, 2 (1998) [hereinafter Taking Toxics Out].
34 See id. at 3.
35 See id. at 4.
36 See id.
37 Id. at 5.
38 U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. SAB-EC-90–021, Reducing Risk: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection 3 (1990).
39 Id. at 13–14.
40 See Robert L. Fischman, Biological Diversity and Enviromental Protection: Authorities to Reduce Risk, 22 Envtl. L. 435, 471 (1992); U.S. Gen. Acct. Office, Pub. No. GAO/RCED-91–102, EPA May Not Fully Achieve Toxic Air Deposition Goals 2–3 (1991) [hereinafter GAO].
41 CAA  112(m)(1), 42 U.S.C.  7412(m)(1) (1994).
42 Id.  112(m)(2)–(4).
43 Id.  112(m)(6).
44 See Fischman, supra note 40, at 471; U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA–453/R–97–011, Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Great Waters, Second Report to Congress 92, 148 (1997) [hereinafter Second Report to Congress].
45 Second Report to Congress, supra note 44, at 1; U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA-453/R-93–055, Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Great Waters, First Report to Congress 1 (1994).
46 Second Report to Congress, supra note 44, at 8.
47 Id. at 187.
48 See Taking Toxics Out, supra note 33, at 2–3.
49 See id. at 4.
50 See id.
51 See generally Arnold W. Reitze, Jr. & Sheryl-Lynn Carof, The Legal Control of Indoor Air Pollution, 25 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 247 (1998).
52 Id.
53 See generally Taking Toxics Out, supra note 33.
54 Carolyn Whetzel, Toxic Chemicals: Greatly Elevated Cancer Risk Found in Study on Los Angeles Pollutants, Toxics L. Daily (BNA) D-6 (April 8, 1999).
55 U.S. Gen. Acct. Office, Air Pollution, Pub. No. GAO/RCED-91–143, EPA’s Strategy and Resources May Be Inadequate to Control Air Toxics 9 (1991).
56 Good Data Lacking on Majority of Air Toxics, Env’t Week, Mar. 16, 1995, LEXIS, News Library, Curnws File; see generally Richard L. Williamson et al., Gathering Danger: The Urgent Need to Regulate Toxic Substances that Can Bioaccumulate, 20 Ecology L.Q. 605 (1993).
57 CAA  112(p), 42 U.S.C.  7412(p) (1994).
58 Id.  112(p)(1).
59 The Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center, About the Center: Mission, http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/Pages/about.htm (last visited Sept. 10, 2000).
60 The Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center, Strategic Research Plan Update October 1999, http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/research/mleland /attachments/SRPjr.htm (last visited Sept. 10, 2000).
61 Id.
62 Minimal Risk Levels for Priority Substances and Guidance for Derivation, 61 Fed. Reg. 25,873, 25,873 (May 23, 1996).
63 U.S. Dep’t of Health and Human Servs., Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Minimum Risk Levels for Hazardous Substances, available at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html (last visited Sept. 10, 2000).
64 Id.
65 Id.
66 Washington v. Gen. Motors Corp., 406 U.S. 109, 114 (1972).
67 CAA  304(e), 42 U.S.C.  7604(e) (1994).
68 See id. 504(f). The permit shield doctrine would preclude any claim based on a emissions or conditions that were allowed under the permit. Id.
69 Id. 112, .
70 1977 CAA Amendments,  112(b)(1)(A)–(B) amended by 42 U.S.C.  7401 (1994).
71 See id.
72 Id. 112(b)(l)(B), CAA as Amended August 1977, Serial No. 95–11, 95th Congress, 1st Sess. (1977).
73 See Taking Toxics Out, supra note 33, at 5–6.
74 The mechanics of the NESHAP program took about three years to complete, although lack of resources and/or political problems often extended the period.
75 See generally 40 C.F.R. pt. 61 (1992). The annual air toxics reduction from the regulation of these seven chemicals was estimated at 125,000 tons. Taking Toxics Out, supra note 33, at 5.
76 NESHAPs: Addition of Coke Oven Emissions to List of HAPs, 49 Fed. Reg. 36,560 (Sept. 18, 1984).
77 Benzene emissions from coke by-product recovery plants are regulated at 40 C.F.R.  61.130–.139 (2000).
78 Intent to List Chromium or Hexavalent Chromium as a HAP, 50 Fed. Reg. 24,317 (June 10, 1985).
79 NESHAPs: Standards for Inorganic Arsenic, 51 Fed. Reg. 27,956 (Aug. 4, 1986) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. 61.160–.167, 61.170–.177, 61.180–.186).
80 See generally NESHAPs: Vinyl Chloride; Equipment Leaks of Volatile HAPs, 51 Fed. Reg. 34,904 (Sept. 30, 1986) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. 61.60–.71).
81 Mercury sources covered by 40 C.F.R.  61.50 (2000) include stationary sources that process mercury ore, use mercury chlor-alkali cells to produce chlorine gas and alkali metal hydroxide, and that incinerate or dry wastewater treatment plant sludge. Amendments to Standards for Asbestos and Mercury, 40 Fed. Reg. 48,292, 48,302 (1975).
82 See NESHAPs: Standards for Radon–222 Emissions from Licensed Uranium Mill Tailings, 51 Fed. Reg. 34,056 (Sept. 24, 1986) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. 61.220–.226); see generally Karen Hoyden Curtin, Indoor Radon: Regulating a Blameless Cause, 3 Buff. Envtl. L.J. 181 (1996).
83 NESHAPs: Radionuclides, 54 Fed. Reg. 51,654, 51,701 (Sept. 15, 1989) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. 61.190–.193).
84 See NESHAPs: National Emissions Standards for Radon Emissions from Phosphogypsum Stacks, 57 Fed. Reg. 23,305 (June 3, 1992) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. 61.200–.210).
85 NESHAPs: Radionuclides, 54 Fed. Reg. at 51,699.
86 See 40 C.F.R.  61.220–61.225 (2000).
87 NESHAPs: Polonium-210 Emissions from Elemental Phosphorus Plants, 56 Fed. Reg. 65,934, 65,943 (Dec. 19, 1991) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 61).
88 NESHAPs: Radionuclides, 54 Fed. Reg. at 51,703.
89 NESHAPs: Radionuclides, 54 Fed. Reg. at 51,702.
90 42 U.S.C.  7901–7942 (1988).
91 See Radioactive Waste: Uranium Tailing Emission Program May Shift to Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 22 Envtl. Rep. (BNA) 2101 (Jan. 3, 1992).
92 Id.
93 Id.
94 Id.
95 Id.
96 CAA  112(g)(1), (3); 42 U.S.C.  7412(g)(1), (3) (1994).
97 Environmentalists, Mining Industry Reach Deal on EPA Radionuclides Rule, Inside EPA, Sept. 18, 1992, at 16.
98 Natural Res. Def. Council, Inc. v. Reilly, 976 F.2d 36, 41 (D.C. Cir. 1992).
99 551 F. Supp. 785 (N.D. Cal. 1982).
100 See id. In the 1977 CAA Amendments, section 122 required EPA to investigate radionuclides to determine whether they pose a health risk, and if so, to list them as hazardous and issue emission standards. In November, 1979, EPA issued its determination that radionuclides were hazardous pollutants. When EPA failed to issue regulations, the Sierra Club sued and obtained a court order requiring proposed regulations to be issued. Sierra Club v. Gorsuch, 551 F. Supp. at 786. Proposed regulations were issued on April 6, 1983. When EPA failed to either issue final regulations or make a finding that radionuclides were not hazardous as required by section 112(b)(1)(B), the Sierra Club sued EPA again. On July 27, 1984, a federal district court ordered EPA to issue final regulations. After subsequent moves to amend the July 27, 1984 order failed, on October 23, 1984, EPA announced the withdrawal of proposed radionuclide emission standards for three of the four categories of sources for which proposed standards had been issued. The four categories were: DOE facilities, NRC-licensed facilities, elemental phosphorus plants, and underground uranium mines. EPA also announced it would not regulate five other sources of radionuclides for which no proposed regulations had been issued. EPA made this announcement while affirming the risk to health from radionuclides. This led to a contempt order against EPA in Sierra Club v. Ruckelshaus. See 602 F. Supp. 892, 904 (N.D. Cal. 1984).
101 See Ruckelshaus, 602 F. Supp. at 904.
102 554 F. Supp. 1060 (S.D.N.Y. 1983). In 1977 Congress enacted section 122 as part of the CAA Amendments that directed the Administrator to determine within one year whether arsenic should be regulated. On June 5, 1980, almost two years later than required by the statute, the Administrator listed inorganic arsenic as a hazardous air pollutant. NESHAPs: Addition of Inorganic Arsenic to List of HAPs, 45 Fed. Reg. 37,886 (June 5, 1980). This listing required the Administrator to publish regulations within 180 days. When EPA failed to act, New York State sued to force the Administrator of EPA to perform her nondiscretionary duty. On January 12, 1983, a federal court ordered the Administrator to publish regulations within 180 days. Gorsuch, 554 F. Supp. at 1060. See generally Gregory D. Call, Arsenic, ASARCO, and EPA: Cost-Benefit Analysis, Public Participation, and Polluter Games in the Regulation of Hazardous Air Pollutants, 12 Ecology L.Q. 567 (1985).
103 CAA  112(a)(1), 42 U.S.C.  7412(a)(1) (Pre-1990 Amendments).
104 Id.  122.
105 Id.  122(a).
106 The Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA), as amended, and the CWA since 1977 are the same statute. Since 1977, the CWA is the term usually used.
107 Citizens for a Better Env’t v. Gorsuch, 718 F.2d 1117, 1130 (D.C. Cir. 1983).
108 See Renee S. Dankner, Safety Before Feasibility: A Two-Step Approach to Regulating Hazardous Air Pollutants, 56 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 799, 803 (1988).
109 See id.
110 See id. (citing NESHAPs, 42 Fed. Reg. 28,154 (June 2, 1977)).
111 See Dankner, supra note 108, at 803.
112 See id.
113 See, e.g., Citizens for a Better Env’t, 718 F.2d at 1121 (noting a compliance period of only three and one-half years for proposed regulation of pollutants).
114 See id.
115 Standard For Vinyl Chloride, 41 Fed. Reg. 46,560 (Oct. 21, 1976). EPA had listed vinyl chloride as a hazardous air pollutant at HAPs, Addition to List, 40 Fed. Reg. 59,477 (Dec. 24, 1975).
116 Standard For Vinyl Chloride, 41 Fed. Reg. at 46,559–60.
117 Envtl. Def. Fund v. Train, No. 76-2405 (D.C. Cir. June 24, 1976).
118 See Dankner, supra note 108, at 803–04.
119 NESHAPs, 42 Fed. Reg. 28,154 (June 2, 1977).
120 For a discussion of the effects of vinyl chloride exposure see Society of Plastics Industry, Inc. v. Occupational Safety & Health Administration. See 509 F.2d 1301 (2d Cir. 1975); see also David D. Doniger, Federal Regulation of Vinyl Chloride: A Short Course in the Law and Policy of Toxic Substances Control, 7 Ecology L.Q. 497, 522–27 (1978); Christopher Schroeder, A Decade of Change in Regulating the Chemical Industry, 46 Law & Contemp. Probs. 1, 4–9 (1983).
121 NESHAPs: Vinyl Chloride, 50 Fed. Reg. 1182 (proposed Jan. 8, 1985) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 61).
122 Id. at 1184.
123 Natural Res. Def. Council v. U.S. EPA, 824 F.2d 1146, 1164 (D.C. Cir. 1987) [hereinafter Vinyl II].
124 Id. at 1164–65 & n.11.
125 Id. at 1148–49.
126 Id.
127 Id.
128 See Vinyl II, 824 F.2d at 1153–54.
129 Id. at 1153 (citing Indus. Union Dep’t, AFL-CIO v. Am. Petroleum Inst., 448 U.S. 607, 642 (1980)).
130 Id. at 1157, 1163.
131 Id. at 1165.
132 Id.
133 In 1977, EPA listed benzene as a hazardous air pollutant. For a history of how NRDC fought for EPA to issue benzene regulations from 1983 to 1988 see NRDC v. EPA. See 695 F. Supp. 48, 49–52 (D.D.C. 1988). That case only resulted in a court order requiring EPA to issue final determinations on whether to regulate emissions of benzene from a variety of chemical manufacturing process units. After a follow-up court action, the EPA finally issued a proposed rule. See NRDC v. EPA, 705 F. Supp. 698 (D.D.C. 1989); NESHAPs: Benzene Emissions from Chemical Manufacturing Process Vents, Industrial Solvent Use, Benzene Waste Operations, Benzene Transfer Operations, and Gasoline Marketing System, 54 Fed. Reg. 38,083 (Sept. 14, 1989) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 61). The complete list of benzene regulations follows:
(1) NESHAPs: Addition of Benzene to List of HAPs, 42 Fed. Reg. 29,332, (June 3, 1977).
(2) Standards of Performance of New Stationary Sources: Emissions Limitation of Volatile Organic Compounds From Gasoline Tank Truck Loading Racks at Bulk Gasoline Terminals, 45 Fed. Reg. 83,126 (proposed Dec. 17, 1980) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
(3) Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Bulk Gasoline Terminals, 48 Fed. Reg. 37,578 (Aug. 18, 1983) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
(4) NESHAPs: Regulation of Benzene, 49 Fed. Reg. 23,478 (June 6, 1984) (Response to Comments) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 61).
(5) Regulatory Strategies for the Gasoline Marketing Industry, 49 Fed. Reg. 31,706 (Aug. 8, 1984) (Notice of Document Availability for Public Comment) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. ch. 1).
(6) Standards of Performance of New Stationary Sources: Volatile Organic Liquid Storage Vessels (Including Petroleum Liquid Storage Vessels) Constructed after July 23, 1984, 52 Fed. Reg. 11,420 (Apr. 8, 1987) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
(7) Control of Air Pollution from New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines: Refueling Emission Regulations for Gasoline-Fueled Light-Duty Vehicles and Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, 52 Fed. Reg. 31,162 (proposed Aug. 19, 1987) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 80, 86, 600).
(8) Occupational Exposure to Benzene, 52 Fed. Reg. 34,460 (Sept. 11, 1987) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pt. 1910).
(9) Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry, 52 Fed. Reg. 34,868 (Sept. 15, 1987) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
(10) NESHAPs: Benzene Emissions from Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants, 53 Fed. Reg. 28,496 (proposed July 28, 1988) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 61).
The benzene regulations were the subject of litigation in Monsanto Co. v. EPA, 19 F.3d 1201 (7th Cir. 1994).
134 NESHAPs: Radionuclides, 54 Fed. Reg. 51,654 (Dec. 15, 1989) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 61).
135 However, proposed Vinyl Chloride NESHAP revisions are found at: NESHAPs: Revisions to Vinyl Chloride; Equipment Leaks of Volatile HAPs, 54 Fed. Reg. 38,938 (proposed Sept. 21, 1989) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 61).
136 NESHAPs: Benzene Emissions from Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants, 54 Fed. Reg. 38,044, 38,045 (Sept. 14, 1989) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 61).
137 NESHAPs: Radionuclides, 54 Fed. Reg. at 51,655.
138 Id.
139 CAA 110, 42 U.S.C. 7410 (1994).
140 Id.  111.
141 40 C.F.R. pt. 60, subpart AAA (2000).
142 See generally Arnold W. Reitze, Jr., Mobile Source Air Pollution Control, 6 Envtl. Law. 309, 315 (2000).
143 See generally Arnold W. Reitze, Jr., The Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives Under Section 211 of the Clean Air Act, 29 Tulsa L.J. 485 (1994).
144 Federal Programs Expanded, State Role Increased Under Revised Air Toxics Strategy, 16 Env’t Rep. (BNA) 235 (June 7, 1985).
145 See generally N.J. Dep’t of Envtl. Protection, Air Toxics Overview, available at http://www.state.nj.us/dep/airmon/airtoxics/overview.htm (last visited Sept. 10, 2000); California Air Resources Bd., California Air Toxics Program Background, available at http://www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/background.htm (last visited Sept. 10, 2000) .
146 See Approval of State Programs and Delegation of Federal Authorities, 58 Fed. Reg. 62,262 (Nov. 26, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 9, 63).
147 U.S. Gen. Acct. Office, Pub. No. GAO/RCED-87–76, Air Pollution, States Assigned a Major Role in EPA’s Air Toxics Strategy 3 (1987).
148 29 C.F.R. p. 1910, subpart H (2000).
149 AFL/CIO v. Occupational Safety & Health Admin., 965 F.2d 962, 975–76, 981–82 (11th Cir. 1992).
150 CAA  112(d)(2), 42 U.S.C.  7412(d)(2) (1994).
151 Id.  112(q).
152 Id.  112(q)(1).
153 Id.
154 See id.
155 See generally id..
156 See CAA; see also Vinyl II, 824 F.2d 1146, 1153 (D.C. Cir. 1987)(rejecting NRDC’s argument for a zero emission standard when a no-risk threshold could not be determined).
157 See supra text accompanying note 133 (outlining the HAPs regulated prior to the 1990 CAA Amendments).
158 See West Group, Selected Environmental Law Statutes: 1989–90 Educational Edition 663–65 (1989).
159 See West Group, Selected Environmental Law Statutes: 1991–92 Educational Edition 704–32 (1991).
160 See CWA  307(a)(2), 42 U.S.C.  1317(a)(2) (1994).
161 See CAA  112(d).
162 Id.  112(a)(1). Note that the definition of major source under section 112 is more inclusive than the regulatory definition of major source used under the new source review provisions. See 40 C.F.R.  51.165(a)(1) (2000); see also infra section III(C).
163 CAA  112(a)(1).
164 Id.  111(a)(3).
165 Id.  112(a)(1).
166 Id.  112(a)(2).
167 Id.
168 Id.CAA  112(a)(4).
169 CAA  112(a)(6).
170 Id.  112(a)(7).
171  313, 42 U.S.C.  11023 (1994).
172 CERCLA  104(i), 42 U.S.C.  9604(i) (1994).
173 See Dernbach, supra note 23, at 41.
174 Id. at 14. “The magnitude of inconsistencies is evident from a comparison of the pollutants on any two of the lists. . . . [M]ore than two-thirds of the total pollutants regulated under any two programs are regulated under only one of those programs.” Id. at 15.
175 See id. at 41–42.
176 See CAA  112(b)(2), 42 U.S.C.  7412(b)(2) (1994).
177 Id.  112(b)(3)(A).
178 James Kennedy, EPA Investigates Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure, “Seriously” Considers Future Listing as HAP, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-1 (Nov. 19, 1999).
179 Caprolactam was removed on June 18, 1996. See 61 Fed. Reg. 30,816 (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63.60). The delisting process is found at CAA  112(b)(3)(C), (D).
180 HAP List, 64 Fed. Reg. 33,453 (proposed June 23, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
181 Petition to Delist Methanol from the List of HAPs, 64 Fed. Reg. 38,668 (petition completed July 19, 1999). See also Pamela Najor, EPA to Review Petition for Removal of Methanol from Section 112 List of HAPs, Toxics L. Daily (BNA) D-2 (July 21, 1999).
182 See, e.g., HAP List: Modification, 61 Fed. Reg. 30,816 (June 18, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. 63.60).
183 CAA  112(b)(4), 42 U.S.C.  7412(b)(4) (1994).
184 Id.  112(c)(1).
185 Id.  112(c)(3).
186 Id.  111(a)(3).
187 See Nat’l Mining Ass’n v. EPA, 59 F.3d 1351, 1356 (D.C. Cir. 1995).
188 See id. at 1357.
189 See NESHAPs: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. 12,408, 12,434 (Mar. 16, 1994)(to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
190 See id.
191 Initial List of Categories of Sources Under Section 112(c)(1) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 57 Fed. Reg. 31,576, 31,578 (July 16, 1992).
192 See id. at 31,580.
193 See id.
194 See id. at 31,576.
195 See id. at 31,577.
196 Initial List of Categories of Sources Under Section 112(c)(1) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 57 Fed. Reg. 31,576, 31,577 (July 16, 1992).
197 See id.
198 See id.
199 42 U.S.C. 7412 (c)(6). These specifically excluded emissions include chemicalspolycyclic organic matter; polychlorinated biphenyls; 2, 3, 7, 8—tetrachlorodibenzofuran; 2, 3, 7, 8—tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; hexachlorobenzene; mercury; and alkylated lead. Id.
200 Initial List of Categories of Sources Under Section 112(c)(1) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 57 Fed. Reg. 31,576 (July 16, 1992).
201 See id. at 31,590, tbl. 1.
202 See generally NESHAPs: Schedule for the Promulgation of Emission Standards Under Section 112(c) of the CAA, 58 Fed. Reg. 63,941 (Dec. 3, 1993).
203 See id.
204 CAA  112(c)(5), (9), 42 U.S.C.  7412(c)(5), (9) (1994).
205 Id.  112(c)(5).
206 Id.  112(c)(9)(B)(i)–(ii).
207 Id.  112(c)(9)(B).
208 Id.  112(c)(1).
209 See, e.g., NESHAPs: Revision of Initial List of Categories of Sources and Schedule for Standards Under Sections 112(c) and (e) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61 Fed. Reg. 28,197 (June 4, 1996).
210 See id.
211 59 F.3d 1351, 1356 (D.C. Cir. 1995).
212 NESHAPs: Revision of Initial List of Categories of Sources and Schedule for Standards Under Sections 112(c) and (e) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61 Fed. Reg. at 28,198.
213 NESHAPs: Revision of Initial List of Categories of Sources and Schedule for Standards Under Sections 112(c) and (e) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61 Fed. Reg. 37,542 (July 18, 1996).
214 NESHAPs: Revision of List of Categories of Sources and Schedule for Standards Under Section 112 of the CAA, 63 Fed. Reg. 7155 (Feb. 12, 1998).
215 Source Category Listing for Section 112(d)(2) Rulemaking Pursuant to Section 112(c)(6) Requirements, 63 Fed. Reg. 17,838 (Apr. 10, 1998) (notice).
216 NESHAPs: Revision of Schedule for Standards Under Section 112 of the CAA, 64 Fed. Reg. 26,743 (May 17, 1999).
217 NESHAPs: Revision of Source Category List and Schedule for Standards Under Section 112 of the CAA, 64 Fed. Reg. 63,026 (Nov. 18, 1999).
218 NESHAPs: Revision of Initial List of Categories of Sources and Schedule for Standards Under Sections 112(c) and (e) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61 Fed. Reg. at 28,198.
219 Id.
220 Id.
221 NESHAPs: Schedule for the Promulgation of Emission Standards Under Section 112(e) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 58 Fed. Reg. 63,941 (Dec. 3, 1993); see also NESHAPs: Revision of Initial List of Categories of Sources and Schedule for Standards Under Sections 112(c) and (e) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61 Fed. Reg. at 28,198.
222 See NESHAPs: Revision of Initial List of Categories of Sources and Schedule for Standards Under Sections 112(c) and (e) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61 Fed. Reg. at 28,197–198.
223 Defined at CAA  112(k), 42 U.S.C.  7412(k) (1994).
224 Id.  112(c)(3).
225 See infra section III(K).
226 CAA  112(e)(4).
227 Nat’l Mining Ass’n v. EPA, 59 F.3d 1351, 1354–65 (D.C. Cir. 1995).
228 Id. at 1354.
229 Id.
230 Id.
231 CAA  307(d)(9).
232 Id.
233 Nat’l Mining Ass’n, 59 F.3d at 1354.
234 Id. at 1357 (referring to Ala. Power Co. v. Costle, 636 F.2d 323 (D.C. Cir. 1979)).
235 CAA  182(a)(c).
236 Nat’l Mining Ass’n, 59 F.3d at 1359.
237 See id.
238 Id. at 1364.
239 Id. at 1360–61.
240 Id.
241 Id.
242 Nat’l Mining Ass’n, 59 F.3d at 1365.
243 Nat’l Mining Ass’n v. EPA, 1996 WL 10101 at *1 (D.C. Cir. 1996).
244 Id.
245 CAA  112(d)(2), 42 U.S.C.  7412(d)(2) (1994).
246 Id.  112(d)(2).
247 Id.
248 NESHAPs: General Provisions, 58 Fed. Reg. 42,760, 42,762 (proposed Aug. 11, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 61, 63).
249 Id.
250 CAA  112(d)(4).
251 New sources include modified or reconstructed sources. See Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources, 40 C.F.R.  60.14–.15 (2000).
252 CAA  112(d)(3)(A).
253 Id.  112(d)(3)(B).
254 Id.  112(d)(2).
255 Id.  112(d)(1).
256 Id.  112(c).
257 Id.  112(d)(1).
258 CAA  112(c)(6).
259 Id.
260 Id.  112(e)(1)(E).
261 U.S. Envtl. Prot. Agency, Pub. No. EPA-453/R-96–015, Second Report to Cong. on the Status of the Hazardous Air Pollutant Program Under the Clean Air Act 1 (1997) [hereinafter Second Report to Congress on the Status of the HAP Program].
262 CAA  112(i)(2).
263 Id.  112(e), (i).
264 Id.  112(j)(5).
265 Id.
266 See id.  112(d)(2).
267 See, e.g., Id.  112(c)(9)(B)(ii),.
268 CAA  112(f)(2)(A).
269 Id.  112(f)(2).
270 Id.  112(o).
271 Id.  112(a)(2).
272 Id.  112(a), (c)(3), (d)(5).
273 Id.  112(d)(5).
274 Unified Air Toxics Website: Final MACT Standards, available at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/mactfnl.html (last visited Sept. 10, 2000).
275 Second Report to Congress on the Status of the HAP Program, supra note 261, at 1–2.
276 Unified Air Toxics Website: Proposed MACT Standards, available at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/mactprop.html (last visited Sept. 10, 2000).
277 Unified Air Toxics Website: Upcoming MACT Standards, available at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/mactupd.html (last visited Sept. 10, 2000).
278 U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA-453/R-99–001, Residual Risk: Report to Congress 10 (1999) [hereinafter Residual Risk]. The website is located at http://www.epa.gov/iris.
279 HAPs: Regulations Governing Equivalent Emission Limitations by Permit, 59 Fed. Reg. 26,429, 26,431 (May 20, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 9, 63).
280 Id. at 26,430, tbl. 1.
281 HAPs: Amendment to Regulations Governing Equivalent Emission Limitations by Permit, 64 Fed. Reg. 26,311 (May 14, 1999) (to be codified at 63 C.F.R. pt. 63).
282 See id.; see also CAA  112(j), 42 U.S.C.  7412(j) (1994).
283 U.S. Gen. Acct. Office, Pub. No. GAO/RCED-00–72, Air Pollution, Status of Implementation and Issues of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 35 (2000).
284 See generally EPA Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources, 40 C.F.R. pt. 60 (1990); EPA NESHAPs, 40 C.F.R. pt. 61 (1990).
285 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 58 Fed. Reg. 42,760 (proposed Aug. 11, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 61, 63).
286 Id. at 42,760.
287 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. 12,408 (Mar. 16, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 61, 63).
288 CAA  112(b).
289 Initial List of Categories of Sources Under Section 112(c)(1) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 57 Fed. Reg. 31,576 (July 16, 1992).
290 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,408, 12,411. Until a source is subject to a 40 C.F.R. part 63 standard, the General Provisions do not apply.
291 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, Applicability, 40 C.F.R.  63.1(a)(3) (2000).
292 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,408.
293 40 C.F.R.  63.1(a)(4).
294 CAA  112(d)(1).
295 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,410.
296 Id. Potential to emit is covered in detail in the final rule of June 28, 1989. Requirements for the Preparation, Adoption, and Submittal of Implementation Plans; Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans, 54 Fed. Reg. 27,274 (1989) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 51, 52).
297 But see Nat’l Mining Ass’n v. EPA, 59 F.3d 1351 (D.C. Cir. 1995).
298 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,411. There is an exception for oil and gas wells at CAA  112(n)(4).
299 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,412.
300 Id.
301 See NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 40 C.F.R.  63.2 (2000).
302 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,413.
303 CAA  112(g)(2), 42 U.S.C.  7412(g)(2) (1994).
304 Id.  112(j)(2).
305 Id.  112(j)(5).
306 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,415.
307 CAA  112(j)(5).
308 Id.
309 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,416.
310 Id.
311 Id.
312 EPA has also issued a guidance document on preparing a Notice of MACT Approval. U.S. EPA, Preparing a Notice of MACT Approval Under  63.43(g) of 40 CFR 63, Subpart B Maximum Achievable Control Technology Emission Limitation for Constructed or Reconstructed Sources (1999).
313 HAPs: Amendment to Regulations Governing Equivalent Emission Limitations by Permit, 61 Fed. Reg. 21,370 (May 10, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63). A similar proposed rule was issued at the same time in HAPs: Amendment to Regulations Governing Equivalent Emission Limitations by Permit, 61 Fed. Reg. 21,414 (May 10, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
314 See CAA  112(c)(3), 42 U.S.C.  7412(c)(3) (1994).
315 See id.  112(g)(2).
316 Id.  112(g)(2)(A), (j)(5).
317 Id.  112(h)(1).
318 Id.  502(b)(3)(B)(ii).
319 HAPs: Proposed Regulations Governing Constructed, Reconstructed or Modified Major Sources, 59 Fed. Reg. 15,504 (proposed Apr. 1, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 63, 70).
320 Draft Final Rule Limits Applicability of Standards Under Air Act Section 112(g), Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-4 (Mar. 21, 1996).
321 HAPs: Regulations Governing Constructed or Reconstructed Major Sources, 61 Fed. Reg. 68,384 (Dec. 27, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
322 Id. at 68,386.
323 Id. at 68,385.
324 Id. at 68,386.
325 Id.
326 HAPs: Regulations Governing Constructed or Reconstructed Major Sources, 61 Fed. Reg. at 68,387 .
327 Id. at 68,401.
328 Id.
329 HAPs: Regulations Governing Constructed or Reconstructed Major Sources, 64 Fed. Reg. 35,029 (June 30, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
330 HAPs: Constructed or Reconstructed Major Source Regulations, 61 Fed. Reg. at 68,384.
331 Id. at 68,388.
332 U.S. EPA, Questions and Answers on 112(g) Final Rule, at http://www.epa.gov /ttn/uatw/112g/qanda12g.html (last visited Sept. 10, 2000).
333 HAPs: Constructed or Reconstructed Major Source Regulations, 61 Fed. Reg. at 68,388.
334 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. 12,408, 12,436 (Mar. 16, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. 63.5(b)(3) and 63.5(d)). “Affected source” is defined at 40 C.F.R. section 63.2 as the source or group of sources or portion of a source subject to a CAA section 112 standard. This definition only applies to the use of the term in the context of part 63. See id.
335 Id. at 12,420.
336 Id. at 12,416.
337 Id.; see also Provisions Governing Construction, Reconstruction or Modified Sources, 59 Fed. Reg. 15,504 (Apr. 1, 1994), 60 Fed. Reg. 8333, (Feb. 14, 1995)(to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63); NESHAPs for Source Categories General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,416 ; HAPs: Proposed Regulations Governing Constructed, Reconstructed or Modified Major Sources, 59 Fed. Reg. 15,504 (Apr. 1, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 63, 70).
338 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,408, adopting the policy laid out in Modification, Notification, and Reconstruction, 40 Fed. Reg. 58, 416, 58,416 (Dec. 16, 1975) (codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
339 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,438.
340 Id. at 12,421, 12,437.
341 Id. at 12,423, 12,455.
342 CAA  112(g)(2),(i),(j), 42 U.S.C.  7412(g)(2),(i),(j) (1994).
343 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,417.
344 State Operating Permit Programs, 40 C.F.R. pt. 70 (2000).
345 Operating Permit Program, 57 Fed. Reg. 32,250 (July 21, 1992) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 70).
346 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,417.
347 40 C.F.R. pt. 70.
348 Memorandum from U.S. EPA, Lydia N. Wegman, Deputy Director, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Definition of Regulated Air Pollutant for Purposes of Title V, to Air Division Directors, Regions I-X 3 (Apr. 26, 1993) (on file with autho).
349 Id.
350 See EPA State Operating Permit Programs, 40 C.F.R.  70.5 (2000).
351 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,417.
352 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 58 Fed. Reg. 42,760 (proposed Aug. 11, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 61, 63).
353 Id. at 42,763.
354 Agency Says Startup/Shutdown Plans Not Required in Operating Permits, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-3 (Jan. 23, 1996).
355 Id.
356 Id.
357 Id.
358 Id.
359 Id. at A-1.
360 Enhanced Monitoring Program, 58 Fed. Reg. 54,648 (proposed Oct. 22, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 51, 52, 60, 61, 64).
361 NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. 12,408, 12,417 (Mar. 16, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. 63.5(b)(3), (d)).
362 Defined at NESHAPs for Source Categories: General Provisions, 40 C.F.R.  63.2 (2000).
363 NESHAPs for Source Categories General Provisions, 59 Fed. Reg. at 12,447.
364 Id. at 12,444.
365 Id. at 12,419.
366 Id. at 12,420.
367 Id. at 12,426.
368 Id. at 12,424.
369 Consolidated Emissions Reporting, 65 Fed. Reg. 33,268 (May 23, 2000) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 51).
370 Id. at 33,270.
371 Id; see also National Air Toxics Program: The Integrated Urban Strategy, 64 Fed. Reg. 38,706 (July 19, 1999) (notice).
372 Consolidated Emissions Reporting, 65 Fed. Reg. at 33,271.
373 Id.
374 See Renee J. Robins, et al., MIT Energy Lab., Symposium Summary: EPA’s Urban Toxics Air Strategy 1999 Urban Air Toxics Summer Symposium 3 (1999) [hereinafter Toxics Symposium] (on file with author).
375 Id.
376 CAA  112(o)(1), 42 U.S.C.  7412(o)(1) (1994).
377 Id.  112(o)(1)(B)(3).
378 See Risk Assessment and Management Commission, 59 Fed. Reg. 30,931 (June 16, 1994) (notice). The report was issued on June 16, 1994. Id.
379 CAA  112(o)(4).
380 See 1990 Amendments to the CAA  303, Pub. L. No. 101-549(c) (1990).
381 See id.
382 CAA  112(f)(1).
383 Id.  112(g)(1)(A).
384 See supra note 378 and accompanying text.
385 The Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management, Final Report Vol. 1 (1997), available at http://www.riskworld.com/Nreports/1997/risk–rpt/pdf/EPAJAN.PDF (last visited Sept. 19, 2000).
386 Id. at Preface.
387 See id.
388 See generally The Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, Risk Assessment and Risk Management In Regulatory Decision-Making 23 (1997).
389 See generally U.S. Envtl. Prot. Agency, Pub. No. EPA–630–R95–002F, Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (1998).
390 Id. at 2–3. The first phase is problem formulation, the second analysis, and the last is risk characterization.
391 Residual Risk, supra note 278, at ES-4.
392 Id. at ES-5.
393 Id. at ES-6.
394 Id. at ES-5.
395 Id. at ES-11. See Alec Zacaroli, Air Pollution: Framework for Addressing Residual Risks from Air Toxics Modeled After Benzene Rule, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-2 (Mar. 5, 1999). The benzene NESHAP is found at NESHAPs: Benzene Emissions from Maleic Anhydride Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants, 54 Fed. Reg. 38,044 (Sept. 14, 1989).
396 824 F.2d 1146, 1151 (D.C. Cir. 1987).
397 H.R. Conf. Rep. No. 101–952 (1990).
398NESHAPs: Benzene Emissions from Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants, 54 Fed. Reg. 38,044 (Sept. 14, 1989) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 61).
399 Id. at 38,044; see Residual Risk, supra note 278, at ES-11, 8.
400 Pat Phibbs, Panel Says EPA Needs Much More Data to Conduct Full Residual Risk Analysis, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-14 (May 4, 2000); see Problems Estimating Exposures, Impacts Prompt Consideration of New Methodology, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-7 (Apr. 22, 1999).
401 Proposed Test Rule for HAPs, 61 Fed. Reg. 33,178 (June 26, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 799). The ATSDR has also published a guidance manual focusing on the lack of data in public health assessments for CERCLA sites, which includes a discussion of the analysis of air pollutants. U.S. Dep’t of Health and Human Servs., Pub. No. PB94–179827, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Environmental Data Needed for Public Health Assessments: A Guidance Manual (1994).
402 EPA Extends Comment Period Again for TSCA Air Pollutant Proposed Rule, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-11 (Dec. 1, 1997).
403 Amended Proposed Test Rule for HAPs: Extension of Comment Period, 63 Fed. Reg. 19,694 (Apr. 21, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 799).
404 Id. at 19,695.
405 Unified Agenda: TSCA, 65 Fed. Reg. 23,531 (Apr. 24, 2000).
406 See CAA  112(i), 42 U.S.C.  7412(i) (1994).
407 Id.
408 Id.  112(d).
409 Id.  112(d), (i)(5).
410 Id.  112(i)(5).
411 Regulations Governing Compliance Extensions for Early Reductions of HAPs, 40 C.F.R.  63.74 (2000).
412 Id.
413 NESHAPs for Source Categories: Compliance Extensions for Early Reductions, 57 Fed. Reg. 34,132 (Aug. 3, 1992) (notice); 57 Fed. Reg. 43,001 (Sept. 17, 1992) (notice); 57 Fed. Reg. 61,970 (Dec. 29, 1992); 58 Fed. Reg. 26,916 (May 6, 1993) (notice); 59 Fed. Reg. 7224 (Feb. 15, 1994) (notice). There were amendments to the rule made on November 29, 1993 at NESHAPs: Amendments to Compliance Extensions for Early Reductions, 58 Fed. Reg. 62,539 (1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
414 There were high risk list amendments at NESHAPs for Source Categories: Early Reductions Program High Risk List Amendment, 59 Fed. Reg. 32,165 (June 22, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63); 59 Fed. Reg. 53,109 (Oct. 21, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
415 NESHAP Early Reduction Program Amendments, 57 Fed. Reg. at 61,981.
416 Chem. Mfrs. Ass’n v. EPA, 28 F.3d 1259, 1264 (D.C. Cir. 1994).
417 Alex Zacaroli, Determination on Protecting Great Waters Troubles States, Garners Industry Support, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) AA-1 (Sept. 10, 1997).
418 Id.
419 Regions Get Authority to Decide Whether State Toxics Rules Meet Federal Standards, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) D-6 (July 6, 1995).
420 Second Report to Congress on the Status of the HAP Program, supra note 261, at A-9.
421 CAA  112(d)(5), 42 U.S.C.  7412(d)(5) (1994).
422 Id.  201(l).
423 Id.  112(f).
424 Id.
425 Id.  112(c)(3), (k), 202(l).
426 Id.  112(d), 42 U.S.C.  7412(d) (1994).
427 CAA  112(k)(3)(B), (C).
428 National Air Toxics Program: The Integrated Urban Strategy, 64 Fed. Reg. 38,706, 38,711 (July 19, 1999) [hereinafter Urban Strategy].
429 Id. at 38,706.
430 Id.
431 Id. at 38,708.
432 Id. at 38,708, n.7.
433 Toxics Symposium, supra note 374, at 1.
434 Urban Strategy, supra note 428, at 38,711.
435 Id.
436 Id.
437 Id.
438 Id. at 38,715.
439 Id. at 38,716.
440 This issue is being addressed in part with the promulgation of the new HAPs reporting scheme, found at Consolidated Emissions Reporting, 65 Fed. Reg. 33,268 (proposed May 23, 2000) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 51). The Urban Strategy discusses how to address this issue. See Urban Strategy, supra note 430, at 38,710.
441 Urban Strategy, supra note 428, at 38,722.
442 Id. at 38,723.
443 Toxics Symposium, supra note 374, at i; see also Urban Strategy, supra note 428, at 38,706.
444 Urban Strategy, supra note 428, at 38,723.
445 Id.
446 Id.; see also CAA  112(k), 42 U.S.C.  7412(k) (1994).
447 Residual Risk, supra note 278, at 14.
448 Id.
449 Id.; see also CAA  112(l).
450 See CAA 112 (1).
451 Id.
452 Id.  112(l).
453 Id.  112(l)(2).
454 Id.  112(l)(5).
455 Id.
456 Id.  112(l)(6).
457 Approval of State Programs and Delegation of Federal Authorities, 58 Fed. Reg. 62,262 (Nov. 26, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63) [hereinafter Approval and Delegation].
458 Id.
459 Id.
460 Approval of State Programs and Delegation of Federal Authorities, 61 Fed. Reg. 36,295 (July 10, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
461 Approval of State Programs and Delegation of Federal Authorities; Program Overview, 40 C.F.R.  63.90 (2000).
462 Approval and Delegation, supra note 459, at 62,262.
463 40 C.F.R.  63.90.
464 Regions Get Authority to Decide Whether State Toxics Rules Meet Federal Standards, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-2 (July 6, 1995).
465 Id.
466 Approval and Delegation, supra note 457, at 62,274.
467 Approval of State Programs and Delegation of Federal Authorities: Approval of State Requirements that Substitute for a Section 112 Rule, 40 C.F.R.  63.93 (2000).
468 Id.
469 Memorandum from U.S. EPrA John S. Seitz, Director, OAQPS, Delegation of 40 CFR Part 63 General Provisions Authorities to State and Local Air Pollution Control Agencies, to Director Regions I-X 1 (July 10, 1998) (on file with author).
470 Id. at 3.
471 Id. at 7–9.
472 Amendments to the Approval of State Programs and Delegation of Federal Authorities, 65 Fed. Reg. 55,810 (Sept. 14, 2000) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 9, 63).
473 Approval of State Programs and Delegation of Federal Authorities, 64 Fed. Reg. 1880, 1883 (Jan. 12, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63). The changes made to section 112(l) revise the procedures and criteria for approving S/L measures by offering a range of options for demonstrating equivalence with the federal requirements and expectations of the approval process. See Amendments to the Approval of State Programs and Delegatio of Federal Authorities, 65 Fed. Reg. at 55,811. The greatest difference between the proposed rule and the final rule is the variety of enforceable mechanisms available under each equivalency option. Id.
474 Initial List of Categories of Sources Under Section 112(c)(1) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 57 Fed. Reg. 31,576 (July 16, 1992).
475 CAA  112(e)(5), 42 U.S.C.  7412(e)(5) (1994).
476 Id.  112(e)(1)–(5).
477 Coke oven batteries are regulated by emission standard. NESHAPs for Source Categories and for Coke Oven Batteries, 58 Fed. Reg. 57,898 (Oct. 27, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 9, 63).
478 Initial List of Categories of Sources Under Section 112(c)(1) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 57 Fed. Reg. at 31,576.
479 Second Report to Congress on the Status of the HAP Program, supra note 261, at 7.
480 NESHAPs: Revision of Source Category List and Schedule for Standards Under Section 112 of the CAA, 64 Fed. Reg. 63,025, 65,030 (Nov. 18, 1999).
481 Id.
482 See supra section III D.
483 CAA  112(d)(2), 42 U.S.C.  7412(d)(2) (1994).
484 Id.  112(j); HAP: Proposed Regulations Governing Equivalent Emissions Limitations for HAP by Permit, 59 Fed. Reg. 37,778 (proposed July 13, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63) [hereinafter HAP: Proposed Regulations].
485 Id.
486 HAPs: Regulations Governing Equivalent Emission Limitations by Permit, 59 Fed. Reg. 26,429 (May 20, 1994) (40 C.F.R. pts. 9, 63).
487 HAP: Proposed Regulations, supra note 486, at 37,778.
488 Id.; see generally Arnold W. Reitze, Jr. & Michael K. Stagg, Air Emission Standards and Guidelines Under the Clean Air Act for the Incineration of Hospital, Medical, and Infectious Waste, 28 Envtl. L. 791 (1998); Arnold W. Reitze, Jr. & Andrew N. Davis, Regulating Municipal Waste Incinerators Under the Clean Air Act: History, Technology and Risks, 21 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 1 (1993).
489 See U.S. Envitl. Protection Agency, U.S. Consumer Prod. Safety Comm’n, Pub. No. EPA-402-K93-007, Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality, 24 (1995) available at http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubsinsidest.html (last visited Sept. 10, 2000) [hereinafter Inside Story]. “‘Asbestos’ includes chrysolite, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and any of these chemicals that has been chemically treated and/or altered.” 29 C.F.R.  1915.1001 app. K (2000).
490 See U.S. EPA, Region 4, The Asbestos Informer, available at http://www.epa.gov/region04/air/asbestos/inform.htm (last visited Sept. 10, 2000) [hereinafter Asbestos Informer]; Gerald W. Boston, Toxic Apportionment: A Causation and Risk Contribution Model, 25 Envtl. L. 549, 551 n.2 (1995); see also Michael M. Stahl & David J. Kling, Asbestos in Buildings, Trial, Aug. 1990, at 28.
491 See Asbestos Informer, supra note 490.
492 For example, 9” x 9” vinyl floor tiles in pre-1980 homes contain asbestos about 90% of the time and 12” x 12” vinyl tiles about 50% of the time. See Andrew N. Davis & Paul E. Schaffman, The Home Environmental Sourcebook 45 (1996).
493 See id.; see also John D. Spengler, Sources and Concentrations of Indoor Air Pollution, in Indoor Air Pollution: A Health Perspective 52 (Jonathan M. Samet & John D. Spengler eds., The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press 1991).
494 See Inside Story, supra note 489.
495 See Stahl & Kling, supra note 490, at 28.
496See Asbestos Informer, supra note 490; see Spengler, supra note 493, at 52.
497 Univ. of Louisville, Dep’t of Envtl. Health and Safety, Health and Safety: Asbestos, available at http://www.louisville.edu/admin/dehs/hsasbes.htm (last visited Sept. 10, 2000).
498 See Asbestos Informer, supra note 490.
499 Asbestos may cause severe skin irritation. Laurence S. Kirsch, Behind Closed Doors: Indoor Air Pollution and Government Policy, 6 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 339, 357 (1982).
500 Not all fibers become lodged in the lungs; some are removed in the same manner as are other foreign particles. However, some fibers do remain in the lungs or migrate to the heart, blood, or lymphatic systems. Id. at 357 n.146. Asbestos may cause fibrosis of the heart cavity, which is the formation of fibrous bodies within the lungs, heart, heart cavity, or lung cavity. Id. at 357.
501 Id. at 356–57.
502 Id. at 357.
503 Andrew J. Harrison, Jr., An Analysis of the Health Effects, Economic Consequences and Legal Implications of Human Exposure to Indoor Air Pollutants, 37 S.D. L. Rev. 289, 312 (1991/1992); see also Asbestos Worker Protection; Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools: Proposed Amendment, 59 Fed. Reg. 54,746, 54,750 (proposed Nov. 1, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 763).
504 See Asbestos Informer, supra note 490. Asbestosis is a condition resulting from scarring of the lungs with fibrous tissue as a result of the inhalation of asbestos fibers. See Stahl & Kling, supra note 490, at 28. Asbestosis is a leading cause of death for workers exposed to asbestos. However, some workers exposed to asbestos do not become impaired. See Kirsch, supra note 499, at 465 n.148.
505 See Davis & Schaffman, supra note 492, at 42.
506 Asbestosis and mesothelioma have been observed in people exposed in non-occupational settings. For example, they have been found in persons living in the same house as exposed workers. See Kirsch, supra note 499, at 357 n.143 (citing Anderson et al., Asbestosis Among Household Contacts of Asbestos Factory Workers, 330 Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 387 (1979)).
507 See Samet & Spengler, supra note 493, at 54.
508 See Stahl & Kling, supra note 490, at 29.
509 See Davis & Schaffman, supra note 492, at 41. “Friable” asbestos is asbestos that has “deteriorated or sustained physical injury such that the cohesion of the material . . . is inadequate, or which . . . lacks fiber cohesion.” Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools, 52 Fed. Reg. 41,826, 41,830 (Oct. 30, 1987) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 763).
510 See Davis & Schaffman, supra note 492, at 41.
511 See id.
512 See Kirsch, supra note 499, at 356. For example, vinyl flooring will not release fibers when cleaned but may release fibers if sanded, drilled, filed, or scraped. See David & Schaffman, supra note 492, at 43–44.
513 Asbestos fibers are microscopic in size and are also very light. See Stahl & Kling, supra note 490, at 28.
514 Contact the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) (800/638-CPSC) or the EPA’s Asbestos Hotline (202/534–1404) for more asbestos information.
515 See Inside Story, supra note 489. A home asbestos inspection may cost $300 to $500, or an extra $100 to $300 if added onto a full home inspection. Lab analysis for asbestos costs $20 to $35 per sample. Id. Asbestos-abatement contractors typically charge $4 per square foot to remove vinyl flooring (tiles and linoleum), $4 to $5 per square foot to remove ceiling tiles, $10 to $15 per square foot to remove textured ceiling paint or plaster, up to $20 per linear foot to remove asbestos pipe insulation, and $30 per square foot to remove furnace insulation. The cost to hire a licensed contractor to remove and dispose of asbestos materials around a furnace, for example, could be $1000 to $2000. See Davis & Schaffman, supra note 492, at 42.
516 See Davis & Schaffman, supra note 492, at 43. With multi-family homes, for example, state and federal rules require landlords and building managers to survey for and repair or remove friable asbestos containing materials that could lead to exposure. See id. at 44.
517 Id. at 43; see also Inside Story, supra note 489.
518 See Inside Story, supra note 489; see also Davis & Schaffman, supra note 492, at 42. Unless proper precautions are instituted, the removal process may itself result in the release of fibers. See Kirsch, supra note 499, at 358. In addition, asbestos removal by the owner of a building may be illegal. See Davis & Schaffman, supra note 492, at 44; see also In re Seneca Asbestos Removal & Control, Inc., No. CAA-010A-1993 (EPA EAB 1997) (holding asbestos abatement consultant liable for CAA section 112 violations for improper removal); Agency Considering Whether to Appeal ALJ Ruling on Asbestos Removal Liability, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) B-3 (Jan. 31, 1997).
519 See Asbestos: Friable Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools, Identification and Notification, 47 Fed. Reg. 23,360 (May 27, 1982) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 763).
520 TSCA  201–215, 15 U.S.C.  2641–2656 (1994).
521 See Stahl & Kling, supra note 490, at 28. AHERA does not mandate removal; rather, it mandates the development of a management plan. See id. at 30. Stahl and Kling have reported that the EPA estimated that 94% of schools have complied with AHERA. See id.
522 See Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools, 52 Fed. Reg. 41,826 (Oct. 30, 1987) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 763).
523 See Toxic Substances: Asbestos Abatement Projects, 51 Fed. Reg. 15,722 (Apr. 25, 1986) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 763); see also Asbestos Abatement Projects: Worker Protection, 52 Fed. Reg. 5618 (Feb. 25, 1987) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 763). The 1986 rule extends OSHA protection to such employees. See 51 Fed. Reg. at 15,722. The 1987 rule replaces the 1986 rule and aims to ensure that public and private sector employees have similar levels of protection. See 52 Fed. Reg. at 5168.
524 CAA  112(b), 42 U.S.C.  7412(b) (1994).
525 The NESHAPs for asbestos are located at 40 C.F.R.  61.140–61.157 (2000).
526 See Reitze, supra note 12, at 270.
527 See NESHAPs: Asbestos NESHAP Revision, 55 Fed. Reg. 48,406 (Nov. 20, 1990) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 61) [hereinafter Asbestos NESHAP Revision].
528 Id.
529 Id.
530 Id.
531 Id.
532 Id. at 48,419.
533 Asbestos NESHAP Revision, supra note 527, at 48,406.
534 Id.
535 See id.
536 See Asbestos NESHAP Clarification of Intent, 60 Fed. Reg. 38,725 (July 28, 1995) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 61).
537 Id. at 38,735.
538 Id.
539 Id.
540 See Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, 59 Fed. Reg. 40,964, 41,057 (Aug. 10, 1994) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1915, 1926).
541 Id. at 40,964; see also Occupational Exposure to Asbestos: Corrections, 60 Fed. Reg. 33,974, 33,974 (June 28, 1995) (codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1915, 1926).
542 Occupational Health and Environmental Controls, 29 C.F.R.  1926.58 subpart D (2000).
543 49 F.3d 1197, 1199 (6th Cir. 1995).
544 Id.
545 Id. at 1200.
546 Id.
547 Id.
548 Id. at 1200; see also NESHAPs: National Emission Standard for Asbestos, 40 C.F.R.  61.152(b) (1990).
549 Midwest Suspension & Brake, 49 F.3d at 1200.
550 Id. at 1201.
551 Id. at 1205.
552 Id. at 1201.
553 Id. at 1202.
554 Id. at 1202.
555 Midwest Suspension & Brake, 49 F.3d at 1203.
556 Id. at 1204.
557 40 C.F.R.  61.141 (2000).
558 Midwest Suspension & Brake, 49 F.3d at 1204.
559 Id. at 1205.
560 15 U.S.C.  2605, 2607(c) (1994).
561 See Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements, 40 C.F.R.  763.160 (2000). The final rule banned the manufacture, importation, processing, and distribution in commerce of most asbestos containing products. See Asbestos: Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce Prohibitions, 54 Fed. Reg. 29,460 (July 12, 1989) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 763). The rule did not ban the 6% of asbestos products that did not create a high risk of exposure and for which reasonably priced alternatives were unavailable. See id.
562 40 C.F.R.  763.160.
563 Corrosion Proof Fittings v. EPA, 947 F.2d 1201, 1230 (5th Cir. 1991).
564 Id.
565 Asbestos, Manufacture, Importation, Processing and Distribution Prohibitions, 58 Fed. Reg. 58,964 (Nov. 5, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 763).
566 Six Product Categories Remain Banned, Restrictions on Eight Others Lifted by EPA, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-6 (Nov. 5, 1993).
567 Id.
568 Id.
569 See Technical Amendment in Response to Court Decision on Asbestos: Manufacturer, Importation, Processing, and Distribution Prohibition, 59 Fed. Reg. 33,208 (June 28, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 763).
570 See id. at 33,209.
571 Asbestos Info. Ass’n N. Am. v. OSHA, 727 F.2d 415, 418 (5th Cir. 1984).
572 Reitze & Carof, supra note 51, at 299.
573 Asbestos Info. Ass’n, 727 F.2d at 418 n.6.
574 Id.
575 Id.
576 See id. at 418 (citing Indus. Union Dep’t v. Am. Petroleum Inst., 448 U.S. 607, 662 (1980)).
577 Id.
578 Id. at 417(citing Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, 48 Fed. Reg. 51,086, 51,139 (Nov. 4, 1983) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pt. 1910)).
579 Asbestsos Info. Ass’n, 727 F.2d at 418.
580 Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite, 51 Fed. Reg. 22,612, 22,733 (June 20, 1986) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1926).
581 Id.
582 See 838 F.2d 1238, 1262 (D.C. Cir. 1988).
583 See Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite, 57 Fed. Reg. 24,310, 24,330 (June 8, 1992) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1926).
584 Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, 59 Fed. Reg. 40,964, 41,037 (Aug. 10, 1994) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1915, 1926; 29 C.F.R. 1910.1001 (2000); 29 C.F.R. 1915.1001 (2000); 29 C.F.R. 1926.1101 (2000).
585 Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite, 51 Fed. Reg. 22,612, 22,733 (June 20, 1986) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1926).
586 29 C.F.R.  1926.1101 (2000).
587 Id.  1915.1001.
588 See Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, 59 Fed. Reg. at 40,964.
589 Id.
590 Id.
591 Id.
592 Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, 60 Fed. Reg. 30,411 (Sept. 29, 1995) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1913, 1926).
593 See Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Corrections, 60 Fed. Reg. 33,974, 33,983 (June 29, 1995) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1915, 1926); Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Final Rule Amendments, 60 Fed. Reg. 50,411, 50,411 (Sept. 29, 1995) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1915, 1926); 29 C.F.R. 1910.1001 (2000); 29 C.F.R. 1915.1001 (2000); 29 C.F.R. 1926.1101 (2000).
594 Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, 59 Fed. Reg. 40,964, 41,000 (Aug. 10, 1994) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1915, 1926).
595 See James B. Witkin, Owners Face New Asbestos Rules: Special Concern for Custodial Workers, Legal Times, Oct. 16, 1995, at S27; 29 C.F.R.  1910.1001 (2000).
596 29 C.F.R. pt. 1926, subpart D.
597 See Bldg. & Constr. Trades Dep’t v. Brock, 838 F.2d 1238, 1262 (D.C. Cir. 1988).
598 Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, Tremolite, Anthophyllite, and Actinolite, 54 Fed. Reg. 52,024, 52,025 (Dec. 20, 1989) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1926).
599 Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, 55 Fed. Reg. 3724, 3725 (Feb. 5, 1990) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1926).
600 Occupational Exposure to Asbestos: Corrections, 60 Fed. Reg. 33,974, 33,983 (June 29, 1995) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1915, 1926).
601 See Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, 60 Fed. Reg. 50,411, 50,412 (Sept. 29, 1995) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1915, 1926).
602 Id.
603 See Bldg. & Constr. Trades Dep’t v. OSHA, No. 95–1584, 1995 WL 791559, at *1 (D.C. Cir. 1995) [hereinafter Brock II].
604 See API Seeks to Intervene in BCTD’s Asbestos Challenge, Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-3 (Dec. 13, 1995).
605 See Brock II, supra note 605, at *1.
606 See Asbestos: BCTD Settles Lawsuit with OSHA: Agreements on Training, Information Reached, O.S.H. Rep. (BNA) D-4 (May 6, 1996).
607 Initial List of Categories of Sources Under Section 112(c)(1) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 57 Fed. Reg. 31,576, 31,586 (notice July 16, 1992).
608 Delisting of Source Category and Revision of Initial List of Categories of Sources and Schedule for Standards Under Section 112(c) of the CAA, 60 Fed. Reg. 61,550, 61,551 (Nov. 30, 1995).
609 See id.
610 See NESHAPs for Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Operations, 40 C.F.R. pt. 63 (2000).
611 NESHAPs for Source Categories: Organic HAPs from the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry and Other Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks, 59 Fed. Reg. 19,402 (Apr. 22, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
612 NESHAPs for Source Category: Organic HAPs from the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry and Other Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks: Determination of MACT “Floor,” 59 Fed. Reg. 29,196, 29,196 (June 6, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
613 NESHAPs for Source Categories, 40 C.F.R. pt. 63, subparts F, G, H, I (2000).
614 See id.
615 NESHAPs for Source Categories: Organic HAPs from the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry and Other Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks: Rule Clarifications, 61 Fed. Reg. 64,572 (Dec. 5, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63) (citing Chem. Mfrs. Ass’n v. EPA, Nos. 94–1463 and 94–1464 (D.C. Cir. 1994); Dow Chem. Co. v. EPA, No. 94–1465 (D.C. Cir. 1994)).
616 See id.
617 NESHAPs for Source Categories: Organic HAPs from the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry and Other Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks: Rule Clarifications, 62 Fed. Reg. 2722 (Jan. 17, 1997) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63); see also NESHAPs for Source Categories: Organic HAPs from the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry and Other Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks: Rule Clarifications, 61 Fed. Reg. 64,572 (Dec. 5, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63) (citing Settlement Agreement, Chem. Mfrs. Ass’n v. EPA, No. 94-1463 (D.C. Cir. 1996)).
618 See U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. EPA-305-B-97-006, Inspection Tool for the Hazardous Organic Neshap (HON), Volume I: Overview of Emission Points, Control Technologies, and HON Provisions I-3 (1997) [hereinafter Inspection Tool].
619 See id. at I-12.
620 See id.
621 See id.
622 See id.
623 See id.
624 See Inspection Tool, supra note 618, at I-12.
625 See id.
626 See id.
627 See id. at I-1.
628 See id.
629 Id. at I-3.
630 Inspection Tool, supra note 620, at I-3.
631 Id.
632 Id.
633 Id.
634 Id.
635 Id.
636 Inspection Tool, supra note 618, at I-3.
637 Id.
638 Id.
639 NESHAPs for Source Categories: Organic HAPs from the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry and Other Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks, 59 Fed. Reg. 19,402, 19,406 (Apr. 22, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63) [hereinafter Final Rule].
640 See id.
641 Id. at 19,454.
642 NESHAPs for Source Categories: Organic HAPs from the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry and Other Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks, 65 Fed. Reg. 3169 (proposed Jan. 20, 2000) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
643 Inspection Tool, supra note 618, at I-3.
644 Id. at I-3, I-7.
645 Id. at I-7.
646 Id.
647 Id.
648 Id.
649 Inspection Tool, supra note 618, at I–7.
650 Id.
651 Id.
652 Id.
653 Id.
654 Id.
655 Inspection Tool, supra note 618, at I-7.
656 Id.
657 Id.
658 Id.
659 Id.
660 Id.
661 Inspection Tool, supra note 618, at I-7.
662 Id.
663 Id.
664 Id.
665 Id.
666 See id.
667 See Final Rule, supra note 639, at 19,407–08.
668 See NESHAPs for Service Categories, 40 C.F.R. 63.111 (2000).
669 See Final Rule, supra note 639, at 19,419.
670 See NESHAPs for Source Categories, 40 C.F.R.  63.111.
671 See Final Rule, supra note 639, at 19,419.
672 See id. at 19,427.
673 See id. at 19,419.
674 See id.
675 See Inspection Tool, supra note 618, at I-8.
676 See id.
677 See id.
678 See id.
679 See id. at I-9.
680 See id.
681 See Inspection Tool, supra note 618, at I-9.
682 See id.
683 See id.
684 See id. at I-9, I-10.
685 See id.
686 See id. at I-10.
687 See Inspection Tool, supra note 618, at I-10.
688 See NESHAPs for Source Categories, 40 C.F.R. 63.152(c) (2000).
689 See id.
690 See Inspection Tool, supra note 618, at I-9.
691 See Final Rule, supra note 641, at 19,402.
692 NESHAPs for Source Categories, 40 C.F.R. pt. 63 (2000).
693 See Inspection Tool, supra note 618, at I-17.
694 NESHAPs for Source Categories: Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants from Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry and Other Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks, 62 Fed. Reg. 2722, 2929 (Jan. 17, 1997) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 63).
695 See Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities and Hazardous Wastes Generators: Organic Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers, 61 Fed. Reg. 59,932, 59,933 (Nov. 25, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 261, 262, 264, 265, 270, 271).
696 Id. at 59,932.
697 See Kenneth M. Kastner & Sara E. McCoy, RCRA Subpart CC: New Air Emission Controls for Organic Hazardous Wastes, 27 Env’t Rep. (BNA) 1595 (Nov. 29, 1996); Organic Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers, 61 Fed. Reg. 59,932, 59,934–35 (Nov. 25, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 261, 262, 264, 265, 270, 271); NESHAPs for Source Categories, 40 C.F.R. pts. 264, 265, subpart CC (2000).
698 Id.
699 Id.
700 Id.
701 HON Rule’s Reporting, Record Provisions Cost $98 Million Per Year, EPA Estimates, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-1 (Mar. 26, 1997).
702 Id.
703 Id.
704 Consolidated Federal Air Rule (CAR): Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry, 63 Fed. Reg. 57,748, 57,748 (proposed Oct. 28, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 61, 63, 65).
705 Id.
706 Id.
707 Unified Agenda: CAA, 65 Fed. Reg. 23,487, 23,489 (Apr. 24, 2000).
708 U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA-530-R-99-052, Introduction to Hazardous Waste Incinerators 2 (2000) [hereinafter HWI Introduction].
709 U.S. Cong. Office of Tech. Assessment, Pub. No. OTA-O-424, Facing America’s Trash: What Next for Municipal Solid Waste 219 (1989), available at http://www.wws.princeton.edu/~ota/ns20/alpha_f.html (last visited Oct. 22, 2000) [hereinafter OTA Report].
710 HWI Introduction, supra note 708, at 2.
711 Id.
712 Id.
713 Id.
714 Id.
715 Id.
716 HWI Introduction, supra note 710, at 2. The U.S. Supreme Court held that ash from waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities that fails a RCRA characteristics test is subject to RCRA subtitle C requirements. See City of Chicago v. Envtl. Def. Fund, 511 U.S. 328, 339 (1994); see also Markus G. Puder, Trash, Ash, and the Phoenix: A Fifth Anniversary Review of the Supreme Court’s City of Chicago Waste-to-Energy Combustion Ash Decision, 26 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 473, 473-74 (1999). Fly ash represents about 13 to 15% by weight of the ash from U.S. solid waste incinerators is fly ash, and this is about 5% to 15% of the ash volume. See OTA REPORT, supra note 709, at 247.
717 HWI Introduction, supra note 708, at 2.
718 Id.
719 Hans Tammemagi, The Waste Crisis: Landfills, Incinerators, and the Search for a Sustainable Future 159 (1999).
720 Id. at 156.
721 Id.
722 Assessment of Municipal Waste Combustor Emissions Under the CAA, 52 Fed. Reg. 25,399, 25,404 (proposed July 7, 1987) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
723 CAA  129(a)(1), 42 U.S.C.  7429(a)(1) (1994).
724 Id.  7429(a)(1)(B), (C).
725 Id.  7429(a)(1)(C).
726 Id. 129(a)(1)(D) requires EPA to regulate solid waste incinerators that combust industrial or commercial waste. Incinerators potentially covered in this definition include any incinerator that does not burn hazardous waste or is not regulated as a medical waste incinerator or as a municipal waste combustor. Regulations were required to be promulgated by November 15, 1994. EPA was sued by the Sierra Club for its failure to promulgate these regulations. On June 6, 1997, a settlement was proposed that would give the agency until November 15, 2000, to promulgate the regulations. EPA plans to regulate these incinerators as part of a larger rulemaking to regulate five categories of nonhazardous combustion sources not regulated by other rules. This Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR) involves industrial boilers, process heaters, industrial/commercial waste incinerators, stationary gas turbines, and stationary internal combustion engines. See Settlement Allows EPA Additional Time to Develop Rule for Some Waste Burners, 28 Env’t Rep. (BNA) 366 (June 20, 1997). The proposed standards were issued on November 30, 1999. Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units, 64 Fed. Reg. 67,092 (proposed Nov. 30, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
727 CAA  129(a)(1)(E).
728 Id.  7429(a)(3).
729 Id.  7429(a)(2).
730 Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators, 62 Fed. Reg. 48,348, 48,351 (Sept. 15, 1997) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
731 See 42 U.S.C.  7429(a)(2).
732 HWI Introduction, supra note 708, at 2.
733 Burning of Hazardous Waste in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, 56 Fed. Reg. 7134 (Feb. 21, 1991) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 270, 271).
734 Id.
735 Revised Standard for Hazardous Waste Combustors, 61 Fed. Reg. 17,358, 17,360 (proposed Apr. 19, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 63, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 270, 271).
736 Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, 40 C.F.R. pt. 264 (2000); Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, 40 C.F.R. pt. 265, subpart O (2000).
737 Initial List of Categories of Sources Under Section 112(c)(1) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 57 Fed. Reg. 31,576, 31,591 (notice July 16, 1992).
738 U.S. Gen. Accounting Office, Pub. No. GAO/RCED-95-17, Hazardous Waste Incinerators: EPA’s and OSHA’s Actions to Better Protect Health and Safety Not Complete 3 (1995), available at http://www.gao.gov (last visited Oct. 22, 2000).
739 Id.
740 HWI Introduction, supra note 708, at 2.
741 RCRA  3004(o)(1), (q), 42 U.S.C.  6924(o)(1), (q) (1994); see David B. Kopel, Burning Mad: The Controversy Over Treatment of Hazardous Waste in Incinerators, Boilers, and Industrial Furnaces, 23 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 10,126, 10,217 (1993).
742 Revised Technical Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities, 62 Fed. Reg. 24,212 (proposed May 2, 1997) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 63, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 270, 271). EPA lists twelve types of industrial furnaces. Id.
743 U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA-530-R-99-032, HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS, available at http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hotline/training/incin.txt (last modified Mar. 28, 1997).
744 Ocean incineration is governed by the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act. Pub. L. No. 92-532, 86 Stat. 1052 (1972). No regulations exist and therefore such incineration is not allowed by U.S. law. See id.
745 See Arnold W. Reitze, Jr. & Andrew N. Davis, Reconsidering Ocean Incineration as Part of a U.S. Hazardous Waste Program: Separating the Rhetoric from the Reality, 17 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 687, 737–38 (1990).
746 Initial List of Categories of Sources Under Section 112(c)(1) of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 57 Fed. Reg. 31,576, 31,591 (July 16, 1992).
747 Revised Standard for Hazardous Waste Combustors, 61 Fed. Reg. 17,358 (proposed Apr. 19, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 63, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 270, 271).
748 NESHAPs: Final Standards for HAPs for Hazardous Waste Combustors, 64 Fed. Reg. 52,828, 52,835 (Sept. 30, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 63, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 270, 271) [hereinafter HWC Final Rule]. “Hazardous waste incinerators are enclosed, controlled flame combustion devices, as defined in 40 C.F.R. 260.10.” Id.
749 Id. at 52,835. “Cement kilns are horizontally inclined rotating cylinders, lined with refractory-brick, and internally fired. Cement kilns are designed to calcine, or drive carbon dioxide out of, a blend of raw materials such as limestone, shale, clay, or sand to produce Portland cement.” Id.
750 Id. at 52,835. “The term ‘lightweight aggregate’ refers to a wide variety of raw materials (such as clay, shale, or slate) that, after thermal processing, can be combined with cement to form concrete products.” HWC Final Rule, supra note 748, at 52,835.
751 Id. at 52,832.
752 Id. at 52,835.
753 The first notice was published on August 23, 1996, and involved review of several aspects that were later published as the Comparable Fuels Rule. Hazardous Waste Combustors: Revised Standards; Proposed Rule—Notice of Data Availability and Request for Comments, 61 Fed. Reg. 43,501, 43,502 (Aug. 23, 1996)(to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 63, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 270, 271). The second notice appeared on January 7, 1997, and concerned the database. Hazardous Waste Combustors: Revised Standards; Proposed Rule—Notice of Data Availability and Request for Comments, 62 Fed. Reg. 960, 962 (Jan. 7, 1997)(to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 63, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 270, 271). The third notice involved the technical feasibility of monitoring. Hazardous Waste Combustors: Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems; Proposed Rule—Notice of Data Availability and Request for Comments, 62 Fed. Reg. 13,776, 13,777 )Mar. 21, 1997)(to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 63, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 270, 271. On May 2, 1997, a notice was published about a revised emissions database and compliance issues. Revised Technical Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities, 62 Fed. Reg. 24,212, 24,213 (May 2, 1997)(to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 63, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 270, 271). The final notice for comment appeared on December 30, 1997, and dealt with continuous emissions monitoring. Total Mercury and Particulate Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems; Measurement of Low Level Particulate Emissions; Implementation at Hazardous Waste Combustors; Proposed Rule—Notice of Data Availability and Request for Comments, 62 Fed. Reg. 67,788, 67,789 (Dec. 30, 1997)(to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 60, 63, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 270, 271).
754 HWC Final Rule, supra note 748, at 52,828.
755 Id. at 52,832.
756 RCRA  3005(c)(3), 42 U.S.C.  6925(c)(3) (1994).
757 U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Inst., EPA Contract No. 68-W6-0053, Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Support to the Dev. of Technical Standards for Emissions from Combustion Units Burning Hazardous Wastes 1-1 (1999).
758 HWC Final Rule, supra note 748, at 52,834.
759 Id.
760 Id.
761 Id.
762 Id. at 52,833.
763 Id.
764 HWC Final Rule, supra note 748, at 52,833.
765 Id.
766 Id.
767 Id.
768 Id.
769 Id. “Only those provisions of the RCRA permit that are less stringent than the MACT requirements specified in the Notice of Compliance will be approved for deletion.” Id.
770 HWC Final Rule, supra note 748, at 52,973–81. “Although these requirements are self-implementing, in that you must comply in accordance with the time frames set forth in today’s rule, the requirements are ultimately implemented through title V operating permits (see 40 C.F.R. pts. 70 and 71).” Id. at 52,977.
771 Id. at 52,981–90.
772 Id. at 52,981–82; see Hazardous Waste Combustors; Revised Standards; Final Rule—Part 1: RCRA Comparable Fuel Exclusion: Permit Modifications for Hazardous Waste Combustion Units: Notification of Intent to Comply: Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Criteria for Compliance Extensions, 63 Fed. Reg. 33,782, 33,816 (proposed June 19, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 63, 261, 270).
773 HWC Final Rule, supra note 748, at 52,842.
774 U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. Nos. EPA-530-D-98-001A, EPA-530-D-98-001B, & EPA-530-D-98-001C, Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities (1998), available at http://www.epa.gov /epaoswer/hazwaste/combust/risk.htm (last visited Oct. 22, 2000).
775 See HWC Final Rule, supra note 748, at 52,843.
776 See id.
777 See id.
778 Id.
779 See id. at 52,853–56.
780 U.S. EPA, Assessment of the Potential Costs, Benefits, & Other Impacts of the Hazardous Waste Combustion MACT Standards: Final Rule ES-3 (1999), available at http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/combust/combust.pdf (last visited Oct. 22, 2000) [hereinafter Assessment].
781 Id. at ES-8. The average annual compliance costs are: cement kilns, $800,000; commercial incinerators, $290,000; LWAKs, $640,000; private on-site incinerators, $270,000; and government on-site incinerators, $190,000. Id.
782 Id. at ES-4.
783 Id. at ES-3.
784 Id. at ES-4.
785 Assessment, supra note 780, at ES-5.
786 Id.
787 HWC Final Rule, supra note 748, at 52,832.
788 Assessment, supra note 780, at ES-5.
789 Chem. Mfr. Ass’n v. EPA, 217 F.3d 861, 865 (D.C. Cir. 2000).
790 MSW is defined as “solid waste generated at residences, commercial establishments (e.g., offices, retail shops, and restaurants), and institutions (e.g., hospitals and schools).” OTA Report, supra note 709, at 4. “[The] waste may be categorized as materials (e.g., glass and paper) or products (e.g., appliances, containers and tires).” Id.
Under RCRA, solid waste is more broadly defined as: “any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities . . . .” RCRA  1004(27), 42 U.S.C.  6903 (27) (1994).
791 See OTA Report, supra, note 709, at iii.
792 See U.S. Gen. Accounting Office, Pub. No. GAO/RCED-94-200, Energy Supply: Energy Potential of Municipal Solid Waste Is Limited 2 (1994), available at http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/aces160.html (last visited Oct. 22, 2000).
793 Id.
794 See William F. Pedersen, Jr., The Future of Federal Solid Waste Regulation, 16 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 109, 113 n.12 (1991).
795 OTA Report, supra note 709, at 4.
796 See id. at 3.
797 See Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria, 56 Fed. Reg. 50,978, 51,016 (Oct. 9, 1991) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 257, 258). On July 28, 1993, the EPA proposed regulations that delayed the effective date of the Subtitle D regulations for six months (to April 9, 1994) for certain small landfills and delayed for one year (to October 9, 1994) the effective date of the financial assurance requirements for all landfills. Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria; Delay of Effective Date, 58 Fed. Reg. 40,568, 40,578 (proposed July 28, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 258). To qualify for the extension, a landfill must: (1) receive 100 tons per day or less; (2) be located in a state that has submitted an application for program approval to EPA before October 9, 1993 or is located on tribal lands; and (3) not be currently on the Superfund National Priorities List (NPL). Id.
798 Tammemagi, supra note 719, at 146.
799 American Public Works Ass’n, History of Public Works in the United States 435 (Ellis L. Armstrong ed., 1976).
800 Id. at 449–50.
801 OTA Report, supra note 709, at 217.
802 Assessment of Municipal Waste Combustor Emissions Under the CAA, 52 Fed. Reg. 25,399 (proposed July 7, 1987) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
803 40 C.F.R.  60.50 (1977).
804 Assessment of Municipal Waste Combustor Emissions Under the CAA, 52 Fed. Reg. at 25,399.
805 Id.
806 Emission Guidelines: Municipal Waste Combustors, 54 Fed. Reg. 52,209 (proposed Dec. 20, 1989) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
807 CAA  110, 42 U.S.C.  7410 (1995).
808 Id. 171–93.
809 Assessment of Municipal Waste Combustor Emissions Under the CAA, 52 Fed. Reg. 25,399, 25,406–07 (proposed July 7, 1987) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
810 Id.
811 CAA 129.
812 Id. 129(a)(1).
813 CAA Amendments, Pub. L. No. 101-549,  305, 104 Stat. 2399, 2577-84 (1990). Until finally enacted, it was not clear that the new law would have specific incinerator provisions. The House bill contained no incinerator related measures, the Senate bill did. It was opposed by House members who believed the subject should be dealt with in the RCRA reauthorization. Members Urge Incinerator Measures with Exemptions Be Stripped from CAA, Inside EPA, Aug. 17, 1990, at 14. Environmentalists also opposed the incinerator provisions of the CAA Amendments. States Say Senate Incinerator Plan Is Needed to Head Off Solid Waste Crisis, Inside EPA, Aug. 31, 1990, at 14.
814 CAA 129(a)(1).
815 Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources; Municipal Waste Combustors, 56 Fed. Reg. 5488, 5506 (Feb. 11, 1991) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60, subpart Ca).
816 Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Municipal Waste Combustors, 59 Fed. Reg. 48,198, 48,202 (proposed Sept. 20, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
817 Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources Municipal Waste Combustors, 60 Fed. Reg. 65,387, 65,414 (Dec. 19, 1995) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
818 Standards of Performance for Municipal Waste Combustors, 60 Fed. Reg. 65,437, 65,437 (proposed Dec. 19, 1995) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
819 40 C.F.R. 60.50a(a)(1).
820 Standards of Performance for Municipal Waste Combusters, 60 Fed. Reg. at 65,437.
821 40 C.F.R. 60.50b(a).
822 Id. 60.30b(a).
823 Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources Municipal Waste Combustors, 60 Fed. Reg. at 65,414.
824 Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources; Municipal Waste Combustors, 56 Fed. Reg. 5488, 5506 (Feb. 11, 1991) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60, subpart Ca).
825 A megagram is 1.1 tons.
826 Standards of Performance for Municipal Waste Combusters, 60 Fed. Reg. at 65,414.
827 See id. at 65,390.
828 See id.
829 Id.
830 Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Municipal Waste Combustors, 56 Fed. Reg. 5488, 5488 (Feb. 11, 1991) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60, subpart Ca).
831 101 F.3d 1395, 1411 (D.C. Cir. 1996).
832 Davis County Solid Waste Mgmt. & Recovery Dist. v. EPA, 108 F.3d 1454, 1460 (D.C. Cir. 1997).
833 Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources and Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Large Municipal Waste Combustion Units, 62 Fed. Reg. 45,116, 45,119 (Aug. 25, 1997) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
834 New Source Performance Standards for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units, 64 Fed. Reg. 47,276, 47,284 (proposed Aug. 30, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60).
835 See OTA REPORT, supra note 709, at 221.
836 Id.
837 Id.
838 The states that have Approval and Promulgation of State Plans for Designated Facilities and Pollutants are: Florida, 64 Fed. Reg. 29,964 (June 4, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Georgia, 63 Fed. Reg. 27,496 (May 19, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); South Carolina, 63 Fed. Reg. 40,048 (July 27, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Tennessee, 63 Fed. Reg. 70,026 (Dec. 18, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Alabama,63 Fed. Reg. 63,990 (Nov. 18, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Maryland, 64 Fed. Reg. 48,717 (Sept. 8, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Pennsylvania, 64 Fed. Reg. 45,884 (Aug. 23, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); New York, 63 Fed. Reg. 41,428 (Aug. 4, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Connecticut, 65 Fed. Reg. 21,358 (Apr. 21, 2000) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R pt. 62); Massachusetts, 64 Fed. Reg. 37,855 (July 14, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Maine, 63 Fed. Reg. 68,396 (Dec. 11, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Illinois, 62 Fed. Reg. 67,572 (Dec. 29, 1997 (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Indiana, 64 Fed. Reg. 62,982 (Nov. 18, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Minnesota, 63 Fed. Reg. 43,082 (Aug. 12, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Oklahoma, 63 Fed. Reg. 59,890 (Nov. 6, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); Washington, 64 Fed. Reg. 41,294 (July 30, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62); and Oregon, 62 Fed. Reg. 36,997 (July 10, 1997) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62).
839 Federal Plan Requirements for Large MWC Constructed on or Before September 20, 1994, 63 Fed. Reg. 63,191, 63,193 (Nov. 12, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 62).
840 Id. at 63,202.
841 Id.
842 Id. at 63,194.
843 Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators, 62 Fed. Reg. 48,348, 48,350 (Sept. 15, 1997) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60, subparts Ce & Ec) [hereinafter HMIWI Final Rule]. In the proposed standards, guidelines, reproposal, the EPA called these incinerators medical waste incinerators, or MWI. In the final rule, however, the EPA changed the terminology to hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators, or HMIWI. Compare Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Medical Waste Incinerators, 60 Fed. Reg. 10,654 (proposed Feb. 27, 1995) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60), and Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Medical Waste Incinerators, 61 Fed. Reg. 31,736 (proposed June 20, 1996) (to be at codified 40 C.F.R. pt. 60) (reproposal), with Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators; 62 Fed. Reg. 48,348, 48,379. EPA stated that MWI and HMIWI “are essentially the same” and that the acronyms are interchangeable. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA-453/R-97-006b, Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators: Background Information for Promulgated Standards and Guidelines—Summary of Public Comments and Responses 1–2 (1997), available at http://www.epa.gov/clariton/clhtml/pubtitle.html (last visited Oct. 22, 2000).
844 Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators; Final Rule, 62 Fed. Reg. 48,348, 48,372 (Sept. 15, 1997) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 60, subparts Ce & Ec); see generally Arnold W. Reitze, Jr. & Michael K. Stagg, Air Emission Standards and Guidelines Under the Clean Air Act for the Incineration of Hospital, Medical and Infectious Waste, 28 Envtl. L. 791 (1998).
845 A total of 208 million tons of MSW and 279 million tons of RCRA hazardous waste was generated in 1995 in the U.S. An average of 4.3 pounds of solid waste per person was generated each day in 1995. Office of Solid Waste, U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. 530-R-97-015, Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1996 Update 2 (1997), available at http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/msw96.html (last visited Oct. 22, 2000). Eighty-five to ninety percent of the waste generated at hospitals is municipal type waste that may be handled without special treatment. Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators; 62 Fed. Reg. at 48,356.
846 Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, Pub. No. OTA-O-459, Finding the Rx for Managing Medical Wastes 2 (1990), available at http://www.wws. princeton.edu/~ota/ns20/alpha_f.html (last visited Oct. 22, 2000).
847 U.S. Envt. Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste, Pub. No. EPA/530/SW-90/051A, First Interim Report to Congress: Medical Waste Management in the United States 1–3 (1990).
848 Id. at 1–5.
849 See id.
850 See id.
851 Id. Twelve thousand and seven hundred nursing homes produce the second largest volume of infectious waste, 29,600 tons per year (tpy) (6.36%); 180,000 physicians’ offices produce 26,400 tpy (5.67%); 16,700 clinics produce 16,700 tpy (3.59%); 4,300 laboratories produce 15,400 tpy (3.31%); 98,400 dentists’ offices produce 7,600 tpy (1.63%); 38,000 veterinarians produce 4,600 tpy (.99%); 20,400 funeral homes produce 3,900 tpy (.84%); and 900 blood banks produce 2,400 tpy (.52%). Id.
852 Final EPA Rule Sets Emission Limits on New, Existing Medical Waste Units, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-9 (Sept. 18, 1997).
853 Id.
854 Sierra Club v. EPA, 167 F.3d 658, 662 (D.C. Cir. 1997).
855 Id. at 664.
856 CAA 112 (r)(1), 42 U.S.C. 7412(r)(1) (1994).
857  5, 29 U.S.C.  654 (1994).
858 CAA  112(r)(1).
859 U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA-550-B-00-008, Gen. Guidance for Risk Management Program (40 C.F.R. Part 68) (2000), available at http://www.epa.gov/swercepp/p-tech.htm (last visited Oct. 22, 2000) [hereinafter RMP Guidance].
860 CAA  112(r)(6).
861 Id. 112(r)(6)(K).
862 Id. 112(r)(1).
863 Id. 112(r)(3).
864 Id.
865 Id.
866 CAA 112(r)(5).
867 Id. 112(r)(2).
868 Id. 112(r)(3).
869 Id. 112(r)(7)(B)(ii).
870 Spill planning is required by CWA  311(j), 33 U.S.C.  1321(j) (1994). See also Adam H. Steinman, Drafting One Integrated Emergency Response Plan for All Applicable Plan Requirements: Regulatory Guidance Has Finally Arrived, 27 Env’t Rep. (BNA) 515, 516–17 (June 28, 1996).
871 CAA 112(r)(2)(c).
872 Id.
873 Id. 112(r)(1).
874 Van R. Delhotal, The General Duty to Prevent Accidental Releases of Extremely Hazardous Substances: The General Duty Clause of Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act, 13 J. Energy Nat. Resources & Envtl. L. 61, 87 (1993).
875 See James Kennedy, At Least Nine States Requesting Authority to Implement Risk Management Programs, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-1 (Mar. 26, 1998).
876 Approval of Delegation of the Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under CAA Section 112(r)(7): State of Ohio, 64 Fed. Reg. 59,650 (Nov. 3, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 63, 68).
877 See id.
878 Mark L. Farley, Investigating Chemical Incidents—Role of the Chemical Safety and Health Identification Board, 30 Env’t Rep. (BNA) 534, 537–39 (July 16, 1999).
879 Id. at 537.
880 Id. at 538.
881 Id. at 539; see also Second Report to Congress on the Status of the HAP Program, supra note 261, at 25.
882 Farley, supra note 878, at 538 (citing Pub. L. No. 104-19, 109 Stat. 194, 237 (1995)).
883 Additional Funding for Safety Board Tied to Provision for Annual GAO Review, 29 Env’t Rep. (BNA) 787, 787 (Aug. 14, 1998).
884 EPA, Safety Board Sign Agreement Defining Rules on Accident Investigations, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-10 (Mar. 29, 1999). The CSB website is located at http://www.chemsafety. gov.
885 U.S. Gen. Accounting Office, U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board: Annual Performance Plan 2 (2000).
886 Id.
887 Id.
888 Id.
889 Id.
890 Id.
891 U.S. Gen. Accounting Office, U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board: Annual Performance Plan 2 (2000); see Investigation Board Chair Is Subordinate When Setting Direction, Justice Memo Says, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-8 (July 7, 2000).
892 Dean Scott, Chemical Board Chairman Asks Congress to Double Appropriations for Fiscal 2000, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-8 (Feb. 26, 1999).
893 U.S. Gen. Accounting Office, Pub. No. GAO/T-RCED-99-167, Chemical Safety Board: Status of Implementation Efforts 3 (1999), available at http://www.access.gpo. gov/su_docs/aces/aces160.shtml (last visited Oct. 22, 2000).
894 Id. In its 1997 Business Plan, the Board had predicted it would be able to finish investigations within six months, and would conduct between five and ten investigations in 1998 and between thirteen and nineteen investigations in 1999. Id. at 9.
895 Dean Scott, Board Halts New Investigations as Ongoing Accident Probes Deplete Funds, Toxics L. Daily (BNA) D-2 (Apr. 6, 1999).
896  104, 42 U.S.C.  9604 (1994).
897 29 C.F.R.  1910.119 (1992).
898 Process is defined at 29 C.F.R.  1910.119(b).
899 See Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals: Explosives and Blasting Agents, 57 Fed. Reg. 6356 (Feb. 24, 1992) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pt. 1910).
900 Farley, supra note 878, at 538, 540.
901 Id. at 540.
902 Id.
903 Id. at 540 n.35 (citing to Senate Report No. 101-228, 101st Cong., 2nd Sess. 228 (1989)).
904 EPA, Safety Board Sign Agreement Defining Roles on Accident Investigations, 29 Env’t Rep. (BNA) 2363, 2363 (Apr. 2, 1999).
905 Id.
906 Id.
907 Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA as Amended; Confidential Business Information, 64 Fed. Reg. 41,111, 41,112 (July 29, 1999).
908 See, e.g., Investigation Board Chair Is Subordinate When Setting Direction, Justice Memo Says, 31 Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-8 (July 7, 2000).
909 Farley, supra note 878, at 536, 537.
910 CAA  112(r)(6)(G), 42 U.S.C.  7412(r)(6)(G) (1994).
911 Id.  112(r)(6)(C),(E),(K).
912 Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals: Explosives and Blasting Agents, 57 Fed. Reg. 6356, 6403 (Feb. 24, 1992) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pt. 1910).
913 See supra note 896 and accompanying text.
914 Industry Pushes for Harmonized Risk Management Program Under Clean Air Act, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-4 (Oct. 25, 1995).
915 Id.
916 Risk Management Programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention, 58 Fed. Reg. 54,190, 54,192 (proposed Oct. 20, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68) [hereinafter Risk Management]. The SERC and LEPC are established under EPCRA. 42 U.S.C. 11001–11050 (1994).
917 Risk Management, supra note 916, at 54,192.
918 Id.
919 Id.
920 Id. at 54,193.
921 Id.
922 Id. The differences between OSHA and the EPA’s proposed rule are discussed in more detail in Risk Management, supra note 916, at 54,203–05. The universe of facilities covered by the proposed rule is discussed in Risk Management. Id. at 54,208–10.
923 RMP Guidance, supra note 859, at 1–5.
924 List of Regulated Substances and Thresholds for Accidental Release Prevention, Requirements for Petitions Under Section 112(r) of the CAA as Amended, 59 Fed. Reg. 4478, 4493 (Jan. 31, 1994) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pts. 9, 68) (referred to as the List Rule).
925 Id. at 4478.
926 40 C.F.R. 68.1– .15, 68.48 –.60 (1993).
927 Id. 68.130. EPA’s CAA section 112(r)’s list of chemicals for developing risk management plans was challenged in 1994 by the American Petroleum Institute and the Institute of Makers of Explosives. The proposed settlement was published in Proposed Settlements: Accidental Release Prevention List of Substances Litigation, 61 Fed. Reg. 13,858 (Mar. 28, 1996).
928 40 C.F.R.  68.115; see also List of Regulated Substances and Thresholds for Accidental Release Prevention: Requirements for Petitions Under Section 112(r) of the CAA as Amended, 59 Fed. Reg. at 4493.
929 List of Regulated Substances and Thresholds for Accidental Release Prevention, 62 Fed. Reg. 45,130, 45,132 (Aug. 25, 1997) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
930 List of Regulated Substances and Thresholds for Accidental Release Prevention: Amendments, 63 Fed. Reg. 640, 644 (Jan. 6, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
931 Accidental Release Prevention Requirements; Interpretations, 62 Fed. Reg. 45,134, 45,134 (Aug. 25, 1987) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
932 Requirements: Risk Management Programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention, Under CAA Section 112(r)(7), 58 Fed. Reg. 54,190, 54,212 (proposed Oct. 20, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
933 Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under CAA Section 112(r)(7), 60 Fed. Reg. 13,526, 13,543 (Mar. 13, 1995) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
934 Operating Permit Program, 57 Fed. Reg. 32,250, 32,295 (July 21, 1992) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 70).
935 Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under CAA Section 112(r)(7), 60 Fed. Reg. at 13,526.
936 Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under CAA Section 112(r)(7), 61 Fed. Reg. 31,668, 31,717 (June 20, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68) [hereinafter RMP Rule].
937 40 C.F.R. 68.3 –22.
938 Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under CAA Section 112(r)(7), 61 Fed. Reg. at 31,668.
939 Nearly 70,000 Facilities Must Develop Air Act Risk Management Plans by 1999, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-1 (May 30, 1996).
940 Id.
941 Changes to Flammable Fuel Provisions of CAA Safety Rules Signed by Browner, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-3 (Mar. 9, 2000).
942 List of Regulated Substances and Thresholds for Accidental Release Prevention: Proposed Amendments, 61 Fed. Reg. 16,598, 16,602 (proposed Apr. 25, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
943 RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,717.
944 Id.
945 List of Regulated Substances and Thresholds for Accidental Release Prevention: Amendments, 63 Fed. Reg. 640, 644 (Jan. 6, 1998) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
946 RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,669.
947 Id. at 31,670, 31,717. Threshold quantities are determined under 40 C.F.R. section 68.115.
948 RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
949 RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,670.
950 RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
951 Id.
952 RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,670; see generally RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
953 RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,670; see generally RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
954 RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,670. Pursuant to a 1997 agreement with Canada and Mexico, the United States has adopted the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) to replace the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and all of part 68 is being revised to reflect those changes. Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under CAA Section 112(r)(7), Amendments, 64 Fed. Reg. 964, 965 (Jan. 6, 1999) (codified at 40 C.F.R. part 68).
955 29 C.F.R.  1910.119 (2000).
956 See RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
957 Id.
958 Id.
959 Id.
960 See 40 C.F.R.  68.42(a) (2000).
961 RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
962 See RMP Guidance, supra note 859, at 4–1 to 4–26. EPA has also issued a guidance document to assist in meeting these requirements. See generally U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA-550-B-99-009, Risk Management Program Guidance for Offsite Consequence Analysis (1999), available at http://www.epa.gov/swercepp/ap-ocgu.htm (last visited Oct. 22, 2000) [hereinafter OCA Guidance].
963 RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,670; see 40 C.F.R.  68.3.
964 See RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
965 OCA Guidance, supra note 962; see RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,670.
966 RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,670.
967 40 C.F.R. pt. 68 app. A (2000).
968 Id.
969 OCA Guidance, supra note 962.
970 RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,670; see OCA Guidance, supra note 962.
971 See 40 C.F.R.  15 (2000).
972 RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
973 Id.
974 Id..
975 Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions, 40 C.F.R. 68.48 (2000).
976 Id.  68.50.
977 Id.  68.52.
978 Id.  68.54.
979 Id.  68.56.
980 Id.  68.58.
981 Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions, 40 C.F.R.  68.60.
982 Id. 68.65 –.87.
983 Occupational Safety and Health Standards, 29 C.F.R. 1910.119(c)-(m) & (o) (2000); see RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
984 RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,672; see RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
985 RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
986 Id.
987 Id.
988 Id.
989 Occupational Safety and Health Standards, 29 C.F.R  1910.120.
990 Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions, 40 C.F.R. 68.90(b) (2000).
991 RMP Guidance, supra note 859; see 40 C.F.R.  68.95.
992 See The National Response Team’s Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance, 61 Fed. Reg. 28,642 (June 5, 1996).
993 CAA  112(r)(7)(B)(ii), 42 U.S.C.  7412(r)(7)(B)(ii) (1994).
994 Id.
995 112 (r)(7)(B)(iii).
996 See RMP Guidance, supra note 859; Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under CAA 112(r)(7), 61 Fed. Reg. 31,668, 31,670 (June 20, 1996) (to be codified at 70 C.F.R. pt. 68); 40 C.F.R. pt. 68, subpart G (2000).
997 Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions, 40 C.F.R. 68.155 (2000).
998 See id.  68.160.
999 See id.  68.185.
1000 See id. 68.25.
1001 See id.  68.168.
1002 Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions, 40 C.F.R.  68.180.
1003 RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
1004 Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions, 40 C.F.R.  68.165(a)(2).
1005 See id.  68.170.
1006 See id.  68.175.
1007 Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs Under CAA 112(r)(7), 61 Fed. Reg. 31668, 31670 (June 20, 1996) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
1008 Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions, 40 C.F.R.  68.10.
1009 See id. 68.36.
1010 See id. 68.150.
1011 See id. 68.190.
1012 RMP Rule, supra note 936, at 31,673.
1013 See Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions, 40 C.F.R. 68.3.
1014 Occupational Safety and Health Standards, 29 C.F.R.  1910.119 (2000); see Accidental Release Prevention Requirements; Risk Management Programs Under CAA 112(r)(7): Amendments, 64 Fed. Reg. 964, 964–65 (Jan. 6, 1999) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
1015 See Occupational Safety and Health Standards, 29 C.F.R. 1910.119 app. A.
1016 These values can be found 40 C.F.R. 68.115.
1017 RMP Guidance, supra note 859.
1018 Id.
1019 Id.
1020 Id.
1021 Id.
1022 RMP Guidance, supra note 865.
1023 See Facilities Change Operations to Avoid RMP Requirements, EPA Official Says, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-4 (Nov. 10, 1999) [hereinafter Facilities Change Operations]; Judith Jacobs, Fewer Plants Filing RMPs with Agency than Expected Under Clean Air Act Provision, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-8 (Aug. 13, 1999).
1024 Facilities Change Operations, supra note 1023, at A-4.
1025 Id.
1026 Chemical Safety Information, Site Security, and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act, Pub. L. No. 106-40, 113 Stat. 207 (1999).
1027 U.S. EPA & U.S. Fed. Bureau of Investigation, Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act: Public Meetings and Other Notifications, at http://www.epa.gov/swercepp/pubs/fbi5.htm (Oct. 1999).
1028 Id.
1029 Id. The facility must certify to the FBI by June 5, 2000, that the meeting has been held. Id.
1030 See Changes to Flammable Fuel Provisions of CAA Safety Rules Signed by Browner, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-3 (Mar. 9, 2000).
1031 Amendments to the List of Regulated Substances and Thresholds for Accidental Release Prevention: Flammable Substances Used as Fuel or Held for Sale as Fuel at Retail Facilities, 65 Fed. Reg. 13,243, 13,247 (Mar. 13, 2000) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68); see 40 C.F.R. pt. 68 (2000).
1032 Amendments to the List of Regulated Substances and Thresholds for Accidental Release Prevention; Flammable Substances Used as Fuel or Held for Sale as Fuel at Retail Facilities, 65 Fed. Reg. at 13,243.
1033 EPA Restricts Public Access to Facility Accident Risk Data, Clean Air Rep., Aug. 17, 2000, at 23.
1034 CAA  112(r)(1), 42 U.S.C.  7412(r)(1) (1994).
1035 Id.
1036 See Delhotal, supra note 874, at 95.
1037 Id.
1038 See id.
1039 U.S. Envt. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA-550-B00-002, Guidance for Implementation of the General Duty Clause Clean Air Act 112(r)(1) , at http://www.epa.gov/ceppo/pubs/gdcregionalguidance.pdf (May 2000).
1040 Id. at 12.
1041 Delhotal, supra note 874, at 96.
1042 U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA-550-B00-002, Guidance for Implementation of the General Duty Clause Clean Air Act 112(r)(1), at http://www.epa.gov/ceppo/pubs/gdcregionalguidance.pdf (May 2000).
1043 See Delhotal, supra note 874, at 92.
1044 Id. at 98.
1045 OSHA 5(a)(1), 29 U.S.C.  654(a)(1) (1994).
1046 Delhotal, supra note 874, at 99.
1047 Chemical Accident Prevention Guidance Presents Compliance Opportunity From EPA, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-7 (June 9, 2000).
1048 Id.
1049 CAA 112(r), 42 U.S.C. 7412(r) (2000).
1050 Id.
1051 Id.
1052 Memorandum from Steven J. Hitte & Kathleen M. Jones, U.S. EPA, Title V Program Responsibilities Concerning the Accidental Release Prevention Program, to Air Program Manager Regions I-X 1-2 (Apr. 20, 1999) (on file with author).
1053 Id.
1054 Id.
1055 CAA 112(r)(10).
1056 Delegation of Authority to Review Emergency Release Authorities and Prepare and Transmit to the Congress a Message Concerning Such Authorities, 58 Fed. Reg. 52,397 (Aug. 19, 1993).
1057 See Second Report to Congress on the Status of the HAP Program, supra note 261, at A-21.
1058 The National Response Team’s Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance, 61 Fed. Reg. 28,642 (June 5, 1996) [hereinafter NRT Guidance].
1059 Id. at 28,642.
1060 Id. at 28,642–43.
1061 Id.
1062 Id. at 28,644.
1063 Id.
1064 NRT Guidance, supra note 1060, at 28,644.
1065 Id. “A rule of thumb is that the core plan should fit in the glovebox of a response vehicle.” Id.
1066 Id.
1067 Id.
1068 Id.
1069 Id.
1070 Sidney M. Wolf, Fear and Loathing About the Public Right to Know: The Surprising Success of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 11 J. Land Use & Envtl. L. 217, 218 (1996).
1071 Id.
1072 Pub. L. No. 99-499,  300–330, 100 Stat. 1613, 1728–58 (1986) (codified in scattered sections of the I.R.C. and titles 10, 29, 33, and 42 of the U.S.C.).
1073 EPCRA, 301–330, 42 U.S.C. 11001–11050 (1994).
1074 Id.
1075 U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA-550-F-00-004, The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act 1, at http://www. epa.gov/swercepp/factsheets/epcra.pdf (Mar. 2000) [hereinafter EPCRA Factsheet]; see generally Arnold W. Reitze, Jr. & Steven D. Schell, Reporting Requirements for Non-Routine Hazardous Pollutant Releases Under Federal Environmental Laws, 5 Envtl. Law. 1 (1998); Arnold W. Reitze, Jr. & Steven D. Schell, Self-Monitoring and Self-Reporting of Routine Air Pollution Releases, 24 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 63 (1999) [hereinafter Self-Monitoring].
1076 EPCRA,  302(a)(3).
1077 Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Programs, 51 Fed. Reg. 41,570 (Nov. 17, 1986) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 300).
1078 The list is found at 40 C.F.R. pt. 355 app. A (2000). EPA has published a Title III List of Lists that contains the substance lists for EPCRA, CERCLA, and the CAA. U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Pub. No. EPA 550-B-98-017, Title III List of Lists: Consolidated List of Chemicals Subject to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and 112(r) of the Clean Air Act, as Amended 1-36, at http://www.epa.gov/ceppo/pubs/title3.pdf (Nov. 1998).
1079 EPCRA,  301(a).
1080 Id. 301.
1081 Id.  301–30.
1082 EPCRA is also known as Title III of the SARA. SARA amended CERCLA, although Title III of SARA created the freestanding EPCRA.
1083 See Mary Beth Arnett, Risky Business: OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard, EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory, and Environmental Safety, 22 Envtl. L. Rep. 10,440, 10,467 (July 1992).
1084 N.J. STAT. ANN.  13:1–19 to 32 (West 1991). California, Delaware, and Nevada also have regulations requiring facilities to prepare and implement risk management plans. Risk Management Programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention, 58 Fed. Reg. 54,190, 54,191 (proposed Oct. 20, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
1085 See James T. O’Reilly, Driving a Soft Bargain: Unions, Toxic Materials, and Right to Know Legislation, 9 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 307, 318–19 (1985). Background on the developments prior to CAA section 112(r) is found in Delhotal, supra note 874, at 63–76.
1086 See NRT Guidance, supra note 1058. at 28,642.
1087 Single Response Plan Would Replace Multiple Filings Under EPA Guidance, Daily Env’t Rep. (BNA) A-2 (June 4, 1996).
1088 EPCRA 301, 42 U.S.C. 11001 (1994).
1089 Id.
1090 See EPCRA Factsheet, supra note 1075, at 2.
1091 U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency, Title III Fact Sheet, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act 1 (1988).
1092 EPCRA 301(c).
1093 EPCRA FACTSHEET, supra note 1075, at 2.
1094 Id. at 1.
1095 Id. at 1–2.
1096 See American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Center for Chemical Process Safety, at http://www.aiche.org/ccps/index.htm (last visited Feb. 10, 2001); Special Committee on the Year 2000 Technology Problem of the United States Senate, Overview of Responsible Care, at http://y2K.senate.gov/~y2k/hearings/990510/james.htm (1999)[hereinafter Overview].
1097 See American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Center for Chemical Process Safety, at http://www.aiche.org/ccps/index.htm (last visited Feb. 10, 2001).
1098 See Overview, supra note 1106.
1099 See American Petroleum Institute, Strategies for Today’s Environmental Partnership, at http://www.api.org/step/principl.htm (last updated June 30, 1999).
1100 Risk Management Programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention, 58 Fed. Reg. 54,190, 54,190–91 (proposed Oct. 20, 1993) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 68).
1101 NAT’L RESPONSE TEAM, Developing a Hazardous Materials Exercise Program: A Handbook for State and Local Officials (1990), available at http://www.bts.gov/NTL/DOCS/254.html (Sept. 1990).
1102 Emergency Planning and Notification, 40 C.F.R. pt. 355 app. A (2000).
1103 Id.
1104 EPCRA Factsheet, supra note 1075, at 2–3.
1105 William C. Adams et al., Nationwide LEPC Survey: Summary Report 1 (1994) (on file with author).
1106 Id.
1107 Id. at 3.
1108 Id.
1109 Occupational Safety and Health Standards, 29 C.F.R.  1910.1200 (2000).
1110 See Self-Monitoring, supra, note 1084, at 1085.
1111 A material safety data sheet’s content is described in 29 C.F.R.  1910.1200(g) (2000).
1112 29 C.F.R. 1910.119.
1113 See EPCRA Factsheet, supra note 1075, at 3.
1114 29 C.F.R. 1910.119 app. A.
1115 See EPCRA Factsheet, supra note 1075, at 3.
1116 Id.
1117 29 C.F.R.  1910.1200(g).
1118 Id. 1910.1200.
1119 Id.
1120 Id.
1121 “Hazardous chemical,” for the purposes of preparing an MSDS, is defined under OSHA as “any chemical which is a physical hazard or a health hazard.” 29 C.F.R.  1910.1200(c). Thus, the definition of a hazardous chemical is much broader than the definitions in either CERCLA or in the rest of EPCRA. See EPCRA FACTSHEET, supra note 1075, at 3.
1122 29 U.S.C.  651–770 (1994).
1123 EPCRA  311(a)(1), 42 U.S.C.  11021(a)(1) (1994).
1124 Hazard Communication, 52 Fed. Reg. 31,852, 31,860 (Aug. 24, 1987) (to be codified at 29 C.F.R. pts. 1910, 1915, 1917, 1918, 1926, 1928).
1125 EPCRA  311(a)(3).
1126 Id. 311.
1127 Id. 311(a)(2)(A).
1128 Id.  311(c)(2).
1129 Id.
1130 Id.
1131 Kevin J. Finto, Regulation by Information Through EPCRA, 4 Nat. Resources & Env’t 13, 15 (1990).
1132 See EPCRA Factsheet, supra note 1075, at 3.
1133 Id.
1134 Id.
1135 EPCRA,  312(a)(1), 42 U.S.C.  11022(a)(1) (1994).
1136 See EPCRA Factsheet, supra note 1075, at 3.
1137 EPCRA, 312.
1138 Id. 312(d)(1)(B).
1139 Id. 311(e)(1).
1140 Id. 311(d)(2).
1141 Id.
1142 Id..
1143 EPCRA  312(e)(2).
1144 Id. 312(e)(3).
1145 Id.  312(e)(3)(A).
1146 Id.  312(e)(3)(B).
1147 Id. 312(e)(3)(B).
1148 Id. 312(e)(3)(c).
1149 EPCRA  312(e)(3)(C).
1150 EPCRA Factsheet, supra note 1075, at 3.
1151 Id.